Family:
Malvaceae Juss.
Genus:
Sida L.

Sida alba L.

This species is accepted, and its native range is Africa, Arabian Peninsula, Pakistan to India.

[FTEA]

Malvaceae, Bernard Verdcourt & Geoffrey Mwachala. Pavonia, B Verdcourt; Kosteletzkya, OJ Blanchard Jr.; Gossypium, P Fryxell & B Verdcourt. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 2009

Type
Type: Cult. Hort. Upsala, Linn. Herb. 866/2 (LINN, lecto.)
Morphology General Habit
Annual, perennial or subshrubby herb 10–90 cm tall, often branched from base, the stems erect or slightly decumbent, densely stellate-pubescent, later glabrescent and often purplish brown
Morphology Leaves
Leaves discolorous, elliptic or oblong, 0.8–5 × 0.5–3 cm, acute to rounded at the apex, truncate to rounded at base, regularly sharply serrate, dark green and thinly pubescent above, white or grey tomentose beneath; petiole 0.5–2.5(–4) cm long; stipules linear-subulate, 6–10 mm long, often with spurs on stem at their base
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers solitary in leaf axils or in 4–5-flowered clusters; pedicel 0.3–2.5 cm long; calyx 4–6 mm long, cupular, 10-ribbed, lobed to about the middle, pubescent, the lobes triangular, acute, apiculate
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Corolla white, yellow or cream-buff; petals 4–6 mm long.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Staminal column 2 mm long, glabrous
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Mericarps 5, 2–3 mm long excluding the birostrate beak with awns 2 mm long, puberulous; basal part of back thin, white and papery, breaking up to release the seed; sides thin walled, striate, the lateral edges distinct and straight.
Ecology
Grassland, grassland with scattered trees and bushes, Acacia woodland, riverine flats, roadsides, weed in old cultivations, wheat etc., often on black cotton soil; 450–1900 m
Note
I have followed Marais (1987) and Vollesen (1995) in keeping S. alba and S. spinosa separate but Sivarajan & Pradeep (Malv. S. Penins. India: 280 (1996)) and many others combine them.
Distribution
Flora districts: U1 U2 U3 U4 K1 K2 K3 K4 K5 K6 T1 T2 T3 T4 T6 T8 Range: Widespread in tropical and South Africa, Arabia, Mascarenes, also in India and America

[FZ]

Malvaceae, A. W. Exell. Flora Zambesiaca 1:2. 1961

Morphology General Habit
Annual or perennial woody or suffruticose plant 30–75 cm. tall, often branched from the base, with somewhat virgate erect or occasionally somewhat trailing branches, covered with a dense short stellate pubescence; stems faintly angular to terete, often soon purplish-brown in colour, at length glabrescent.
Morphology Leaves
Leaf-lamina 2–5 × 0·5–3 cm., usually narrowly ovate but varying from oblong to lanceolate or ovate-lanceolate, apex usually narrowed and subacute but often somewhat rounded, margin sharply and regularly serrate, base usually truncate to rounded sometimes somewhat cordate, upper surface dark green drying brown, thinly and shortly pubescent, glabrescent, lower surface whitish to ash-grey, softly tomentellous; petiole up to c. 3 cm. long, slender, somewhat purplish in older leaves, shortly pubescent, with a callus at the base that is often shortly spinescent; stipules 6–10 mm. long, usually persistent, setaceous.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers white to yellow, solitary or fascicled in the leaf-axils; pedicels rarely more than 15 mm. long, slender to filiform, articulated in the upper 3–5 mm.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx c. 6 mm. long, cupular, 10-ribbed, tomentellous, lobed to about the middle; lobes deltoid, acute, minutely mucronate-apiculate.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Petals 5–6 mm. long.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Mericarps 5, 4–5 mm. long (including the awns), finely reticulate, with 2 setaceous awns, opening somewhat irregularly at the base.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds c. 1·5 mm. long, dark brown, almost smooth, glabrous.

[FWTA]

Malvaceae, Hutchinson and Dalziel. Flora of West Tropical Africa 1:2. 1958

Morphology General Habit
A woody herb, with branches sometimes lax and trailing
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers small, white.

[FSOM]

M. Thulin et al. Flora of Somalia, Vol. 1-4 [updated 2008] https://plants.jstor.org/collection/FLOS

Morphology General Habit
Erect annual herb or subshrub, up to c. 1 m tall; stems puberulous to pubescent
Morphology Leaves
Leaves with 0.5–2.5(–4) cm long petiole; blade ovate to ± narrowly elliptic, 1.5–5 x 0.7–3.3 cm, rounded or somewhat cordate at the base, acute to rounded at the apex, with dentate margins, sparsely pubescent above, shortly tomentose beneath
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Flowers solitary or clustered in leaf axils; pedicels 3–22 mm long
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx 4–6 mm long, enclosing the ripe mericarps
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Petals 4–6 mm long, white to yellow
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Mericarps 5, c. 3 mm long and with a pair of 1–2 mm long puberulous awns, basal part of back thin and papery, breaking up to release the seed, sides striate.
Distribution
C2; S2, 3; widespread in tropical and southern Africa and in tropical America.
Ecology
Altitude range 10–520 m.

Native to:

Algeria, Angola, Benin, Botswana, Burkina, Cape Verde, Congo, Egypt, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Free State, Gambia, Gulf of Guinea Is., India, Kenya, KwaZulu-Natal, Lesotho, Malawi, Mali, Mauritania, Mozambique, Namibia, Niger, Nigeria, Northern Provinces, Pakistan, Saudi Arabia, Somalia, Sudan, Swaziland, Tanzania, Uganda, Yemen, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

Introduced into:

Mauritius, Réunion

English
Spiny sida

Sida alba L. appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status Has image?
Dec 1, 2007 Festo, L. [2448], Kenya K000197500 No
McFadyen [s.n.], Jamaica K000528348 lectotype Yes
Hagerup, O. [370], Mali K000386650 No
McFadyen [s.n.], Jamaica K000528349 Yes
Davey, J.T. [178], Mali K000386651 No
McFadyen [s.n.], Jamaica K000528347 Yes

First published in Sp. Pl. ed. 2: 960 (1763)

Accepted by

  • Abedin, S. (1979). Flora of West Pakistan 130: 1-107.
  • Bosser, J. & al. (eds.) (1987). Flore des Mascareignes 51-62: 1. IRD Éditions, MSIRI, RBG-Kew, Paris.
  • Boudet, G., Lebrun, J.P. & Demange, R. (1986). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Mali: 1-465. Etudes d'Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux.
  • Boulos, L. (2000). Flora of Egypt 2: 1-352. Al Hadara Publishing, Cairo.
  • Collenette, S. (1999). Wildflowers of Saudi Arabia: 1-799. National commission for wildlife conservation and development (NCWCD), Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
  • Edwards, S., Tadesse, M. & Hedberg, I. (eds.) (1995). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 2(2): 1-456. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
  • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Fischer, E., Rembold, K., Althof, A. & Obholzer, J. (2010). Annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Kakamega forest, Western province, Kenya Journal of East African Natural History 99: 129-226.
  • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa an annotated checklist Strelitzia 14: 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Retief, E. & Meyer, N.L. (2017). Plants of the Free State inventory and identification guide Strelitzia 38: 1-1236. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Robyns, W. & al. (eds.) (1948-1963). Flore du Congo Belge et du Ruanda-Urundi 1-10.
  • Verdcourt, B. & Mwachala, G.M. (2009). Flora of Tropical East Africa, Malvaceae: 1-170.
  • Wood, J.R.I. (1997). A handbook of the Yemen Flora: 1-434. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

Not accepted by

  • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers. [Cited as Sida spinosa.]
  • Cervantes Aceves, N. (1992). La Familia Malvaceae en el Estado de Jalisco, Mexico: 1-393. Editorial Universidad de Guadalajara. [Cited as Sida spinosa.]
  • Dassanayake (ed.) (1997). A Revised Handbook to the Flora of Ceylon 11: 1-420. Oxford & IBH Publishing Co. PVT. LTD., New Delhi, Calcutta. [Cited as Sida spinosa.]
  • Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2015). Flora of North America North of Mexico 6: 1-468. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford. [Cited as Sida spinosa.]
  • Jones, M. (1991). A checklist of Gambian plants: 1-33. Michael Jones, The Gambia College. [Cited as Sida spinosa.]
  • Jørgensen, P.M., Nee, M.H. & Beck., S.G. (eds.) (2013). Catálogo de las plantas vasculares de Bolivia Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 127: 1-1741. Missouri Botanical Garden. [Cited as Sida spinosa.]
  • Riedl, I. (1976). Flora Iranica 120: 1-86. Akademische Druck- u. Verlagsanstalt, Graz. [Cited as Sida spinosa.]
  • Sita, P. & Moutsambote, J.-M. (2005). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Congo, ed. sept. 2005: 1-158. ORSTOM, Centre de Brazzaville. [Cited as Sida spinosa.]
  • Takhtajan, A.L. (ed.) in Takhtajan, A.L. (ed.) (2012). Konspekt Flora Kavkaza 3(2): 1-623. Editio Universitatis Petropolitanae. [Cited as Sida spinosa.]

Literature

Flora of West Tropical Africa

  • Sp. Pl., ed. 2, 2: 960 (1763).

Kew Backbone Distributions

  • Abedin, S. (1979). Flora of West Pakistan 130: 1-107.
  • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
  • Bosser, J. & al. (eds.) (1987). Flore des Mascareignes 51-62: 1. IRD Éditions, MSIRI, RBG-Kew, Paris.
  • Boudet, G., Lebrun, J.P. & Demange, R. (1986). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Mali: 1-465. Etudes d'Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux.
  • Boulos, L. (2000). Flora of Egypt 2: 1-352. Al Hadara Publishing, Cairo.
  • Collenette, S. (1999). Wildflowers of Saudi Arabia: 1-799. National commission for wildlife conservation and development (NCWCD), Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
  • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa an annotated checklist Strelitzia 14: 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Jones, M. (1991). A checklist of Gambian plants: 1-33. Michael Jones, The Gambia College.
  • Lebrun, J.p., Toutain, B., Gaston, A. & Boudet, G. (1991). Catalogue des Plantes Vasculaires du Burkina Faso: 1-341. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
  • Retief, E. & Meyer, N.L. (2017). Plants of the Free State inventory and identification guide Strelitzia 38: 1-1236. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Sita, P. & Moutsambote, J.-M. (2005). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Congo, ed. sept. 2005: 1-158. ORSTOM, Centre de Brazzaville.
  • Verdcourt, B. & Mwachala, G.M. (2009). Flora of Tropical East Africa, Malvaceae: 1-170.
  • Wood, J.R.I. (1997). A handbook of the Yemen Flora: 1-434. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

Flora of Somalia

  • Flora Somalia, Vol 2, (1999) Author: by M. Thulin [updated by M. Thulin 2008]

Flora of Tropical East Africa

  • Abedin, Fl. W. Pak. 130 (Malvaceae): 81, fig. 19F (1979)
  • Boulos, Fl. Egypt 2: 100, 321, t. 25, fig. 5 (2000).
  • Exell & Mendonça, C.F.A. 1: 148 (1937)
  • F.C.B. 10: 163 (1963)
  • F.P.N.A. 1: 586 (1948)
  • F.Z. 1: 477 (1961)
  • Fl. Eth. & Eritr. 2 (2): 251, fig. 82.26.6 (1995)
  • Keay, F.W.T.A. ed. 2, 1(2): 339 (1958)
  • Marais, Fl. Mascar. 51, Malvaceés: 11, t. 1, fig. 5 (1987)
  • Sp. Pl. ed. 2: 960 (1763)
  • T.T.C.L.: 306 (1949)
  • Thulin, Fl. Somalia 2: 80, fig. 47B (1999)
  • U.K.W.F. ed. 2: 101 (1994)
  • Wood, Handb. Yemen Fl.: 106 (1997)

  • Flora Zambesiaca

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  • Flora of Somalia

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  • Flora of Tropical East Africa

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  • Herbarium Catalogue Specimens

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  • Kew Backbone Distributions

    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2022. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

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