Family:
Meliaceae Juss.
Genus:
Melia L.

Melia azedarach L.

This species is accepted, and its native range is Tropical & Subtropical Asia to N. & E. Australia. It is used as animal food, a poison, a medicine and invertebrate food, has environmental uses and social uses and for fuel and food.

[UNAL]

Bernal, R., G. Galeano, A. Rodríguez, H. Sarmiento y M. Gutiérrez. 2017. Nombres Comunes de las Plantas de Colombia. http://www.biovirtual.unal.edu.co/nombrescomunes/

Vernacular
alelí, alhelí, árbol del paraíso, chirrinchao, jardín, jazmín, jazmín de caballo, jazmín de España, jazmín de luto, nido de paloma, paraíso, pestaña

[FSOM]

M. Thulin et al. Flora of Somalia, Vol. 1-4 [updated 2008] https://plants.jstor.org/collection/FLOS

Morphology General Habit
Deciduous tree up to 15 m high; bark grey-brown, smooth
Morphology Leaves
Leaves 2(–3) times pinnate; petiole and rhachis up to 40 cm long; leaflets opposite or subopposite, ± lanceolate, up to 5.5 x 2.5 cm, acuminate or subacuminate at the apex, asymmetric at the base, with rather deeply crenate or serrate margin, lower surface sparsely puberulous, glabrescent
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescence a large many-flowered axillary panicle with cymose branches; flowers sweetly-scented
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx 0.25 cm long, densely stellately puberulous
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Petals spathulate, up to 0.8 x 0.3 cm, pale lilac, sparsely puberulous outside with simple hairs, glabrous inside except for a few hairs towards apex
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Staminal tube up to 0.7 cm long, dark purple, glabrous outside, hairy inside especially in the upper half; appendages ± 0.1 cm long
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Ovary
Ovary less than 0.1 cm in diam., 5(–7)-celled, style 0.45 cm long
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruit up to 2 x 1.5 cm, pale yellow; stone with ± 5 longitudinal ridges and indistinct apical and basal depressions.
Distribution
Native in India to Australia, planted throughout the tropics and subtropics and often naturalised.
Vernacular
Miri miri (Somali); Persian lilac (English).

[FZ]

Meliaceae, F. White and B. T. Styles. Flora Zambesiaca 2:1. 1963

Morphology General Habit
Medium-sized rapidly growing short-lived deciduous tree up to 15 m. tall, sometimes flowering as a shrub; bark grey-brown, smooth.
Morphology Leaves
Leaves usually 2-, rarely 3-pinnate; petiole and rhachis up to 40 cm. long; leaflets up to 5·5 × 2·5 cm., opposite or subopposite, more or less lanceolate, apex acuminate or subacuminate, base asymmetric, margin rather deeply crenate or serrate, sparsely puberulous, glabrescent; petiolules up to 7 mm. long.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers sweet-scented, in large many-flowered axillary cymose panicles.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx 2·5 mm. long, densely stellate-puberulous.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Petals up to 8 × 3 mm., pale lilac, spathulate, sparsely puberulous outside with simple hairs, glabrous inside except for a few hairs towards apex.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Staminal tube up to 7 mm. long, dark purple, glabrous outside, hairy inside, especially in the upper half; appendages c. 1 mm. long.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Pistil
Ovary less than 1 mm. in diam., 5 (7)-locular; style 4–5 mm. long.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Drupe up to 2 × 1–5 cm.

[UPB]

The Useful Plants of Boyacá project

Ecology
Alt. 0 - 2000 m.
Distribution
Cultivated in Colombia.
Conservation
Not Evaluated.
Morphology General Habit
Shrub or tree.

[FWTA]

Meliaceae, Hutchinson and Dalziel. Flora of West Tropical Africa 1:2. 1958

Morphology General Habit
A small tree
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Abundant panicles of lilac flowers
Note
Introduced for ornament and known as Persian Lilac.

[UPFC]
Distribution
Biogeografic region: Andean, Caribbean, Orinoquia, Pacific. Elevation range: 0–2000 m a.s.l. Cultivated in Colombia. Colombian departments: Antioquia, Atlántico, Bolívar, Boyacá, Cauca, Chocó, Córdoba, Cundinamarca, Huila, Magdalena, Meta, Nariño, Norte de Santander, Putumayo, Santander, Tolima, Valle del Cauca.
Habit
Shrub, Small tree.
Conservation
IUCN Red List Assessment (2021): LC.
Ecology
Habitat according IUCN Habitats Classification: forest and woodland, savanna, shrubland, native grassland, artificial - terrestrial.
Vernacular
Paraíso

[FTEA]

Meliaceae, Styles & F. White (Department of Plant Sciences, University of Oxford). Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1991

Morphology General Habit
Medium-sized rapidly growing short-lived tree up to 15 m. tall, sometimes flowering as a shrub; bark grey-brown, smooth.
Morphology Leaves
Leaves 2(–3)-pinnate; petiole and rhachis up to 40 cm. long; leaflets opposite or subopposite, ± lanceolate, up to 5.5 × 2.5 cm., apex acuminate or subacuminate, base asymmetric, margin rather deeply crenate or serrate, lower surface sparsely puberulous, glabrescent, petiolules up to 0.7 cm. long.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescence a large many-flowered axillary cymose panicle; flowers sweetly scented.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx 0.25 cm. long, densely stellate puberulous.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Petals spathulate, up to 0.8 × 0.3 cm., pale lilac, sparsely puberulous outside with simple hairs, glabrous inside except for a few hairs towards apex.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Staminal tube up to 0.7 cm. long, dark purple, glabrous outside, hairy inside, especially in the upper half; appendages ± 0.1 cm. long.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Pistil
Ovary less than 0.1 cm. in diameter, 5(–7)- locular; style 0.45 cm. long.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Drupe up to 2 × 1.5 cm., pale yellow; putamen with ± 5 longitudinal ridges and indistinct apical and basal depressions.
Figures
Fig. 4.
Habitat
Planted for ornament, building, shade, firewood and medicine, and locally naturalized, occurring in secondary grassland and thicket and on waste ground; 0–2150 m.
Distribution
native of the eastern tropics from India to Australiawidely planted in the tropics and subtropics K3 K4 K7 T4 T5 T6 U1 U2 U3 U4

[CPLC]

Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

Distribution
Cultivada en Colombia; Alt. 0 - 2000 m.; Andes, Llanura del Caribe, Orinoquia, Pacífico, Valle del Cauca, Valle del Magdalena.
Morphology General Habit
Arbusto, arbolito

[FSOM]
Use
Poles are used in house building because of their durability. The stones, which can easily be pierced at the ends, are used for beads. The fruit of M. azedarach is poisonous to some animals and death of children has also been reported (Fl. Trop. E. Afr.). Planted as a shade tree or for ornament at least in N1

[UPB]
Use Medicines Unspecified Medicinal Disorders
Medicinal (State of the World's Plants 2016).

[UPFC]
Use Animal Food
Used as animal food.
Use Environmental
Environmental uses.
Use Fuel
Used for fuels.
Use Gene Sources
Used as gene sources.
Use Food
Used for food.
Use Invertebrate Food
Used as invertebrate food.
Use Materials
Used as material.
Use Medicines
Medical uses.
Use Poisons
Poisons.
Use Social
Social uses.

Native to:

Assam, Bangladesh, Cambodia, China North-Central, China South-Central, China Southeast, East Himalaya, Hainan, India, Jawa, Laos, Lesser Sunda Is., Nepal, New Guinea, New South Wales, Northern Territory, Philippines, Queensland, Solomon Is., Sri Lanka, Sumatera, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam, West Himalaya, Western Australia

Introduced into:

Afghanistan, Alabama, Algeria, Angola, Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Arizona, Arkansas, Ascension, Bahamas, Belize, Benin, Bermuda, Bolivia, Botswana, Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, Burkina, California, Canary Is., Cape Provinces, Cape Verde, Caroline Is., Cayman Is., Central African Repu, Chad, Christmas I., Comoros, Cook Is., Cuba, Dominican Republic, East Aegean Is., Easter Is., El Salvador, Fiji, Florida, France, Free State, Galápagos, Gambia, Georgia, Guatemala, Gulf of Guinea Is., Haiti, Hawaii, Honduras, Iran, Iraq, Jamaica, Japan, Kazan-retto, Kenya, Korea, Kriti, KwaZulu-Natal, Lebanon-Syria, Leeward Is., Lesotho, Libya, Louisiana, Malawi, Mali, Marianas, Marquesas, Marshall Is., Mauritius, Mexico Central, Mexico Southwest, Mississippi, Missouri, Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia, Nansei-shoto, Nauru, New Caledonia, New Mexico, Norfolk Is., North Carolina, Northern Provinces, Ogasawara-shoto, Oklahoma, Pakistan, Palestine, Paraguay, Peru, Portugal, Puerto Rico, Rodrigues, Rwanda, Réunion, Seychelles, Sicilia, Society Is., South Australia, South Carolina, Southwest Caribbean, Spain, St.Helena, Sudan, Swaziland, Tanzania, Tennessee, Texas, Togo, Tonga, Trinidad-Tobago, Tuamotu, Tubuai Is., Tunisia, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Turks-Caicos Is., Uganda, Uruguay, Utah, Uzbekistan, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Venezuelan Antilles, Victoria, Virginia, Windward Is., Yemen, Yugoslavia, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

English
Syringa

Melia azedarach L. appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status Has image?
Jul 29, 2011 Du, N.V. et al. [HNK 3088], Vietnam K000734145 No
Apr 1, 2009 Mariyoh Ginjil [93306], Sabah K000610405 No
Jul 19, 2005 Munzinger [447], New Caledonia K000223466 No
May 9, 2005 Gaerlan [20209], Philippines K000223328 No
Nov 17, 2004 Barbon et al. [9239], Philippines K000222701 No
Nov 17, 2004 Romero [29443], Philippines K000222700 No
Styles, B.T. [16], Uganda 25694.015 No
Styles, B.T. [18], Uganda 6049.013 No
s.coll. [s.n.], Japan K000651849 Yes
Koorders, S.H. [21953[symbol=beta]], Jawa K000657071 Yes
Pierre, L. [3366], Vietnam K000657073 Yes
[Ilegible] [s.n.], Japan K000657074 Yes
Koorders, S.H. [30137[symbol=beta]], Jawa K000657067 Yes
Koorders, S.H. [5158[symbol=beta]], Jawa K000657069 Yes
s.coll. [Cat. no. 1250] K001112523 Yes
Koorders, S.H. [22271[symbol=beta]], Jawa K000657068 Yes
s.coll. [Cat. no. 1250] K001112524 Yes
s.coll. [Cat. no. 1250] K001112522 Yes
s.coll. [Cat. no. 1250] K001112525 Yes
Koorders, S.H. [14812[symbol=beta]], Jawa K000657072 Yes
Koorders, S.H. [5156[symbol=beta]], Jawa K000657070 Yes
s.coll. [Cat. no. 1254] Melia superba K001112543 Yes
s.coll. [Cat. no. 1254] Melia superba K001112541 Yes
s.coll. [Cat. no. 1254] Melia superba K001112542 Yes
s.coll. [Cat. no. 1254] Melia superba K001112544 Yes
s.coll. [Cat. no. 1252], India Melia sempervirens K001112534 Yes
s.coll. [Cat. no. 1252], India Melia sempervirens K001112535 Yes
s.coll. [Cat. no. 1252] Melia sempervirens K001112538 Yes
s.coll. [Cat. no. 1252] Melia sempervirens K001112537 Yes
s.coll. [Cat. no. 1252] Melia sempervirens K001112536 Yes
Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 1252] Melia sempervirens K001112533 Yes

First published in Sp. Pl.: 384 (1753)

Accepted by

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Literature

Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia

  • Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

Useful Plants of Boyacá Project

  • Kew’s Economic Botany collection in The State of the World’s Plants Report–2016. (2016). Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew https://stateoftheworldsplants.org/2016/

Flora of West Tropical Africa

  • Harms in E. & P. Pflanzenfam. 19B, 1: 99, fig. 26, A–L (1940).
  • —F.T.A. 1: 332

Kew Backbone Distributions

  • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
  • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
  • Allred, K.W. (2012). Flora Neomexicana, ed. 2, 1: 1-599. Range Science Herbarium, Las Cruces, New Mexico.
  • Authier, P. & Covillot, J. (2011). Catalogue actualisé des plantes de l'île de Rhodes (Grèce) Saussurea; Travaux de la Société Botanique de Genève 41: 131-170.
  • Bailey, C. & al. (2015). Guide to the Vascular Plants of Tennessee: 1-813. University of Tennessee press.
  • Baksh-Comeau, Y., Maharaj, S.S., Adams, C.D., Harris, S.A., Filer, D.L. & Hawthorne, W.D. (2016). An annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Trinidad and Tobago with analysis of vegetation types and botanical 'hotspots' Phytotaxa 250: 1-431.
  • Barthelat, F. (2019). La flore illustrée de Mayotte: 1-687. Biotope éditions.
  • Berendsohn, W.G., Gruber, A.K. & Monterrosa Salomón, J. (2012). Nova Silva Cusatlantica. Árboles natinos e introducidos de El Salvador. Parte 2: Angiospermae - Familias M a P y Pteridophyta Englera 29-2: 1-300.
  • Bosser, J. & al. (eds.) (1997). Flore des Mascareignes 69: 79-1. IRD Éditions, MSIRI, RBG-Kew, Paris.
  • Boudet, G., Lebrun, J.P. & Demange, R. (1986). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Mali: 1-465. Etudes d'Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux.
  • Boulvert, Y. (1977). Catalogue de la Flore de Centrafrique 3: 1-89. ORSTROM, Bangui.
  • Brako, L. & Zarucchi, J.L. (1993). Catalogue of the Flowering Plants and Gymnosperms of Peru Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 45: i-xl, 1-1286. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • Broicz, K. (1982). Flora Iranica 153: 1-15. Akademische Druck- u. Verlagsanstalt, Graz.
  • Brown, L.C. (1982). The Flora and Fauna of St Helena: 1-88. Land Resources Development Centre, Surbiton, England.
  • Brunel, J.F., Hiepo, P. & Scholz, H. (eds.) (1984). Flore Analytique du Togo Phanérogames: 1-751. GTZ, Eschborn.
  • Castle, G.E. (1994). Flore des Seychelles Dicotylédones: 1-663. Orstom Editions.
  • Chang, C.S., Kim, H. & Chang, K.S. (2014). Provisional checklist of vascular plants for the Korea peninsula flora (KPF): 1-660. DESIGNPOST.
  • Choudhary, R.K., Srivastava, R.C., Das, A.K. & Lee, J. (2012). Floristic diversity assessment and vegetation analysis of Upper Siang district of eastern Himalaya in North East India Korean Journal of Plant Taxonomy 42: 222-246.
  • Correll, D.S. & Correll, H.B. (1982). Flora of the Bahama Archipelago: 1-1692. J.Cramer, Vaduz.
  • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Dassanayake (ed.) (1995). A Revised Handbook to the Flora of Ceylon 9: 1-482. Oxford & IBH Publishing Co. PVT. LTD., New Delhi, Calcutta.
  • Davis, P.H. (ed.) (1967). Flora of Turkey and the East Aegean Islands 2: 1-581. Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh.
  • Dobignard, A. & Chatelain, C. (2012). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 4: 1-431. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
  • Dufour-Dror, J.M. & Fragman-Sapir, O. in Dufour-Dror, J.M. (2019). Alien Plant Species in Natural & Disturbed Areas in Israel Alien Invasive Plants in Israel, ed. 2: 1-246. Dan Perry Pub., Nature & Parks Authority, Israel Ministry of Environmental Protection.
  • Dy Phon, P. (2000). Dictionnaire des plantes utilisées au Cambodge: 1-915. chez l'auteur, Phnom Penh, Cambodia.
  • Exell, A.W., Fernandes, A. & Wild, H. (eds.) (1963). Flora Zambesiaca 2(1): 1-351. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Fairhurst, W. (2004). Flowering Plants of Ascension island: 1-300. Higham Press, Shirland, Alfreton, England.
  • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Figueiredo, E., Paiva, J., Stévart, T., Oliveira, F. & Smith, G.F. (2011). Annotated catalogue of the flowering plants of São Tomé and Príncipe Bothalia, A Journal of Botanical Research 41: 41-82.
  • Florence, J. & Hallé, N. (1986). Suite du catalogue des plantes a fleurs et Fougères des iles Australes Rapa: 151-158. Direction des centres d'expérimentations nucléaires. Service mixte de contrôle biologique.
  • Forzza, R.C., Zappi, D. & Souza, V.C. (2016-continuously updated). Flora do Brasil 2020 em construção http://reflora.jbrj.gov.br/reflora/listaBrasil/ConsultaPublicaUC/ResultadoDaConsultaNovaConsulta.do.
  • Fosberg, F.R., Sachet, M.-H., Oliver, R. (1979). A geographical checklist of the Micronesian Dicotyledonae Micronesica; Journal of the College of Guam 15: 41-295.
  • GBIF (2008-2020). Global Biodiversity Information Facility http://www.gbif.org/.
  • Garcia-Mendoza, A.J. & Meave, J.A. (eds.) (2012). Diversidad florística de Oaxaca: de musgos a angiospermas (colecciones y listas de especies), ed. 2: 1-351. Instituto de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México.
  • George, A.S., Orchard, A.E. & Hewson, H.J. (eds.) (1993). Oceanic islands 2 Flora of Australia 50: 1-606. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
  • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa an annotated checklist Strelitzia 14: 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Girmansyah, D. & al. (eds.) (2013). Flora of Bali an annotated checklist: 1-158. Herbarium Bogorensis, Indonesia.
  • Gonzalez, F., Nelson Diaz, J. & Lowry, P. (1995). Flora Illustrada de San Andrés y Providencia: 1-281. Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Colombia.
  • Guillaumin, A. (1948). Compendium de la Flore Phanérogamique des Nouvelles Hébrides Annales de l'Institut Botanico-Geologique de Marseille, VI, 5-6: 1-56.
  • Hansen, A. & Sunding, P. (1993). Flora of Macaronesia. Checklist of vascular plants. 4. revised edition Sommerfeltia 17: 1-295.
  • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
  • Iwatsuki, K., Boufford, D.E. & Ohba, H. (eds.) (1999). Flora of Japan IIc: 1-328. Kodansha Ltd., Tokyo.
  • Jaramillo Díaz, P. & Guézou, A. (2017). CDF Checklist of Galapagos Vascular Plants - FCD Lista de especies de Plantas Vasculares de Galápagos http://www.darwinfoundation.org/datazone/checklists/vascular-plants/.
  • Jones, M. (1991). A checklist of Gambian plants: 1-33. Michael Jones, The Gambia College.
  • Jørgensen, P.M., Nee, M.H. & Beck., S.G. (eds.) (2013). Catálogo de las plantas vasculares de Bolivia Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 127: 1-1741. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • Kalema, J. & Beentje, H. (2012). Conservation checklist of the trees of Uganda: 1-235. Kew Publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Kalkman, C. & al. (eds.) (1995-1996). Flora Malesiana 12: 1-784. Noordhoff-Kolff N.V., Djakarta.
  • Kobayashi, S. & Ono, M. (1987). A Revised List of Vascular Plants Indigenous and Introduced to the Bonin (Ogasawara) and the Volcano (Kazan) Islands Ogasawara Research 13: 1-55.
  • Kral, R., Diamond, A.R., Ginzbarg, S.L., Hansen, C.J., Haynes, R.R., Keener, B.R., Lelong, M.G., Spaulding, D.D. & Woods, M. (2011). Annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Alabama: 1-112. Botanical reseach institute of Texas.
  • Lebrun, J.-P., Audru, J., Gaston, A. & Mosnier, M. (1972). Catalogue des Plantes Vasculaires du Tchad Méridional: 1-289. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
  • Lorence, D.H. & Wagnwe, W.L. (2020). Flora of the Marquesas Islands 2: 413-1135. National Tropical Botanic Garden, Smithsonian, DRPF.
  • Lê, T.C. (2003). Danh l?c các loài th?c v?t Vi?t Nam 2: 1-1203. Hà N?i : Nhà xu?t b?n Nông nghi?p.
  • López Patiño, E.J., Szeszko, D.R., Rascala Pérez, J. & Beltrán Retis, A.S. (2012). The flora of the Tenacingo-Malinalco-Zumpahuacán protected natural area, state of Mexico, Mexico Harvard Papers in Botany 17: 65-167.
  • Mannheimer, C.A. & Curtis, B.A. (eds.) (2009). Le Roux and Müller's field guide to the trees and shrubs of Namibia, rev. ed.: 1-525. Macmillan Education Namibia, Windhoek.
  • Morat, P. & Mackee, H.S. (eds.) (1988). Flore de la Nouvelle-Calédonie et Dépendances 15: 1-155. Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris.
  • Mostaph, M.K. & Uddin, S.B. (2013). Dictionary of plant names of Bangladesh, Vasc. Pl.: 1-434. Janokalyan Prokashani, Chittagong, Bangladesh.
  • Musselman, L.J. (2011). Checklist of Plants of Lebanon and Syria http://ww2.odu.edu/~lmusselm/plant/lebsyria/Checklist%20of%20Lebanon%20Plants.pdf.
  • Nasir, E. & Ali, S.I. (eds.) (1970-1995). Flora of West Pakistan 1-131.
  • Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008). Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas: 1-1576. SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.
  • Newman, M., Ketphanh, S., Svengsuksa, B., Thomas, P., Sengdala, K., Lamxay, V. & Armstrong, K. (2007). A checklist of the vascular plants of Lao PDR: 1-394. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
  • Orchard, A.E. (ed.) (1994). Oceanic Islands 1 Flora of Australia 49: 1-681. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
  • Robyns, W. & al. (eds.) (1948-1963). Flore du Congo Belge et du Ruanda-Urundi 1-10.
  • Sarmah, K.K. & Borthakur, S.K. (2009). A checklist of angiospermic plants of Manas national park in Assam, India Pleione 3: 190-200.
  • Shaheen, H., Qureshi, R., Akram, A., Gulfraz, M. & Potter, D. (2014). A preliminary floristic checklist of Thal desert Punjab, Pakistan Pakistn Journal of Botany 46: 13-18.
  • Shishkin, B.K. (ed.) (1950). Flora Turkmenii 5: 1-271. Turkmenskoe gosudarstvennoe izd., Ashkhabad.
  • Singh, A. (2012). Exotic flora of the Chandauli district Uttar Pradesh, India: an overview Indian Journal of Forestry 35: 79-84.
  • Smith, A.C. (1985). Flora Vitiensis Nova. A new flora for Fiji (Spermatophytes only) 3: 1-758. Pacific Tropical Botanical Garden, Lawai.
  • St. John, H. (1988). Census of the Flora of the Gambier islands, Polynesia Pacific Plant Studies 43: 1-34.
  • Styles, B.T. & White, F. (1991). Flora of Tropical East Africa, Meliaceae: 1-67.
  • Sykes, W.R. (2016). Flora of the Cook Islands: 1-973. National Tropical Botanical Garden, Hawaii.
  • Thaman, R.R., Fosberg, F.R., Manner, H.I. & Hassall, D.C. (1994). The Flora of Nauru Atoll Research Bulletin 392: 1-223.
  • Thiombiano, A., Schmidt, M., Dressler, S., Ouédraogo, A., Hahn, K. & Zizka, G. (2012). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Burkina Faso Boissiera 65: 1-391.
  • Townsend, C.C. & Guest, E. (eds.) (1980). Flora of Iraq 4(1): 1-628. Ministry of Agriculture & Agrarian Reform, Baghdad.
  • Troupin, G. (ed.) (1983). Flora du Rwanda 2: 1-603. Musee Royal de l'Afrique Centrale.
  • Tutin, T.G. & al. (eds.) (1968). Flora Europaea 2: 1-469. Cambridge University Press.
  • USDA, NRCS ( 2021-continuously updated). Natural Resources Conservation Services Plant Database http://plants.usda.gov/cgi_bin/topics.cgi?earl=checklist.html.
  • Vvedensky, A.I. (ed.) (1959). Flora Uzbekistana 4: 1-507. Izd-va Akademii nauk Uzbekskoi SSR, Tashkent.
  • Wagner, W.L., Herbst, D.R. & Sohmer, S.H. (1999). Manual of the Flowering Plants of Hawai'i, rev. ed., 1: 1-988. University of Hawai'i Press, Bishop Museum Press.
  • Welsh, S.L. (1998). Flora Societensis: 1-420. E.P.S. Inc. Utah.
  • Wongprasert, T., Phengklai, C. & Boonthavikoon, T. (2011). A synoptic account of the Meliaceae of Thailand Thai Forest Bulletin (Botany) 39: 210-266.
  • Wood, J.R.I. (1997). A handbook of the Yemen Flora: 1-434. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (2008). Flora of China 11: 1-622. Science Press (Beijing) & Missouri Botanical Garden Press (St. Louis).
  • Yuncker, T.G. (1959). Plants of Tonga Bernice P. Bishop Museum Bulletin 220: 1-283.
  • Zizka, G. (1991). Flowering plants of Easter island Palmarum Hortus Francofurtensis 3: 1-108.
  • Zuloaga, F.O., Morrone, O. , Belgrano, M.J., Marticorena, C. & Marchesi, E. (eds.) (2008). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 107: 1-3348. Missouri Botanical Garden.

Flora of Somalia

  • Flora Somalia, Vol 2, (1999) Author: by A. S. Hassan & M. Cheek [updated by M. Thulin 2008]

Flora of Tropical East Africa

  • C. DC. in A. & C. DC., Monogr. Phan. 1: 451 (1878).
  • Excell & Mendonça in Consp. Fl. Angol. 1: 317 (1951).
  • F. White & Styles in Flora Zambesiaca 2: 315 (1963).
  • F. White & Styles in Flora of Southern Africa 18(3): 49, fig. 14 (1986).
  • F. White in Bothalia 16: 154 (1986).
  • J.P.M. Brenan, Check-lists of the Forest Trees and Shrubs of the British Empire no. 5, part II, Tanganyika Territory p. 317 (1949).
  • L., Sp. Pl.: 384 (1753).
  • Mabberley in Gard. Bull., Singapore 37: 55 (1984).
  • Oliv. in Flora of Tropical Africa 1: 332 (1868).
  • Staner & Gilbert in Flore du Congo Belge et du Ruanda-Urundi, 7: 173 (1958).
  • Styles & F. White in Fl. Eth. 3: 485 (1990).
  • Styles in E. Afr. Agric. Journ. 39: 416 (1974).

Useful Plants and Fungi of Colombia

  • Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R., & Celis, M. (eds.). (2020). Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia. v1.1. Universidad Nacional de Colombia. Dataset/Checklist. https://doi.org/10.15472/7avdhn
  • Burkill HM. (1995). The useful plants of west tropical Africa, Vols. 1-3. The useful plants of west tropical Africa, Vols 1-3.
  • Cámara-Leret, R., & Dennehy, Z. (2019). Information gaps in indigenous and local knowledge for science-policy assessments. Nature Sustainability 2:736-741.
  • Diazgranados et al. (2021). Catalogue of plants of Colombia. Useful Plants and Fungi of Colombia project. In prep.
  • Diazgranados, M., Allkin, B., Black N., Cámara-Leret, R., Canteiro C., Carretero J., Eastwood R., Hargreaves S., Hudson A., Milliken W., Nesbitt, M., Ondo, I., Patmore, K., Pironon, S., Turner, R., Ulian, T. (2020). World Checklist of Useful Plant Species. Produced by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Knowledge Network for Biocomplexity.
  • FPI (2021). Food Plants International. https://fms.cmsvr.com/fmi/webd/Food_Plants_World?homeurl=https://foodplantsinternational.com/plants/
  • GBIF.org (2021). GBIF species matching tool. https://www.gbif.org/tools/species-lookup
  • GRIN (2021). Germplasm Resources Information Network from the United States Department of Agriculture. https://www.ars-grin.gov/
  • IUCN (2021). The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2021-2. https://www.iucnredlist.org.
  • Jansen, P., Lemmens, R., Oyen, L., Siemonsma, J., Stavast, F. & Van Valkenburg, J. (1991) Plant Resources of South-East Asia. Basic list of species and commodity grouping. Final version. Pudoc, Wageningen.
  • Medicinal Plant Names Services (MPNS) v.10 (2021); http://mpns.kew.org/
  • PROTA (2021). Plants Resources of Tropical Africa. https://prota4u.org/database/
  • Plants for malaria, plants for fever: Medicinal species in Latin America, a bibliographic survey: Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • RBG, Kew (2021). Kew Economic Botany Collection. https://ecbot.science.kew.org/
  • RBG, Kew (ed.) (1999). Survey of Economic Plants for Arid and Semi-Arid Lands (SEPASAL) database. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, London.
  • Ulian, T., Sacandé, M., Hudson, A., & Mattana, E. (2017). Conservation of indigenous plants to support community livelihoods: the MGU–Useful Plants Project. Journal of Environmental Planning and Management 60:668-683.
  • Willis, K.J. (ed.) (2017). State of the World’s Plants 2017. Report. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

  • Art and Illustrations in Digifolia

    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew

  • Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia

    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • Colombian resources for Plants made Accessible

    ColPlantA 2021. Published on the Internet at http://colplanta.org
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

  • Flora Zambesiaca

    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • Flora of Somalia

    Flora of Somalia
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • Flora of Tropical East Africa

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • Flora of West Tropical Africa

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • Herbarium Catalogue Specimens

    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

  • Kew Backbone Distributions

    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2022. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

  • Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone

    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2022. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

  • Kew Science Photographs

    Copyright applied to individual images

  • Plants and People Africa

    Common Names from Plants and People Africa http://www.plantsandpeopleafrica.com/

  • Universidad Nacional de Colombia

    ColPlantA database
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • Useful Plants and Fungi of Colombia

    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • Useful Plants of Boyacá Project

    ColPlantA database
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0