Moringa oleifera Lam.

First published in Encycl. 1: 398 (1785)
This species is accepted
The native range of this species is NE. Pakistan to NW. India. It is a tree and grows primarily in the seasonally dry tropical biome. It is has environmental uses and social uses, as animal food, a poison, a medicine and invertebrate food and for fuel and food.

Descriptions

Distribution
Biogeografic region: Caribbean. Elevation range: 35–1050 m a.s.l. Cultivated in Colombia. Colombian departments: Antioquia, Bolívar, Córdoba, La Guajira, Magdalena, San Andrés y Providencia, Valle del Cauca.
Habit
Small tree.
Conservation
IUCN Red List Assessment (2021): LC.
Ecology
Habitat according IUCN Habitats Classification: forest and woodland, savanna, shrubland, artificial - terrestrial.
Vernacular
Aceite, Ángela, Goma, Jacinto
[UPFC]

Bernal, R., G. Galeano, A. Rodríguez, H. Sarmiento y M. Gutiérrez. 2017. Nombres Comunes de las Plantas de Colombia. http://www.biovirtual.unal.edu.co/nombrescomunes/

Vernacular
aceite, aceite de Ben, árbol vela, ben, chagualo, cucharo, cucharo colorado, espadero
[UNAL]

M. Thulin et al. Flora of Somalia, Vol. 1-4 [updated 2008] https://plants.jstor.org/collection/FLOS

Morphology General Habit
Small tree or shrub
Morphology Leaves
Leaves 2–3-pinnate, with 4–6 pairs of pinnae; leaflets 6–9(–11) per pinna, elliptic or obovate, 0.5–2(–3) x 0.3–1.3(–2) cm, ± rounded to emarginate at the apex, rounded to cuneate at the base, glabrous or puberulous
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers white or cream; receptacle 3–4 mm long
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Sepals 0.7–1.4 cm long, pubescent
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Petals 1–2 cm long
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Ovary
Ovary hairy
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruits 10–50 x 1.5–2.6 cm, glabrous, 9-ribbed
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seed-body 1–1.4 cm long, with broad wings 0.5–2.5 cm long.
Distribution
Cultivated at least in S1–3; native of northern India, now widely cultivated in the tropics.
Vernacular
Horse-radish tree (English).
[FSOM]

Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

Distribution
Cultivada en Colombia; Alt. 35 - 1050 m.; Islas Caribeñas, Llanura del Caribe, Valle del Cauca.
Morphology General Habit
Arbolito
[CPLC]

IUCN Red List of Threatened Species https://www.iucnredlist.org/species/61890232/61890241

Conservation
LC - least concern
[IUCN]

George R. Proctor (2012). Flora of the Cayman Isands (Second Edition). Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew

Vernacular
MARONGA, HORSERADISH TREE
Morphology General Habit
A small tree to 6 m tall or more, with whitish bark, the branchlets and leaves usually puberulous
Morphology Leaves
Leaves to 40 cm long, with numerous leaflets, these 1–2 cm long
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers numerous, fragrant, the petaloid sepals 9–13 mm long, white tinged with crimson; petals slightly larger and white to yellowish, tinged crimson near the base outside
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Capsule obtusely 3-angled, pendent, 20–45 cm long, 1–2 cm thick; seeds broadly 3-winged, 2.5–3 cm long.
Distribution
Grand Cayman. Native of eastern Africa but widely planted and naturalised in tropical America.
[Cayman]

Vernacular
Bambou-bananier, Ben olifere, Benzolive, Graines benné
[UPFC]

Uses

Use Animal Food
Used as animal food.
Use Environmental
Environmental uses.
Use Fuel
Used for fuels.
Use Gene Sources
Used as gene sources.
Use Food
Used for food.
Use Invertebrate Food
Used as invertebrate food.
Use Materials
Used as material.
Use Medicines
Medical uses.
Use Poisons
Poisons.
Use Social
Social uses.
[UPFC]

Use
Ben oil, used in perfumery and lubrication, is obtained from the seeds. Leaves and fruits used medicinally Leaves and fruits used as a vegetable
[FSOM]

Use
The roots have the flavour of horseradish, for which they can be used as a substitute. The young leaves, pods, and flowers can be cooked as an excellent vegetable. The seeds yield ‘ben oil’, used for lubricating watches and other delicate machinery.
[Cayman]

Common Names

English
Horse-radish Tree

Sources

  • Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia

    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
  • Colombian resources for Plants made Accessible

    • ColPlantA 2021. Published on the Internet at http://colplanta.org
    • https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/
  • Flora of Somalia

    • Flora of Somalia
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
  • Flora of West Tropical Africa

    • Flora of West Tropical Africa
  • Flora of the Cayman Islands

    • Flora of the Cayman Islands
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
  • Herbarium Catalogue Specimens

    • Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/
  • IUCN Categories

    • IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
  • Kew Backbone Distributions

    • The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Vascular Plants 2024. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and https://powo.science.kew.org/
    • © Copyright 2023 World Checklist of Vascular Plants. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0
  • Kew Living Collection Database

    • Common Names from Plants and People Africa http://www.plantsandpeopleafrica.com/
  • Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone

    • The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Vascular Plants 2024. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and https://powo.science.kew.org/
    • © Copyright 2023 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Vascular Plants. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0
  • Kew Science Photographs

    • Copyright applied to individual images
  • Neotropikey

    • Milliken, W., Klitgard, B. and Baracat, A. (2009 onwards), Neotropikey - Interactive key and information resources for flowering plants of the Neotropics.
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0
  • Universidad Nacional de Colombia

    • ColPlantA database
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
  • Useful Plants and Fungi of Colombia

    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0