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This species is accepted, and its native range is NE. Tropical Africa, Arabian Peninsula, S. Pakistan to India.
Lawsonia inermis

[CPLC]

Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

Distribution
Cultivada en Colombia; Alt. 20 - 450 m.; Llanura del Caribe, Pacífico, Valle del Magdalena.
Morphology General Habit
Arbusto, árbol

[FIQ]

Ghazanfar, S. A. & Edmondson, J. R (Eds). (2014) Flora of Iraq, Volume 5 Part 2: Lythraceae to Campanulaceae.

Note
(Arabic.: henna)
Morphology General Habit
A small glabrous shrub with opposite, elliptic to obovate leaves; flowers 4-merous, white, in terminal panicles, fragrant; capsule ± 5 mm in diameter dehiscing irregularly.
Distribution
A monotypic genus distributed throughout Africa and Asia. It has been grown in Egypt and the Middle East since ancient times. Its origin is obscure, but it is believed to be indigenous to SW Asia; it is planted and naturalized ± throughout its range. It is cultivated in central and southern Iraq.

[FZ]

Lythraceae, A. Fernandes. Flora Zambesiaca 4. 1978

Morphology General Habit
Evergreen shrub or small tree 2–7 m. high, glabrous, with the young branches 4-angular and the old ones terete, rigid and often spinescent.
Morphology Leaves
Leaves 1·2–6·7 x 0·5–2·7 cm., elliptic, obovate to oblanceolate, acute at the apex, sometimes mucronulate, narrowed into a short petiole, pinnately nerved, submembranous.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Panicles 5–25 cm. long.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers whitish, scented; pedicels 2–4 mm. long; bracts 0·4–0·7 mm. long, linear, caducous.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx-tube 1–1·7 mm. high, with the lobes 2–3 mm. long, ovate-triangular.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Petals 1·5–2·5 mm. long, slightly clawed, yellowish.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Stamens with the filaments c. 5 mm. long.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Style
Style c. 3 mm. long.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruits 4–6 x 4·5–8 mm.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds 2–2·6 mm. long.

[FWTA]

Lythraceae, Hutchinson and Dalziel. Flora of West Tropical Africa 1:1. 1954

Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers creamy-white, sweet scented

[FSOM]

M. Thulin et al. Flora of Somalia, Vol. 1-4 [updated 2008] https://plants.jstor.org/collection/FLOS

Morphology General Habit
Evergreen shrub or tree 2–7 m high; young stems 4-sided, sometimes forming rigid spines
Morphology Leaves
Leaves elliptic, obovate to oblanceolate, 1.2–6.7 x 0.5–2.7 cm, base cuneate into short petiole, tip acute
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Panicles 5–25 cm long; bracts minute, caducous Flowers scented; pedicels 2–4 mm long
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Hypanthium
Hypanthium plus sepals 3–5 mm long, sepals ovate-triangular
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Petals ovate, 1.5–2.5 mm long, base cordate, yellowish-white; style c. 3 mm long
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruits exserted from hypanthium, 4–6 x 4.5–8 mm, pale
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds 2–2.6 mm long.
Distribution
N1; C1, 2; S1–3 throughout the Old World tropics, widely cultivated; introduced to the New World tropics.
Ecology
Altitude range 30–1500 m.
Vernacular
Cilaan, ellan (Somali); henna (Arabic, English: applied to dye obtained from this species).

[FTEA]

Lythraceae, B. Verdcourt. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1984

Morphology General Habit
Glabrous shrub or small tree 1.5–7(–10.5–?12) m. tall often densely tangled and several m. wide; bark ashy grey or brown, smooth or striate; spines (modified young branches) sometimes present and up to 3.5 cm. long.
Morphology Leaves
Leaves elliptic or oblong to oblanceolate, 1–8.5 cm. long, 0.2–3.8 cm. wide, acute, apiculate or occasionally rounded at the apex, cuneate at the base.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescences 3–25 cm. long; pedicels 2–4 mm. long; bracteoles linear, ± 0.5 mm. long; flowers sweet-scented; buds sometimes reddish at apex.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx-tube 1–1.7 mm. long; lobes 2–3 mm. long.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Petals white, cream, greenish white, green or yellow, 1.5–2.5(–4) mm. long, 4–5 mm. wide.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens Filaments
Filaments 4–5 mm. long.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Style
Style ± 3 mm. long.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruits purplish green, 4–6 mm. long, 4.5–8 mm. wide.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds 2–2.6 mm. long.
Figures
Fig. 4.
Habitat
Temporarily flooded rocky river courses in dry country with Acacia, Salvadora, Capparidaceae, etc., riverine thicket, Cordia-Hyphaene associations, also riverine forest with Populus, Acacia, Ficus, Kigelia, hillsides, cliffs, rock-crevices, etc., also near coast; ± 2–1350 m.
Distribution
K1 K2 K4 K7 P T3 T5 T6 U1 Z Senegal to Nigeria, Zaire, Ethiopia, Somalia, Sudan, Mozambique, Seychelles, Madagascar, Comoro Is., South Africa (Natal)also Palestine, Syria, Iraq, Arabia, Egypt, Libya, China, Pakistan (wild in Baluchistan), India, Maldive Is., Sri Lanka, Malaya, Indochina, Malesia to New Guinea and Australia (see note)

[FIQ]
Use
A paste made from powdered leaves and water yields an orange-red dye used widely in the eastern world to stain hands and hair during celebrations and otherwise. Also used medicinally as a coolant, against sunburn and itchy skin.

[FWTA]
Use
Widely cultivated as a dye-plant (Henna).

[FSOM]
Use
The crushed leaves, mixed with an acid such as lime juice, produce a red dye used for colouring hair and skin.

Native to:

Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, India, Kenya, Oman, Pakistan, Panamá, Saudi Arabia, Somalia, Tanzania, Yemen

Introduced into:

Algeria, Andaman Is., Aruba, Assam, Bahamas, Bangladesh, Benin, Burkina, Cameroon, Cayman Is., Central African Repu, Chad, Comoros, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, East Himalaya, Ecuador, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Gulf of Guinea Is., Guyana, Haiti, Iraq, Ivory Coast, Jamaica, Jawa, KwaZulu-Natal, Laos, Lebanon-Syria, Leeward Is., Lesser Sunda Is., Liberia, Libya, Madagascar, Maldives, Mali, Marianas, Mauritania, Mexico Southwest, Morocco, Mozambique, Myanmar, Netherlands Antilles, New Guinea, Nicobar Is., Niger, Nigeria, Palestine, Puerto Rico, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Suriname, Tadzhikistan, Togo, Trinidad-Tobago, Tunisia, Turks-Caicos Is., Uganda, Venezuela, Venezuelan Antilles, Vietnam, Windward Is., Zaïre

Lawsonia inermis L. appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
Sep 1, 2009 Ellen [25], Indonesia K000566227
Jan 1, 1976 Baron, R. [5332], Madagascar K000310555 Unknown type material
Ash [19], Ethiopia 35563.000
Dedit, R. [s.n.], Senegal K000310554 Unknown type material
Kotschy [367] K000310559
Sandeman, C. [2236], Brazil K001076513

First published in Sp. Pl.: 340 (1753)

Accepted by

  • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
  • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
  • Aké Assi, L. (2001). Flore de la Côte-d'Ivoire: catalogue systématique, biogéographie et écologie. I Boissiera 57: 1-396.
  • Baksh-Comeau, Y., Maharaj, S.S., Adams, C.D., Harris, S.A., Filer, D.L. & Hawthorne, W.D. (2016). An annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Trinidad and Tobago with analysis of vegetation types and botanical 'hotspots' Phytotaxa 250: 1-431.
  • Barooah, C. & Ahmed, I. (2014). Plant diversity of Assam. A checklist of Angiosperms and Gymnosperms: 1-599. Assam science technology and environment council, India.
  • Barry, J. P. & Celles, J.S. (1991). Flore de Mauritanie 1: 1-359. Centre Regional de Documentation Pedagogique, Nice.
  • Barthelat, F. (2019). La flore illustrée de Mayotte: 1-687. Biotope éditions.
  • Berendsohn, W.G., Gruber, A.K. & Monterrosa Salomón, J. (2009). Nova silva cusatlantica. Árboles nativos e introduciados de El Salvador. Parte 1: Angiospermae - Familias A a L Englera 29-1: 1-438.
  • Boggan, J. Funck, V. & Kelloff, C. (1997). Checklist of the Plants of the Guianas (Guyana, Surinam, Franch Guiana) ed. 2: 1-238. University of Guyana, Georgetown.
  • Boudet, G., Lebrun, J.P. & Demange, R. (1986). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Mali: 1-465. Etudes d'Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux.
  • Boutique, R. (1967). Flore du Congo du Rwanda et du Burundi, Lythraceae: 1-27. Jardin Botanique National de Belgique, Bruxelles.
  • Brunel, J.F., Hiepo, P. & Scholz, H. (eds.) (1984). Flore Analytique du Togo Phanérogames: 1-751. GTZ, Eschborn.
  • Catarino, L., Sampaio Martins, E., Pinto-Basto, M.F. & Diniz, M.A. (2006). Plantas Vasculares e Briófitos da Guiné-Bissau: 1-298. Instituto de investigação científica tropical, Instituto Português de apoio ao desenvolvimento.
  • Correa A., Mireya D. Galdames, Carmen Correa A., M. D., C. Galdames & M. S. de Stapf (2004). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares de Panamá: 1-599. Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute.
  • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Dobignard, A. & Chatelain, C. (2012). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 4: 1-431. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
  • Edwards, S., Tadesse, M., Demissew, S. & Hedberg, I. (eds.) (2000). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 2(1): 1-532. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
  • Exell, A.W. (1973). Angiosperms of the islands of the gulf of Guinea (Fernando Po, Príncipe, S.Tomé, and Annobon) Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History). Botany 4: 325-411.
  • Fosberg, F.R., Sachet, M.-H., Oliver, R. (1979). A geographical checklist of the Micronesian Dicotyledonae Micronesica; Journal of the College of Guam 15: 41-295.
  • Garcia-Mendoza, A.J. & Meave, J.A. (eds.) (2012). Diversidad florística de Oaxaca: de musgos a angiospermas (colecciones y listas de especies), ed. 2: 1-351. Instituto de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México.
  • Ghazanfar, S.A. (1992). An Annotated Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Oman and their Vernacular names Scripta Botanica Belgica 2: 1-153.
  • Girmansyah, D. & al. (eds.) (2013). Flora of Bali an annotated checklist: 1-158. Herbarium Bogorensis, Indonesia.
  • Grierson, A.J.C. & Long, D.G. (2001). Flora of Bhutan 2: 1-1675. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
  • Hammel, B.E. & al. (eds.) (2007). Manual de Plantas de Costa Rica, volumen VI, Dicotyledóneas (Haloragaceae-Phytolaccaceae) Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 111: 1-933. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
  • Hutchinson, J., Dalziel, J.M. & Keay, R.W.J. (1954-1958). Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 1: 1-828.
  • Jørgensen, P.M. & León-Yánez, S. (eds.) (1999). Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Ecuador Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 75: i-viii, 1-1181. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • Kalema, J. & Beentje, H. (2012). Conservation checklist of the trees of Uganda: 1-235. Kew Publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Kress, W.J., DeFilipps, R.A., Farr, E. & Kyi, D.Y.Y. (2003). A Checklist of the Trees, Shrubs, Herbs and Climbers of Myanmar Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 45: 1-590. Smithsonian Institution.
  • Launert, E. (ed.) (1978). Flora Zambesiaca 4: 1-658. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Lebrun, J.-P., Audru, J., Gaston, A. & Mosnier, M. (1972). Catalogue des Plantes Vasculaires du Tchad Méridional: 1-289. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
  • Lebrun, J.p., Toutain, B., Gaston, A. & Boudet, G. (1991). Catalogue des Plantes Vasculaires du Burkina Faso: 1-341. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
  • Lisowski, S. (2009). Flore (Angiospermes) de la République de Guinée Scripta Botanica Belgica 41: 1-517.
  • Meena, S.L. (2012). A checklist of the vascular plants of Banaskantha district, Gujarat, India Nelumbo 54: 39-91.
  • Mostaph, M.K. & Uddin, S.B. (2013). Dictionary of plant names of Bangladesh, Vasc. Pl.: 1-434. Janokalyan Prokashani, Chittagong, Bangladesh.
  • Mosti, S., Raffaelli, M. & Tardelli, M. (2012). Contributions to the flora of central-southern Dhofar (Sultanate of Oman) Webbia; Raccolta de Scritti Botanici 67: 65-91.
  • Nasir, E. & Ali, S.I. (eds.) (1970-1995). Flora of West Pakistan 1-131.
  • Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008). Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas: 1-1576. SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.
  • Newman, M., Ketphanh, S., Svengsuksa, B., Thomas, P., Sengdala, K., Lamxay, V. & Armstrong, K. (2007). A checklist of the vascular plants of Lao PDR: 1-394. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
  • Onana, J.M. (2011). The vascular plants of Cameroon a taxonomic checklist with IUCN assessments: 1-195. National herbarium of Cameroon, Yaoundé.
  • Ovchinnikov, P.N. (ed.) (1981). Flora Tadzhikskoi SSR 6: 1-725. Izd-vo Akademii nauk SSSR, Moskva.
  • Pandey, R.P. (2009). Floristic diversity of Ferrargunj forest area in South Andaman Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 33: 747-768.
  • Peyre de Fabregues, B. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1976). Catalogue des Plantes Vascularies du Niger: 1-433. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
  • Polatschek, A. & Rechinger, K.H. (1968). Flora Iranica 51: 1-9. Naturhistorisches Museums Wien.
  • Santisuk, T. & Balslev, H. (eds.) (2014). Flora of Thailand 11(4): 499-666. The Forest Herbarium, Royal Forest Department.
  • Sikarwar, R.L.S. (2014). Angiosperm diversity assessment of Chitrakootthe legendary place of Vindhyan range, India Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 38: 563-619.
  • Singh, A. (2012). Exotic flora of the Chandauli district Uttar Pradesh, India: an overview Indian Journal of Forestry 35: 79-84.
  • Thulin, M. (ed.) (1993). Flora of Somalia 1: 1-493. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Verdcourt, B. (1994). Flora of Tropical East Africa, Lythraceae: 1-62.
  • Wood, J.R.I. (1997). A handbook of the Yemen Flora: 1-434. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

Literature

Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia

  • ColPlantA (2021). "ColPlantA. Facilitated by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet; http://www.colplanta.org/"

Flora of West Tropical Africa

  • —Koehne in Engl. Pflanzenr. Lythrac. 270, t. 59.

Kew Backbone Distributions

  • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
  • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
  • Aké Assi, L. (2001). Flore de la Côte-d'Ivoire: catalogue systématique, biogéographie et écologie. I Boissiera 57: 1-396.
  • Baksh-Comeau, Y., Maharaj, S.S., Adams, C.D., Harris, S.A., Filer, D.L. & Hawthorne, W.D. (2016). An annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Trinidad and Tobago with analysis of vegetation types and botanical 'hotspots' Phytotaxa 250: 1-431.
  • Barooah, C. & Ahmed, I. (2014). Plant diversity of Assam. A checklist of Angiosperms and Gymnosperms: 1-599. Assam science technology and environment council, India.
  • Barry, J. P. & Celles, J.S. (1991). Flore de Mauritanie 1: 1-359. Centre Regional de Documentation Pedagogique, Nice.
  • Boggan, J. Funck, V. & Kelloff, C. (1997). Checklist of the Plants of the Guianas (Guyana, Surinam, Franch Guiana) ed. 2: 1-238. University of Guyana, Georgetown.
  • Boudet, G., Lebrun, J.P. & Demange, R. (1986). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Mali: 1-465. Etudes d'Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux.
  • Boulvert, Y. (1977). Catalogue de la Flore de Centrafrique 3: 1-89. ORSTROM, Bangui.
  • Boutique, R. (1967). Flore du Congo du Rwanda et du Burundi, Lythraceae: 1-27. Jardin Botanique National de Belgique, Bruxelles.
  • Brunel, J.F., Hiepo, P. & Scholz, H. (eds.) (1984). Flore Analytique du Togo Phanérogames: 1-751. GTZ, Eschborn.
  • Catarino, L., Sampaio Martins, E., Pinto-Basto, M.F. & Diniz, M.A. (2006). Plantas Vasculares e Briófitos da Guiné-Bissau: 1-298. Instituto de investigação científica tropical, Instituto Português de apoio ao desenvolvimento.
  • Collenette, S. (1999). Wildflowers of Saudi Arabia: 1-799. National commission for wildlife conservation and development (NCWCD), Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
  • Correa A., Mireya D. Galdames, Carmen Correa A., M. D., C. Galdames & M. S. de Stapf (2004). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares de Panamá: 1-599. Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute.
  • Correll, D.S. & Correll, H.B. (1982). Flora of the Bahama Archipelago: 1-1692. J.Cramer, Vaduz.
  • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Dassanayake (ed.) (1995). A Revised Handbook to the Flora of Ceylon 9: 1-482. Oxford & IBH Publishing Co. PVT. LTD., New Delhi, Calcutta.
  • Dobignard, A. & Chatelain, C. (2012). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 4: 1-431. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
  • Edwards, S., Tadesse, M., Demissew, S. & Hedberg, I. (eds.) (2000). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 2(1): 1-532. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
  • Exell, A.W. (1973). Angiosperms of the islands of the gulf of Guinea (Fernando Po, Príncipe, S.Tomé, and Annobon) Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History). Botany 4: 325-411.
  • Fosberg, F.R., Sachet, M.-H., Oliver, R. (1979). A geographical checklist of the Micronesian Dicotyledonae Micronesica; Journal of the College of Guam 15: 41-295.
  • Garcia-Mendoza, A.J. & Meave, J.A. (eds.) (2012). Diversidad florística de Oaxaca: de musgos a angiospermas (colecciones y listas de especies), ed. 2: 1-351. Instituto de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México.
  • Girmansyah, D. & al. (eds.) (2013). Flora of Bali an annotated checklist: 1-158. Herbarium Bogorensis, Indonesia.
  • Grierson, A.J.C. & Long, D.G. (2001). Flora of Bhutan 2: 1-1675. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
  • Hammel, B.E. & al. (eds.) (2007). Manual de Plantas de Costa Rica, volumen VI, Dicotyledóneas (Haloragaceae-Phytolaccaceae) Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 111: 1-933. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
  • Hutchinson, J., Dalziel, J.M. & Keay, R.W.J. (1954-1958). Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 1: 1-828.
  • Jørgensen, P.M. & León-Yánez, S. (eds.) (1999). Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Ecuador Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 75: i-viii, 1-1181. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • Kalema, J. & Beentje, H. (2012). Conservation checklist of the trees of Uganda: 1-235. Kew Publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Kress, W.J., DeFilipps, R.A., Farr, E. & Kyi, D.Y.Y. (2003). A Checklist of the Trees, Shrubs, Herbs and Climbers of Myanmar Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 45: 1-590. Smithsonian Institution.
  • Launert, E. (ed.) (1978). Flora Zambesiaca 4: 1-658. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Lebrun, J.-P., Audru, J., Gaston, A. & Mosnier, M. (1972). Catalogue des Plantes Vasculaires du Tchad Méridional: 1-289. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
  • Lebrun, J.p., Toutain, B., Gaston, A. & Boudet, G. (1991). Catalogue des Plantes Vasculaires du Burkina Faso: 1-341. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
  • Lisowski, S. (2009). Flore (Angiospermes) de la République de Guinée Scripta Botanica Belgica 41: 1-517.
  • Lê, T.C. (2003). Danh l?c các loài th?c v?t Vi?t Nam 2: 1-1203. Hà N?i : Nhà xu?t b?n Nông nghi?p.
  • Mostaph, M.K. & Uddin, S.B. (2013). Dictionary of plant names of Bangladesh, Vasc. Pl.: 1-434. Janokalyan Prokashani, Chittagong, Bangladesh.
  • Mosti, S., Raffaelli, M. & Tardelli, M. (2012). Contributions to the flora of central-southern Dhofar (Sultanate of Oman) Webbia; Raccolta de Scritti Botanici 67: 65-91.
  • Newman, M., Ketphanh, S., Svengsuksa, B., Thomas, P., Sengdala, K., Lamxay, V. & Armstrong, K. (2007). A checklist of the vascular plants of Lao PDR: 1-394. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
  • Onana, J.M. (2011). The vascular plants of Cameroon a taxonomic checklist with IUCN assessments: 1-195. National herbarium of Cameroon, Yaoundé.
  • Ovchinnikov, P.N. (ed.) (1981). Flora Tadzhikskoi SSR 6: 1-725. Izd-vo Akademii nauk SSSR, Moskva.
  • Pandey, R.P. & Dilwakar, P.G. (2008). An integrated check-list flora of Andaman and Nicobar islands, India Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 32: 403-500.
  • Pandey, R.P. (2009). Floristic diversity of Ferrargunj forest area in South Andaman Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 33: 747-768.
  • Peyre de Fabregues, B. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1976). Catalogue des Plantes Vascularies du Niger: 1-433. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
  • Thulin, M. (ed.) (1993). Flora of Somalia 1: 1-493. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Verdcourt, B. (1994). Flora of Tropical East Africa, Lythraceae: 1-62.
  • Wood, J.R.I. (1997). A handbook of the Yemen Flora: 1-434. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

Flora of Somalia

  • Flora Somalia, Vol 1, (1993) Author: by M. G. Gilbert & M. Thulin [updated by M. Thulin 2008]

Flora of Tropical East Africa

  • A. Engler & O. Drude, Die Vegetation Der Erde, IX, Pflanzenwelt Afrikas 3(2): 655, fig. 288 (1921).
  • A. Fernandes in Fl. Moçamb. 73: 3 (1980).
  • A. Fernandes in Flora Zambesiaca 4: 278, fig. 66 (1978)
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  • Burkill, Dict. Econ. Prod. Malay Pen. (2): 1323 (1935).
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