Family:
Rubiaceae Juss.

Chiococca alba (L.) Hitchc.

This species is accepted, and its native range is Tropical & Subtropical America. It is used to treat unspecified medicinal disorders, as a medicine and for food.

[UNAL]

Bernal, R., G. Galeano, A. Rodríguez, H. Sarmiento y M. Gutiérrez. 2017. Nombres Comunes de las Plantas de Colombia. http://www.biovirtual.unal.edu.co/nombrescomunes/

Vernacular
bejuco negro, bejuco yute, caica, cainica, chupachupa, crucecita, lágrimas de María, murciélago, raíz de murciélago, sampedro blanco

[UPFC]
Distribution
Biogeografic region: Andean, Caribbean, Pacific. Elevation range: 0–2440 m a.s.l. Native to Colombia. Colombian departments: Antioquia, Atlántico, Bolívar, Boyacá, Cauca, Cesar, Chocó, Córdoba, Cundinamarca, Huila, La Guajira, Magdalena, Nariño, Norte de Santander, Putumayo, Quindío, Risaralda, San Andrés y Providencia, Santander, Sucre, Tolima, Valle del Cauca.
Habit
Shrub, Liana, Climbing.
Conservation
IUCN Red List Assessment (2021): LC.
Ecology
Habitat according IUCN Habitats Classification: forest and woodland, savanna, shrubland, native grassland, artificial - terrestrial.
Vernacular
Caica, Cainica, Crucecita, Raíz de muerciélago

[CPLC]

Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

Distribution
Nativa en Colombia; Alt. 0 - 2440 m.; Andes, Islas Caribeñas, Llanura del Caribe, Pacífico, Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, Valle del Cauca, Valle del Magdalena.
Morphology General Habit
Arbusto, trepadora
Conservation
No Evaluada

[UPB]

The Useful Plants of Boyacá project

Ecology
Alt. 0 - 2440 m.
Distribution
Native from Colombia.
Conservation
Not Evaluated.
Morphology General Habit
Shrub or creeper.

[CPLC]

Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

Distribution
Nativa en Colombia; Alt. 880 - 2370 m.; Andes.
Morphology General Habit
Liana
Conservation
No Evaluada

[UPFC]
Use Food
Used for food.
Use Medicines
Medical uses.

[UPB]
Use Medicines Unspecified Medicinal Disorders
Medicinal (State of the World's Plants 2016, Instituto Humboldt 2014).

Native to:

Argentina Northeast, Bahamas, Belize, Bermuda, Bolivia, Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, Cayman Is., Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Florida, French Guiana, Galápagos, Guatemala, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Jamaica, Leeward Is., Mexican Pacific Is., Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Netherlands Antilles, Nicaragua, Panamá, Paraguay, Peru, Puerto Rico, Southwest Caribbean, Texas, Trinidad-Tobago, Turks-Caicos Is., Venezuela, Venezuelan Antilles, Windward Is.

English
Bermudan Snowberry
Spanish
Crucecita, raíz de muerciélago, caica, cainica.

Chiococca alba (L.) Hitchc. appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status Has image?
Mar 18, 2015 Corcoran, M.R. [117] 76817.000 No
Jan 1, 2011 Kollmann, L. et al. [11539], Brazil K000771193 No
Jan 1, 2011 França, F. et al. [4340], Brazil K000771328 No
Jan 1, 2011 Carvalho-Sobrinho, J.G. et al. [1428], Brazil K000771339 No
Jan 1, 2009 Salino, A. [5984], Brazil K000265477 No
Jan 1, 2009 Tameirao Neto, E. [3071], Brazil K000265478 No
May 6, 2008 Hamilton, M.A. [300], Montserrat 76509.000 No
Jan 1, 2006 Nunes, T. S. [876], Bahia K000265002 No
Jan 1, 2005 de Queiroz, L.P. [6381], Bahia K000173303 No
Jan 1, 2005 Spruce, R. [3933], Peru K000006577 Yes
Jan 1, 2005 Spruce, R. [3937], Peru K000006579 No
Jan 1, 2005 Spruce, R. [3933], Peru K000006576 Yes
Jan 1, 2005 Spruce, R. [3933*], Peru K000006578 Yes
Jan 1, 2005 Giulietti, A. M. [1867], Bahia K000265004 No
Jan 1, 2003 Thomas, W.W. [12872], Brazil K000265197 Yes
Feb 1, 1999 Harley, R.M. [PCD6093], Bahia K000013382 No
Feb 1, 1999 Nic Lughadha, E. [PCD6159], Bahia K000013397 No
Jan 1, 1999 Melo, E. [1288], Bahia K000012259 No
Jan 1, 1999 Melo, E. [1279], Bahia K000012261 No
Jan 1, 1999 Harley, R. et al [PCD 5564], Bahia K000265001 No
Sep 1, 1998 Sellow, Brazil K000015489 No
Sep 1, 1998 Harley, R.M. [17547], Bahia K000015491 No
Sep 1, 1998 Chamisso, Brazil K000015490 Yes
Sep 1, 1998 Harley, R.M. [17087], Bahia K000015492 No
Sep 1, 1998 Marconi, A.B. [76], Pernambuco K000015502 No
Sep 1, 1998 Hatschbach, G. [49459], Bahia K000015513 No
Sep 1, 1998 Sellow [1027], Brazil K000015515 No
Sep 1, 1998 Andrade, I.M. [66], Pernambuco K000015480 No
Sep 1, 1998 Gardner [1941], Ceará K000015482 Yes
Sep 1, 1998 Gardner [1961A], Ceará K000015483 No
Sep 1, 1998 Giulietti, A.M. [CFCR6936], Bahia K000015484 No
Sep 1, 1998 Coradin, L. [6077], Bahia K000015485 No
Sep 1, 1998 Harley, R.M. [15177], Bahia K000015486 No
Sep 1, 1998 Harley, R.M. [22982], Bahia K000015487 No
Sep 1, 1998 Sellow [5279], Brazil K000015488 No
Sep 1, 1998 Harley, R.M. [17311], Bahia K000015494 No
Sep 1, 1998 Riedel [62], Bahia K000015496 No
Sep 1, 1998 Mori, S.A. [9774], Bahia K000015498 No
Sep 1, 1998 Souza, E.B. [9], Pernambuco K000015500 No
Sep 1, 1998 Harley, R.M. [20166], Bahia K000015504 No
Sep 1, 1998 Mori, S.A. [12750], Bahia K000015506 No
Sep 1, 1998 Salzmann, Bahia K000015508 No
Sep 1, 1998 Harley, R.M. [17116A], Bahia K000015510 No
Sep 1, 1998 Harley, R.M. [18113], Bahia K000015512 No
Sep 1, 1998 Mori, S.A. [10153], Bahia K000015514 No
Sep 1, 1998 Harley, R.M. [21037], Bahia K000015493 No
Sep 1, 1998 Coradin, L. [5847], Piauí K000015495 No
Sep 1, 1998 Carvalho, A.M. [2381], Bahia K000015497 No
Sep 1, 1998 Mayo, S. [1027], Pernambuco K000015499 No
Sep 1, 1998 Rodal, M.J.N. [227], Pernambuco K000015501 No
Sep 1, 1998 Mori, S.A. [9770], Bahia K000015503 No
Sep 1, 1998 Harley, R.M. [20166A], Bahia K000015505 No
Sep 1, 1998 Plowman, T. [10074], Bahia K000015507 No
Sep 1, 1998 Harley, R.M. [17116], Bahia K000015509 No
Sep 1, 1998 Harley, R.M. [22126], Bahia K000015511 No
Jun 1, 1998 Harley, R.M. [28405], Bahia K000013394 No
Jan 1, 1998 Harley, R.M. [H50692], Bahia K000001990 No
Jan 1, 1998 Nic Lughadha, E. [H50554], Bahia K000001987 No
Jan 1, 1998 Pirani, J.R. [H51349], Bahia K000001992 No
Jan 1, 1998 Pirani, J.R. [H51441], Bahia K000001989 No
Jan 1, 1998 Nic Lughadha, E. [H51038], Bahia K000001993 No
Jan 1, 1998 Stannard, B. [H52123], Bahia K000001991 No
Jan 1, 1998 Ganev, W. [304], Bahia K000001889 No
Jan 1, 1998 Ganev, W. [2749], Bahia K000001988 No
Jan 1, 1998 Ganev, W. [2971], Bahia K000001967 No
Jan 1, 1998 de Carvalho, A.M. et al. [6191], Brazil K000265159 No
Jan 1, 1998 de Carvalho, A.M. et al. [3921], Brazil K000265160 No
Jan 1, 1998 Amorim, A.M. et al. [959], Brazil K000265142 No
Jan 1, 1998 Thomas, W.W. et al. [9381], Brazil K000265149 No
Jan 1, 1997 Boone, W. [118], Brazil K000836364 Yes
Oct 1, 1996 Freire, E. [123], Pernambuco K000015481 No
Feb 25, 1988 n/a K001430191 Yes
Feb 25, 1988 Panama K001430192 Yes
Aug 16, 1986 n/a K001430189 Yes
Aug 16, 1986 n/a K001430190 Yes
Oct 9, 1984 Collares [114], Bahia K000265003 No
Mar 30, 1977 Galapagos Is. K001430199 Yes
Jan 1, 1971 Irwin, H.S. [15847], Brazil K000836329 Yes
Dec 24, 1938 Galapagos Is. K001430198 Yes
Dec 1, 1898 Galapagos Is. K001430201 Yes
Dec 15, 1875 Colombia K001430263 Yes
Glaziou [9870], Brazil K000836354 Yes
s.coll. [s.n.], Brazil K000836356 Yes
Glaziou [10942], Brazil K000836353 Yes
Gardner [6041], Brazil K000836358 Yes
Glaziou [9864], Brazil K000836351 Yes
Burchell [3214], Brazil K000836355 Yes
Gardner [6041], Brazil K000836357 Yes
Fróes, R.L. [11507], Brazil K000836330 Yes
Burchell [4019], Brazil K000836363 Yes
Moore, S. [741], Brazil K000836333 Yes
Burchell [5048], Brazil K000836350 Yes
Dusén, P. [16633], Brazil K000836361 Yes
Greene, L. [HS11], Bermuda K000214350 Yes
Burchell [4572], Brazil K000836359 Yes
Dusén, P. [10064], Brazil K000836362 Yes
Rambo, B. [46546], Brazil K000836331 Yes
Glaziou [10941], Brazil K000836352 Yes
Burchell [4151], Brazil K000836349 Yes
Hoehne, W. [s.n.], Brazil K000836332 Yes
Peru K001429255 Yes
n/a K001430188 Yes
Panama K001430193 Yes
Panama K001430194 Yes
Panama K001430195 Yes
Galapagos Is. K001430196 Yes
Galapagos Is. K001430197 Yes
Galapagos Is. K001430200 Yes
Galapagos Is. K001430202 Yes
Galapagos Is. K001430203 Yes
Galapagos Is. K001430204 Yes
Galapagos Is. K001430205 Yes
Galapagos Is. K001430206 Yes
Galapagos Is. K001430207 Yes
Galapagos Is. K001430208 Yes
Galapagos Is. K001430209 Yes
Galapagos Is. K001430210 Yes
Venezuela K001430211 Yes
Venezuela K001430212 Yes
Venezuela K001430213 Yes
Venezuela K001430214 Yes
Venezuela K001430215 Yes
Venezuela K001430216 Yes
Venezuela K001430217 Yes
Venezuela K001430218 Yes
Venezuela K001430219 Yes
Venezuela K001430220 Yes
n/a K001430221 Yes
n/a K001430222 Yes
n/a K001430223 Yes
n/a K001430224 Yes
n/a K001430225 Yes
n/a K001430226 Yes
n/a K001430227 Yes
Ecuador K001430232 Yes
Ecuador K001430233 Yes
Ecuador K001430234 Yes
Ecuador K001430235 Yes
Peru K001430236 Yes
Peru K001430237 Yes
Peru k001430238 Yes
Peru K001430239 Yes
Peru K001430240 Yes
Peru K001430241 Yes
Peru K001430242 Yes
Peru K001430243 Yes
Peru K001430244 Yes
Peru K001430245 Yes
Peru K001430246 Yes
Colombia K001430247 Yes
Colombia K001430248 Yes
Colombia K001430249 Yes
Colombia K001430250 Yes
Colombia K001430251 Yes
Colombia K001430252 Yes
Colombia K001430253 Yes
Colombia K001430254 Yes
Colombia K001430255 Yes
Colombia K001430256 Yes
Colombia K001430257 Yes
Lehman, F.C. [8469], Colombia K001430258 Yes
Colombia K001430259 Yes
André, E.F. [543], Colombia K001430260 Yes
Colombia K001430261 Yes
Colombia K001430262 Yes
Colombia K001430264 Yes
Colombia (new granada( K001430265 Yes
Colombia (new granada( K001430267 Yes
Colombia (new granada( K001430268 Yes
Colombia (new granada( K001430269 Yes
Colombia (new granada( K001430270 Yes
Colombia (new granada( K001430271 Yes
Colombia K001430272 Yes
Colombia K001430273 Yes
Colombia K001430274 Yes
Colombia K001430275 Yes
Colombia K001430276 Yes
Colombia K001430277 Yes
Colombia K001430278 Yes
Colombia K001430279 Yes
Colombia K001430280 Yes
Colombia K001430281 Yes
Colombia K001430282 Yes
Colombia K001430283 Yes
Colombia K001430284 Yes
Colombia K001430285 Yes
Colombia K001430286 Yes
Colombia K001430287 Yes
Colombia (Is. Gorgona) K001430288 Yes
Colombia (Is. Gorgona) K001430289 Yes
Colombia (Is. Gorgona) K001430290 Yes
Peru: Cajamarca K001430291 Yes
Peru K001430292 Yes
Peru K001430293 Yes
Peru K001430294 Yes
Peru K001430295 Yes
Peru K001430296 Yes
Peru K001430297 Yes
Peru K001430298 Yes
Peru K001430299 Yes
Peru K001430300 Yes
Peru K001430301 Yes
Peru K001430302 Yes
Peru K001430303 Yes
Peru K001430304 Yes
Peru K001430305 Yes
Bolivia K001430306 Yes
Bolivia K001430307 Yes
Bolivia K001430308 Yes
Bolivia K001430309 Yes
Bolivia K001430310 Yes
Bolivia K001430311 Yes
Bolivia K001430312 Yes
Bolivia K001430313 Yes
Bolivia K001430314 Yes
Bolivia K001430315 Yes
Bolivia K001430316 Yes
Bolivia K001430317 Yes
Bolivia K001430318 Yes
Bolivia K001430319 Yes
Bolivia K001430320 Yes
Bolivia K001430321 Yes
Bolivia K001430322 Yes
Bolivia K001430323 Yes
Bolivia K001430324 Yes
Bolivia K001430325 Yes
Bolivia K001430326 Yes
Bolivia K001430327 Yes
Bolivia K001430328 Yes
Bolivia K001430329 Yes
Bolivia K001430330 Yes
Bolivia K001430331 Yes
Bolivia K001430332 Yes
Darwin, C. [s.n.], Galápagos Chiococca trisperma K000432644 isolectotype Yes
illegible [109], Galápagos Chiococca trisperma K000432646 Yes
Habel [s.n.], Galápagos Chiococca trisperma K000432645 Yes
Johnston, J.R. [115], Venezuela Chiococca micrantha K000432648 Yes
Apr 8, 2003 Fendler, A. [1035], Venezuela Chiococca pubescens K001430346 Yes
Irwin, H.S. [26906], Brazil Chiococca pubescens K001137390 Yes
Venezuela Chiococca pubescens K001430344 Yes
Venezuela Chiococca pubescens K001430345 Yes
Venezuela Chiococca pubescens K001430347 Yes
Britton, N.L. [430], Bahamas Chiococca pinetorum K000432652 Unknown type material Yes
Glaziou [10943], Brazil Chiococca densifolia K001194984 Yes
Chamisso [s.n.] Chiococca densifolia K001194988 Yes
Gardner [1418], Brazil Chiococca densifolia K001194993 Yes
Lima, A. [1914], Brazil Chiococca densifolia K001194994 Yes
Tweedie [93], Brazil Chiococca densifolia K001194986 Yes
s.coll. [793], Brazil Chiococca densifolia K001194991 Yes
Weir, J. [473], Brazil Chiococca densifolia K001194983 Yes
Pohl [794], Brazil Chiococca densifolia K001194992 Yes
Langsdorff [s.n.], Brazil Chiococca densifolia K001194982 Yes
Blanchet [3276], Brazil Chiococca densifolia K001194989 Yes
Blanchet [3276], Brazil Chiococca densifolia K001194990 Yes
Miers, J. [3581], Brazil Chiococca densifolia K001194980 Yes
Saint-Hilaire, A. [s.n.] Chiococca densifolia K001194987 Yes
Glaziou, A. [6563], Brazil Chiococca densifolia K001194979 Yes
Saint-Hilaire [s.n.], Brazil Chiococca densifolia K001194985 Yes

First published in Rep. (Annual) Missouri Bot. Gard. 4: 94 (1893)

Accepted by

  • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
  • Berry, P.E., Yatskievych, K. & Holst, B.K. (eds.) in Steyermark, J., Berry, P.E., Holts, B.K. (eds). (2004). Flora of the Venezuelan Guayana 8: 1-874. Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis.
  • Borhidi, A. (2012). Rubiáceas de México, ed. 2: 1-608. Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest.
  • Cirilo, N. & Proctor, G.R. (1994). Vascular plants of the Caribbean Swan islands of Honduras Brenesia 41-42: 73-80.
  • Davidse, G. & al. (eds.) (2012). Flora Mesoamericana 4(2): 1-533. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México, D.F.
  • Delprete, P.G. & Cortés-B., R. (2006 publ. 2007). A synopsis of the Rubiaceae of the states of Mato Grosso and Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, with a key to genera, and a preliminary species list Revista de Biologia Neotropical 3: 13-96.
  • Delprete, P.G. (2010). Rubiaceae Flora dos estados de Goiás e Tocantins 40: 1-1610. Universidade Federal de Goiás.
  • Delprete, P.G., Smith, L.B. & Klein, R.M. (2004). Flora Ilustrada Catarinense 1: 1-344. Herbário "Barbosa Rodrigues", Atají, Brasil.
  • Govaerts, R. (1999). World Checklist of Seed Plants 3(1, 2a & 2b): 1-1532. MIM, Deurne.
  • Govaerts, R. (2003). World Checklist of Selected Plant Families Database in ACCESS: 1-216203. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Hammel, B.E., Grayum, M.H., Herrera, C. & Zamora, N. (eds.) (2014). Manual de Plantas de Costa Rica 7: 1-840. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
  • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
  • Idárraga-Piedrahita, A., Ortiz, R.D.C., Callejas Posada, R. & Merello, M. (eds.) (2011). Flora de Antioquia: Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares 2: 1-939. Universidad de Antioquia, Medellín.
  • Linares, J.L. (2003 publ. 2005). Lista comentado de los árboles nativos y cultivados en la República de El Salvador Ceiba; a Scientific and Technical Journal Published by Zamorano 44: 105-268.
  • Marques de Paiva, A. & Lopes, R.C. (2013). Rubiaceae na área de proteção ambiental palares, Paty do Alferes, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil Pesquisas: Botanica 64: 39-64.
  • Mendoza, H., Ramirez P., B.R. & Jimenez, L.C. (2004). Rubiaceae de Colombia: guia ilustrada de generos: 1-351. Instituto de Investigacion de Recursos Biologicos Alexander von Humboldt, Bogota, Colombia.
  • Oliveira-Filho, A.T. (2006). Catálogo das Árvores nativas de Minas Gerais: 1-423. Editora UFLA, Lavas, Brasil.
  • Sant'Ana Melhem, T., das Graças Lapa Wanderley, M., Ehlin Martins, S., Jung-Mendaçolli, S.L., Shepherd, G.J. & Kirizawa, M. (eds.) (2007). Flora Fanerogâmica do Estado de São Paulo 5: 1-476. Instituto de Botânica, São Paulo.
  • Williams, R.O. & Cheeseman, E.E. in Williams, R.O. (1928). Rubiales Flora of Trinidad and Tobago 2(1): 1-48. Government Printing Office, Port-of-Spain.
  • Zappi, D.C. & al. (2003). Lista das plantas vasculares de Catoles Boletim de Botânica da Universidade de São Paulo 21(2): 345-398.

Literature

Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia

  • Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

Useful Plants of Boyacá Project

  • Instituto de Investigación de Recursos Biológicos Alexander von Humbodlt (2014). Plantas alimenticias y medicinales nativas de Colombia. 2567 registros, aportados por: Castellanos, C. (Contacto del recurso), Valderrama, N. (Creador del recurso, Autor), Castro, C. (Proveedor de metadatos), Bernal, Y. (Autor), García, N. (Autor). Versión 11.0. http://i2d.humboldt.org.co/ceiba/resource.do?r=ls_colombia_magnoliophyta_2014
  • Kew’s Economic Botany collection in The State of the World’s Plants Report–2016. (2016). Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew https://stateoftheworldsplants.org/2016/

Kew Backbone Distributions

  • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
  • Cirilo, N. & Proctor, G.R. (1994). Vascular plants of the Caribbean Swan islands of Honduras Brenesia 41-42: 73-80.
  • Correll, D.S. & Correll, H.B. (1982). Flora of the Bahama Archipelago: 1-1692. J.Cramer, Vaduz.
  • Delprete, P.G., Smith, L.B. & Klein, R.M. (2004). Flora Ilustrada Catarinense 1: 1-344. Herbário "Barbosa Rodrigues", Atají, Brasil.
  • GBIF (2008- continuously updated). Global Biodiversity Information Facility http://www.gbif.org/.
  • Ruhsam, M. (2005). Survey of all the Rubiaceae specimens at the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

Useful Plants and Fungi of Colombia

  • Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R., & Celis, M. (eds.). (2020). Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia. v1.1. Universidad Nacional de Colombia. Dataset/Checklist. https://doi.org/10.15472/7avdhn
  • Diazgranados et al. (2021). Catalogue of plants of Colombia. Useful Plants and Fungi of Colombia project. In prep.
  • Diazgranados, M., Allkin, B., Black N., Cámara-Leret, R., Canteiro C., Carretero J., Eastwood R., Hargreaves S., Hudson A., Milliken W., Nesbitt, M., Ondo, I., Patmore, K., Pironon, S., Turner, R., Ulian, T. (2020). World Checklist of Useful Plant Species. Produced by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Knowledge Network for Biocomplexity.
  • FPI (2021). Food Plants International. https://fms.cmsvr.com/fmi/webd/Food_Plants_World?homeurl=https://foodplantsinternational.com/plants/
  • GBIF.org (2021). GBIF species matching tool. https://www.gbif.org/tools/species-lookup
  • Garcia, H. (1992). Flora Medicinal de Colombia. Botánica Médica. Segunda Edición. Tercer Mundo Editores. Tomo III.
  • IUCN (2021). The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2021-2. https://www.iucnredlist.org.
  • Instituto de Investigación de Recursos Biológicos Alexander von Humbodlt (2014). Plantas alimenticias y medicinales nativas de Colombia. 2567 registros, aportados por: Castellanos, C. (Contacto del recurso), Valderrama, N. (Creador del recurso, Autor), Bernal, Y. (Autor), García, N. (Autor). http://i2d.humboldt.org.co/ceiba/resource.do?r=ls_colombia_magnoliophyta_2014
  • Instituto de Investigación de Recursos Biológicos Alexander von Humboldt (2015). Listado de especies de Productos No Maderables del caribe colombiano. 366 registros, aportados por: Garcia, H. (Contacto del Recurso), López Camacho, R. (Creador del recurso), Espitia Palencia, L. (Proveedor del metadatos). Versión 2.0. http://i2d.humboldt.org.co/ceiba/resource.do?r=le_bst-caribe_plantae_2015
  • Instituto de Investigación de Recursos Biológicos Alexander von Humboldt. (2014). Plantas alimenticias y medicinales nativas de Colombia. 2567 registros, aportados por: Castellanos, C. (Contacto del recurso), Valderrama, N. (Creador del recurso, Autor), Bernal, Y. (Autor), García, N. (Autor). http://i2d.humboldt.org.co/ceiba/resource.do?r=ls_colombia_magnoliophyta_2014
  • Medicinal Plant Names Services (MPNS) v.10 (2021); http://mpns.kew.org/
  • RBG, Kew (2021). Kew Economic Botany Collection. https://ecbot.science.kew.org/

  • Art and Illustrations in Digifolia

    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew

  • Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia

    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • Colombian resources for Plants made Accessible

    ColPlantA 2021. Published on the Internet at http://colplanta.org
    https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

  • Herbarium Catalogue Specimens

    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

  • Kew Backbone Distributions

    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2022. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

  • Kew Living Collection Database

    Common Names from Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew Living Collection https://www.kew.org/

  • Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone

    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2022. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

  • Kew Science Photographs

    Copyright applied to individual images

  • Universidad Nacional de Colombia

    ColPlantA database
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • Useful Plants and Fungi of Colombia

    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • Useful Plants of Boyacá Project

    ColPlantA database
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/