Cissampelos pareira L.

This species is accepted, and its native range is Tropics & Subtropics. It is used as animal food, a poison and a medicine, has environmental uses and for food.

[UNAL]

Bernal, R., G. Galeano, A. Rodríguez, H. Sarmiento y M. Gutiérrez. 2017. Nombres Comunes de las Plantas de Colombia. http://www.biovirtual.unal.edu.co/nombrescomunes/

Vernacular
amargoso, barbasco, batatilla, batato, batato de monte, bejuco bravo, bejuco de cerca, bejuco guayacán, bejuco zaragozo, guaco, masquiaunsabe, oreja de burro, pareira, pareira brava, patacón, pateponche, pereira, pereirana

[FSOM]

M. Thulin et al. Flora of Somalia, Vol. 1-4 [updated 2008] https://plants.jstor.org/collection/FLOS

Morphology Stem
Old stems woody; young stems pubescent or glabrous
Morphology Leaves
Leaf-blades suborbicular, 2–12 cm long and wide, rounded to subcordate at the base, rounded to emarginate and mucronate at the apex, with 5–7 nerves at the base; petiole 1–7 cm long inserted at least 1 mm from the base of the blade
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Female flowers in axillary raceme-like inflorescences 5–10 cm long; bracts up to 1.5 cm in diam; sepal c. 1.5 mm long; petal c. 0.75 mm long Male flowers in inflorescences usually less than 5 cm long; sepals 1.2–1.5 mm long; corolla c. 0.5 mm long; synandrium 4-celled
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Drupes 4–6 x 3–4 mm.

[FZ]

Menispermaceae, G. Troupin. Flora Zambesiaca 1:1. 1960

Morphology General Habit
Liane with stem somewhat woody at the base.
Morphology Leaves
Leaves sometimes peltate, lamina 2–12 x 2–12 cm., broadly cordate to ovate, apex obtusely or emarginately mucronate or rarely acuminate, base truncate, to deeply reniform-cordate, membranous to papery, ± pilose or glabrescent above, puberulous to tomentose below, with 3–7 basal nerves, palmate, petiole 1–7 cm. long, puberulous to subtomentose.
sex Male
Male flowers with 4–5 ovate or obovate keeled sepals 1.2–1.5 x 0.7 mm., tubercled and pubescent; synandrium 4-locular. Male inflorescences of axillary, generally solitary or paired, corymbose cymules not exceeding 4 cm. in length, sometimes arranged in the axils of bracts along an axis up to 10 cm. long; axes, peduncles and pedicels whitish-pubescent.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Female inflorescences of 5–9-flowered cymules arranged in axillary, false racemes 5–10 cm. long, solitary or clustered 2–3 together; bracts up to 1.5 cm. in diam., suborbicular-reniform, pubescent or tomentose. Male inflorescences of axillary, generally solitary or paired, corymbose cymules not exceeding 4 cm. in length, sometimes arranged in the axils of bracts along an axis up to 10 cm. long; axes, peduncles and pedicels whitish-pubescent.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Female flowers with sepals similar to those of the male; petals 1.5–1.7 x 2 mm., obtriangular to subreniform, very sparsely pubescent. Male flowers with 4–5 ovate or obovate keeled sepals 1.2–1.5 x 0.7 mm., tubercled and pubescent; synandrium 4-locular.
sex Female
Female flowers with sepals similar to those of the male; petals 1.5–1.7 x 2 mm., obtriangular to subreniform, very sparsely pubescent. Female inflorescences of 5–9-flowered cymules arranged in axillary, false racemes 5–10 cm. long, solitary or clustered 2–3 together; bracts up to 1.5 cm. in diam., suborbicular-reniform, pubescent or tomentose.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Drupe 4–6 x 3–4 mm. wide, hairy-pubescent.

[CPLC]

Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

Distribution
Nativa en Colombia; Alt. 0 - 2800 m.; Amazonia, Andes, Guayana y Serranía de La Macarena, Islas Caribeñas, Llanura del Caribe, Pacífico, Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, Valle del Cauca, Valle del Magdalena.
Morphology General Habit
Trepadora
Conservation
Preocupación Menor

[UPFC]
Habit
Climbing.
Distribution
Biogeografic region: Amazonia, Andean, Guiana Shield, Caribbean, Pacific. Elevation range: 0–2800 m a.s.l. Native to Colombia. Colombian departments: Amazonas, Antioquia, Atlántico, Bogotá DC, Bolívar, Caldas, Caquetá, Cauca, Cesar, Chocó, Córdoba, Cundinamarca, Guaviare, Huila, Magdalena, Meta, Nariño, Norte de Santander, Putumayo, Quindío, Risaralda, San Andrés y Providencia, Tolima, Valle del Cauca.
Conservation
National Red List of Colombia (2021): Potential LC.
Ecology
Habitat according IUCN Habitats Classification: forest and woodland, savanna, shrubland, wetlands (inland), artificial - terrestrial.
Vernacular
Amargoso, Batatilla, Batato, Bejuco de cerca, Bejuco de salud, Bejuco huavo, Bejuco pitilla, Bejuco ratón, Guayacán, Masquiaunsabe, Oreja de ratón

[UPFC]
Use Animal Food
Used as animal food.
Use Environmental
Environmental uses.
Use Food
Used for food.
Use Materials
Used as material.
Use Medicines
Medical uses.
Use Poisons
Poisons.

Doubtfully present in:

Sudan

Native to:

Aldabra, Andaman Is., Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Aruba, Assam, Bahamas, Bangladesh, Belize, Bolivia, Borneo, Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, Cambodia, Cayman Is., China South-Central, China Southeast, Colombia, Comoros, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, East Himalaya, Ecuador, El Salvador, Ethiopia, Florida, French Guiana, Galápagos, Guatemala, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, India, Jamaica, Kenya, Laos, Leeward Is., Lesser Sunda Is., Madagascar, Maluku, Mauritius, Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Mozambique, Myanmar, Nepal, Netherlands Antilles, New Guinea, Nicaragua, Nicobar Is., Pakistan, Panamá, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Puerto Rico, Queensland, Rwanda, Réunion, Somalia, Southwest Caribbean, Sri Lanka, Sulawesi, Suriname, Taiwan, Tanzania, Thailand, Trinidad-Tobago, Uganda, Uruguay, Venezuela, Venezuelan Antilles, Vietnam, West Himalaya, Windward Is., Zimbabwe

Cissampelos pareira L. appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status Has image?
Jan 1, 2008 Mwachala, G. [1200], Kenya K000545189 No
Jan 1, 2008 Mwachala, G. [1199/A], Kenya K000545248 No
Dec 1, 2007 Phillips [141], Dominican Republic K000037372 No
Ash [388], Ethiopia 6049.325 No
Hayes, S. [186], Panama K000485725 Yes
Cuming, H. [1440], Philippines K000644750 syntype Yes
Silva, M.F. [2383], Brazil K001106756 Yes
Irwin, H.S. [22756], Brazil K001106785 Yes
Irwin, H.S. [10797], Brazil K001106789 Yes
Lewis, G.P. [1577], Brazil K001106754 Yes
Cuming, H. [1613], Philippines K000644749 Yes
Irwin, H.S. [9094], Brazil K001106779 Yes
Ramos, J. [83], Brazil K001106788 Yes
Prance, G.T. [8887], Brazil K001106791 Yes
Hartweg [445], Mexico K000485724 Yes
Harley, R.M. [CFCR6242], Brazil K001106751 Yes
Prance, G.T. [59490], Brazil K001106780 Yes
Archer, W.A. [7777], Brazil K001106761 Yes
Milliken, W. [334], Brazil K001106752 Yes
Harley, R.M. [10917], Brazil K001106782 Yes
Harley, R.M. [20530], Brazil K001106792 Yes
Meyen [s.n.], Philippines K000644752 Yes
Heringer, E.P. [5582], Brazil K001106790 Yes
Phillipp [691], Philippines K000644751 syntype Yes
Mexia, Y. [5281], Brazil K001106762 Yes
Harley, R.M. [24724], Brazil K001106753 Yes
Mexia, Y. [4410], Brazil K001106760 Yes
Agra, M.F. [1139], Brazil K001106757 Yes
Froes, R. [1731], Brazil K001106784 Yes
Irwin, H.S. [11350], Brazil K001106787 Yes
Dusén, P. [16309], Brazil K001106759 Yes
Ratter, J.A. [2329], Brazil K001106786 Yes
Ule, E. [8123], Brazil K001106763 Yes
Lindeman, J.C. [9474], Brazil K001106750 Yes
Harley, R.M. [25482], Brazil K001106758 Yes
Hamilton, W.D. [367], Brazil K001106749 Yes
Milliken, W. [207], Brazil K001106755 Yes
Ratter, J.A. [3708], Brazil K001106781 Yes
Macedo, A. [1178], Brazil K001106783 Yes
Burchell [6347], Brazil Cissampelos pareira var. gardneri K001106747 Yes
Heringer, E.P. [5507], Brazil Cissampelos pareira var. gardneri K001106748 Yes
Glaziou, A. [20189], Brazil Cissampelos pareira var. gardneri K001106746 Yes
Gardner [3002], Goiás Cissampelos pareira var. gardneri K000485720 Yes
Prance, G.T. [59466], Brazil Cissampelos pareira var. gardneri K001106745 Yes
Tweedie [1278], Brazil Cissampelos pareira var. australis K001106765 Yes
Tweedie [s.n.], Brazil Cissampelos pareira var. australis K001106770 Yes
Tweedie [s.n.] Cissampelos pareira var. australis K001106769 Yes
Mueller, F. [172], Brazil Cissampelos pareira var. australis K001106767 Yes
Mueller, F. [172], Brazil Cissampelos pareira var. australis K001106766 Yes
Tweedie [s.n.], Brazil Cissampelos pareira var. australis K001106768 Yes
s.coll. [Cat. no. 4982], India Cissampelos discolor K001104413 Yes
s.coll. [Cat. no. 4982], India Cissampelos discolor K001104414 Yes
s.coll. [Cat. no. 4982], India Cissampelos discolor K001104415 Yes
Jan 1, 1972 de Wilde, W. [7044], Ethiopia Cissampelos pareira var. wildei K000230176 isotype No
Tweedie [s.n.] Cissampelos pareira var. tamoides K001106764 Yes
s.coll. [Cat. no. 4979] Cissampelos convolvulacea K001104392 Yes
Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 4979], Nepal Cissampelos convolvulacea K001104396 Yes
s.coll. [Cat. no. 4979] Cissampelos convolvulacea K001104397 Yes
Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 4979], India Cissampelos convolvulacea K001104398 Yes
s.coll. [Cat. no. 4979] Cissampelos convolvulacea K001104401 Yes
s.coll. [Cat. no. 4979] Cissampelos convolvulacea K001104387 Yes
s.coll. [Cat. no. 4979] Cissampelos convolvulacea K001104391 Yes
s.coll. [Cat. no. 4979] Cissampelos convolvulacea K001104394 Yes
s.coll. [Cat. no. 4979], India Cissampelos convolvulacea K001104399 Yes
s.coll. [Cat. no. 4979] Cissampelos convolvulacea K001104393 Yes
s.coll. [Cat. no. 4979], India Cissampelos convolvulacea K001104388 Yes
s.coll. [Cat. no. 4979] Cissampelos convolvulacea K001104389 Yes
Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 4979], Nepal Cissampelos convolvulacea K001104395 Yes
Moorcroft, W. [Cat. no. 4979], India Cissampelos convolvulacea K001104390 Yes
s.coll. [Cat. no. 4979] Cissampelos convolvulacea K001104402 Yes
s.coll. [Cat. no. 4979], India Cissampelos convolvulacea K001104400 Yes
Porter, G. [Cat. no. 4980], Malaysia Cissampelos mauritiana K001104408 Yes
s.coll. [Cat. no. 4980], India Cissampelos mauritiana K001104403 Yes
s.coll. [Cat. no. 4980] Cissampelos mauritiana K001104405 Yes
s.coll. [Cat. no. 4980] Cissampelos mauritiana K001104404 Yes
Bruce, H. [Cat. no. 4980], Bangladesh Cissampelos mauritiana K001104406 Yes
Gomez, W. [Cat. no. 4980] Cissampelos mauritiana K001104407 Yes
Cardenas, M. [2015], Bolivia Cissampelos violifolia K000485703 Yes
De Silva, F. [Cat. no. 4981] Cissampelos obtecta K001104411 Yes
Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 4981], India Cissampelos obtecta K001104412 Yes
De Silva, F. [Cat. no. 4981] Cissampelos obtecta K001104410 Yes
Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 4981], Nepal Cissampelos obtecta K001104409 Yes
Glaziou, A. [12411], Brazil Cissampelos littoralis K001032308 Yes
Heringer, E.P. [2570], Brazil Cissampelos littoralis K001032309 Yes
s.coll. [1302], Brazil Cissampelos littoralis K001032306 Yes
s.coll. [1302], Brazil Cissampelos littoralis K001032305 Yes
Gardner [2475], Brazil Cissampelos littoralis K001032307 Yes
Glaziou, A. [12411], Brazil Cissampelos littoralis K001032304 Yes
s.coll. [12412], Rio de Janeiro Cissampelos littoralis K000485706 Yes

First published in Sp. Pl.: 1031 (1753)

Accepted by

  • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
  • Balick, M. J., M. H. Nee & D.E. Atha (2000). Checklist of the vascular plants of Belize Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden 85: 1-246.
  • Balkrishna, A. (2018). Flora of Morni Hills (Research & Possibilities): 1-581. Divya Yoga Mandir Trust.
  • Barthelat, F. (2019). La flore illustrée de Mayotte: 1-687. Biotope éditions.
  • Bosser, J., Cadet, T., Julien, H.R. & Marais, W. (eds.) (1980). Flore des Mascareignes 31-50: 1. IRD Éditions, MSIRI, RBG-Kew, Paris.
  • Boulvert, Y. (1977). Catalogue de la Flore de Centrafrique 2(1): 1-85. ORSTROM, Bangui.
  • Chou, S., Chhnang, P. & Kim, Y. (2016). A Checklist for the Seed Plants of Cambodia: 1-272. National Institute of Biological Resources, Korea.
  • Cirilo, N. & Proctor, G.R. (1994). Vascular plants of the Caribbean Swan islands of Honduras Brenesia 41-42: 73-80.
  • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Edwards, S., Tadesse, M., Demissew, S. & Hedberg, I. (eds.) (2000). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 2(1): 1-532. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
  • Flora of North America Editorial Committee (1997). Flora of North America North of Mexico 3: 1-590. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.
  • Garcia-Mendoza, A.J. & Meave, J.A. (eds.) (2012). Diversidad florística de Oaxaca: de musgos a angiospermas (colecciones y listas de especies), ed. 2: 1-351. Instituto de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México.
  • Govaerts, R. (1999). World Checklist of Seed Plants 3(1, 2a & 2b): 1-1532. MIM, Deurne.
  • Hara, H., Stearn, W.T. & Williams, H.J. (1979). An Enumeration of the Flowering Plants of Nepal 2: 1-220. Trustees of British Museum, London.
  • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
  • Ibarra-Manríquez, G. & al. (2015). Lianas of Mexico Botanical Sciences 93: 365-417.
  • Idárraga-Piedrahita, A., Ortiz, R.D.C., Callejas Posada, R. & Merello, M. (eds.) (2011). Flora de Antioquia: Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares 2: 1-939. Universidad de Antioquia, Medellín.
  • Jaramillo Díaz, P. & Guézou, A. (2017). CDF Checklist of Galapagos Vascular Plants - FCD Lista de especies de Plantas Vasculares de Galápagos http://www.darwinfoundation.org/datazone/checklists/vascular-plants/.
  • Kress, W.J., DeFilipps, R.A., Farr, E. & Kyi, D.Y.Y. (2003). A Checklist of the Trees, Shrubs, Herbs and Climbers of Myanmar Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 45: 1-590. Smithsonian Institution.
  • Kumar, S. (2012). Herbaceous flora of Jaunsar-Bawar (Uttarkhand), India: enumerations Phytotaxonomy 12: 33-56.
  • Lê, T.C. (2003). Danh l?c các loài th?c v?t Vi?t Nam 2: 1-1203. Hà N?i : Nhà xu?t b?n Nông nghi?p.
  • Monro, A.K., González, F., Santamaría, D., Chacón, O., Rodríguez, A., Solano, D. Zamora, N. & Correa, M. (2011). A first checklist to the vascular plants of La Amistad International Park (PILA), Costa Rica-Panama Phytotaxa 322: 1-283.
  • Nasir, E. & Ali, S.I. (eds.) (1970-1995). Flora of West Pakistan 1-131.
  • Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008). Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas: 1-1576. SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.
  • Newman, M., Ketphanh, S., Svengsuksa, B., Thomas, P., Sengdala, K., Lamxay, V. & Armstrong, K. (2007). A checklist of the vascular plants of Lao PDR: 1-394. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
  • Sant'Ana Melhem, T., das Graças Lapa Wanderley, M., Ehlin Martins, S., Jung-Mendaçolli, S.L., Shepherd, G.J. & Kirizawa, M. (eds.) (2007). Flora Fanerogâmica do Estado de São Paulo 5: 1-476. Instituto de Botânica, São Paulo.
  • Thulin, M. (ed.) (1993). Flora of Somalia 1: 1-493. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Van Steenis, C.G.G.J. & De Wilde, W.J.J.O. (eds.) (1984-1989). Flora Malesiana 10: 1-748. Noordhoff-Kolff N.V., Djakarta.
  • Villaseñor, J.L. (2016). Checklist of the native vascular plants of Mexico Revista Mexicana de Biodiversidad 87: 559-902.
  • Wilson, A.J.G. (ed.) (2007). Flora of Australia 2: 1-486. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
  • Wiriadinata, H., Girmansyah, D., Hunter, J.M., Hoover, W.S. & Kartawinata, K. (2013). Floristic study of West Sumbawa, Indonesia Reinwardtia 13: 391-404.
  • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (2008). Flora of China 7: 1-499. Science Press (Beijing) & Missouri Botanical Garden Press (St. Louis).

Literature

Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia

  • Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

Kew Backbone Distributions

  • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
  • Balick, M. J., M. H. Nee & D.E. Atha (2000). Checklist of the vascular plants of Belize Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden 85: 1-246.
  • Barthelat, F. (2019). La flore illustrée de Mayotte: 1-687. Biotope éditions.
  • Bosser, J., Cadet, T., Julien, H.R. & Marais, W. (eds.) (1980). Flore des Mascareignes 31-50: 1. IRD Éditions, MSIRI, RBG-Kew, Paris.
  • Chou, S., Chhnang, P. & Kim, Y. (2016). A Checklist for the Seed Plants of Cambodia: 1-272. National Institute of Biological Resources, Korea.
  • Cirilo, N. & Proctor, G.R. (1994). Vascular plants of the Caribbean Swan islands of Honduras Brenesia 41-42: 73-80.
  • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Hara, H., Stearn, W.T. & Williams, H.J. (1979). An Enumeration of the Flowering Plants of Nepal 2: 1-220. Trustees of British Museum, London.
  • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
  • Jaramillo Díaz, P. & Guézou, A. (2017). CDF Checklist of Galapagos Vascular Plants - FCD Lista de especies de Plantas Vasculares de Galápagos http://www.darwinfoundation.org/datazone/checklists/vascular-plants/.
  • Lê, T.C. (2003). Danh l?c các loài th?c v?t Vi?t Nam 2: 1-1203. Hà N?i : Nhà xu?t b?n Nông nghi?p.
  • Pandey, R.P. & Dilwakar, P.G. (2008). An integrated check-list flora of Andaman and Nicobar islands, India Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 32: 403-500.
  • Thulin, M. (ed.) (1993). Flora of Somalia 1: 1-493. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Troupin, G. (1956). Flora of Tropical East Africa, Menispermaceae: 1-32.
  • Wilson, A.J.G. (ed.) (2007). Flora of Australia 2: 1-486. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
  • Wiriadinata, H., Girmansyah, D., Hunter, J.M., Hoover, W.S. & Kartawinata, K. (2013). Floristic study of West Sumbawa, Indonesia Reinwardtia 13: 391-404.
  • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (2008). Flora of China 7: 1-499. Science Press (Beijing) & Missouri Botanical Garden Press (St. Louis).

Flora of Somalia

  • Flora Somalia, Vol 1, (1993) Author: by M. Thulin [updated by M. Thulin 2008]

Useful Plants and Fungi of Colombia

  • Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R., & Celis, M. (eds.). (2020). Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia. v1.1. Universidad Nacional de Colombia. Dataset/Checklist. https://doi.org/10.15472/7avdhn
  • Diazgranados et al. (2021). Catalogue of plants of Colombia. Useful Plants and Fungi of Colombia project. In prep.
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  • Jansen, P., Lemmens, R., Oyen, L., Siemonsma, J., Stavast, F. & Van Valkenburg, J. (1991) Plant Resources of South-East Asia. Basic list of species and commodity grouping. Final version. Pudoc, Wageningen.
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  • PROTA (2021). Plants Resources of Tropical Africa. https://prota4u.org/database/
  • Plants for malaria, plants for fever: Medicinal species in Latin America, a bibliographic survey: Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • RBG, Kew (2021). Kew Economic Botany Collection. https://ecbot.science.kew.org/
  • RBG, Kew (ed.) (1999). Survey of Economic Plants for Arid and Semi-Arid Lands (SEPASAL) database. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, London.
  • Ulian, T., Sacandé, M., Hudson, A., & Mattana, E. (2017). Conservation of indigenous plants to support community livelihoods: the MGU–Useful Plants Project. Journal of Environmental Planning and Management 60:668-683.
  • Willis, K.J. (ed.) (2017). State of the World’s Plants 2017. Report. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

  • Art and Illustrations in Digifolia

    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew

  • Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia

    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • Colombian resources for Plants made Accessible

    ColPlantA 2021. Published on the Internet at http://colplanta.org
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

  • Flora Zambesiaca

    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • Flora of Somalia

    Flora of Somalia
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • Herbarium Catalogue Specimens

    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

  • Kew Backbone Distributions

    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2022. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

  • Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone

    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2022. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

  • Kew Science Photographs

    Copyright applied to individual images

  • Neotropikey

    Milliken, W., Klitgard, B. and Baracat, A. (2009 onwards), Neotropikey - Interactive key and information resources for flowering plants of the Neotropics.
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

  • Universidad Nacional de Colombia

    ColPlantA database
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • Useful Plants and Fungi of Colombia

    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0