Family:
Myrtaceae Juss.

Syzygium cumini (L.) Skeels

This species is accepted, and its native range is Tropical & Subtropical Asia to N. Queensland. It is used as a medicine and invertebrate food, has environmental uses and social uses and for fuel and food.

[FZ]

Myrtaceae, F. White. Flora Zambesiaca 4. 1978

Morphology General Habit
Evergreen tree 6–15 m. tall.
Morphology General Bark
Bark rough, dark.
Morphology Leaves
Leaf-lamina up to 13 x 5 cm., elliptic or oblanceolate-elliptic, apex subacuminate or shortly acuminate, base cuneate.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescence a lateral, lax panicle, mostly borne in the axils of fallen leaves on older stems, very rarely also axillary or terminal.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Receptacle
Receptacle (including pseudopedicel) + calyx c. 0·5 cm. long; calyx + upper receptacle 0·2 cm. long; filaments 0·5–0·6 cm. long.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruit up to 2·4 x 2 cm., ellipsoid or subglobose.

[UPFC]
Distribution
Biogeografic region: Andean, Caribbean. Elevation range: 150–2430 m a.s.l. Cultivated in Colombia. Colombian departments: Cesar, Cundinamarca, Valle del Cauca.
Habit
Tree.
Conservation
IUCN Red List Assessment (2021): LC.
Ecology
Habitat according IUCN Habitats Classification: forest and woodland, savanna, shrubland, wetlands (inland), artificial - terrestrial.
Vernacular
Aceituno dulce

[CPLC]

Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

Distribution
Cultivada en Colombia; Alt. 150 - 2430 m.; Andes, Llanura del Caribe, Valle del Cauca.
Morphology General Habit
Árbol

[UNAL]

Bernal, R., G. Galeano, A. Rodríguez, H. Sarmiento y M. Gutiérrez. 2017. Nombres Comunes de las Plantas de Colombia. http://www.biovirtual.unal.edu.co/nombrescomunes/

Vernacular
aceituno, aceituno dulce, jambolán, pomarroso, uva, uvito, yambolán

[FTEA]

Myrtaceae, B. Verdcourt, B.Sc., Ph.D. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 2001

Morphology General Habit
Glabrous evergreen tree or large shrub, 6–25 m tall with spreading crown; outer bark pale yellow brown, white or grey, densely thinly flaky (described as rough or smooth); inner bark rough, thick and fibrous.
Morphology Leaves
Leaves shiny, mostly very regularly oblong-elliptic but can be elliptic, oblanceolate-elliptic or ovate-lanceolate, 6–17(–20) cm long, 2.5–8.5 cm wide, acuminate to a rounded tip which is often down-curved, cuneate at the base; ± coriaceous; main lateral nerves numerous and close, ± 40; petiole 0.8–2 cm long.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Cymes terminal and axillary, or mostly lateral borne in the axils of fallen leaves on older stems, about 10 cm long; flowers drying pale orange-brown.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx often drying orange-brown, obconic, 4–5 mm long, 3–4 mm wide, very obscurely 4(–5)-lobed, practically truncate, rim orange.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Petals white, elliptic, 4 mm long, 3 mm wide.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Stamens white, 4–6 mm long with very slender filaments.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Style
Style 5–6 mm long.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruits dark purple-red, broadly ellipsoid, oblong or subglobose, often somewhat curved, 2.4–3.5(–5) cm long, 2 cm wide (2x1 cm dry), crowned by 2 mm diameter calyx-rim, 1-seeded (rarely 2–5-seeded or seedless in some varieties); pulp white, acid.
Habitat
Native plots, plantation edges, seashore and coastal bush and savanas on coral rock, more or less naturalised in some coastal areas; 0–1650 m
Distribution
K4 K7 P T1 T2 T3 T4 T6 U4 Z India, Sri Lanka to S China, Malesia and Pacificcultivated throughout tropics and often naturalised

[UPFC]
Use Environmental
Environmental uses.
Use Fuel
Used for fuels.
Use Gene Sources
Used as gene sources.
Use Food
Used for food.
Use Invertebrate Food
Used as invertebrate food.
Use Materials
Used as material.
Use Medicines
Medical uses.
Use Social
Social uses.

Native to:

Andaman Is., Assam, Bangladesh, Cambodia, China South-Central, China Southeast, East Himalaya, Hainan, India, Jawa, Laccadive Is., Laos, Lesser Sunda Is., Malaya, Maluku, Myanmar, Nepal, Pakistan, Queensland, Sri Lanka, Sulawesi, Thailand, Vietnam

Introduced into:

Belize, Bolivia, Caroline Is., Comoros, Cook Is., Cuba, Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Fiji, Florida, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Haiti, Hawaii, Honduras, Kenya, Leeward Is., Marianas, Marquesas, New Caledonia, Panamá, Philippines, Society Is., Tanzania, Trinidad-Tobago, Tuamotu, Uganda, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Venezuelan Antilles, Windward Is.

Syzygium cumini (L.) Skeels appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
Feb 1, 2009 Monyrak [103], Cambodia K000565232
May 1, 2008 Hamilton, M.A. et al. [MH 306], Montserrat K000566950
May 1, 2008 Hamilton [MH 318], Montserrat K000566951
May 1, 2008 Hamilton, M.A. [318], Montserrat 65315.000
May 9, 2005 Wood [16460], Bolivia K000261581
Harrison, S.G. [1788], Guyana 14464.000
Faulkner, H. [2752], Tanzania 33311.000
Pennington, T.D. [17080], Peru 73405.000
Mueller-Dombois, D. [68091108], Sri Lanka K000276779
Roxburgh, R. [s.n.], India K000821369
s.coll. [21], India K000821372
Roxburgh, W. [s.n.], India K000821373
Welch, J.R. [261], Tanzania K000684211
Roxburgh, R. [s.n.], India K000821370
s.coll. [s.n.], Lesser Sunda Is. K000800143
Worthington, T.B. [6407], Sri Lanka K000276778
Dorr, L.J. [3258], Madagascar K000383233
s.coll. [17], India K000821374
Roxburgh, W. [s.n.], India K000821376
s.coll. [s.n.], Jawa K000800141
Wallich, N. [3562], India K000821378
Harmann [s.n.], India K000821371
s.coll. [s.n.], Jawa K000800142
Wallich, N. [3562], India K000821377
Tso, C.L. [23006], Hainan K000793873 isotype
s.coll. [s.n.], India K000821375
Barthelat, F. [617], Mayotte Eugenia cumini K001001443
Barthelat, F. [718], Mayotte Eugenia cumini K001001442
Bruce, H. [Cat. no. 3552], Bangladesh Syzygium obovatum K001119702
De Silva, F. [Cat. no. 3552] Syzygium obovatum K001119701
Ekman, E.L. [H3984], Haiti Eugenia odorata K001002606
Ekman, E.L. [H10705], Haiti Eugenia odorata K001002604
Leonard, E.C. [15027], Haiti Eugenia odorata K001002607
Ekman, E.L. [8633], Haiti Eugenia odorata K001002605
s.coll. [Cat. no. 3562] Syzygium caryophyllifolium K001119728
s.coll. [Cat. no. 3562] Syzygium caryophyllifolium K001119730
s.coll. [Cat. no. 3562] Syzygium caryophyllifolium K001119725
Noton, E. [Cat. no. 3562], India Syzygium caryophyllifolium K001119727
s.coll. [Cat. no. 3562] Syzygium caryophyllifolium K001119729
s.coll. [Cat. no. 3562] Syzygium caryophyllifolium K001119726
s.coll. [Cat. no. 3559] Syzygium fruticosum K001119713
Roxburgh, R. [s.n.], India Syzygium fruticosum K000821368
Bruce, H. [Cat. no. 3559], Bangladesh Syzygium fruticosum K001119715
s.coll. [Cat. no. 3559] Syzygium fruticosum K001119716
s.coll. [Cat. no. 3559] Syzygium fruticosum K001119712
De Silva, F. [Cat. no. 3559] Syzygium fruticosum K001119714
s.coll. [Cat. no. 3570], India Syzygium tenue K001119752
s.coll. [Cat. no. 3560] Syzygium jambolanum K001119717
Blinkworth, R. [Cat. no. 3560], India Syzygium jambolanum K001119719
s.coll. [Cat. no. 3560], India Syzygium jambolanum K001119721
s.coll. [Cat. no. 3560] Syzygium jambolanum K001119722
De Silva, F. [Cat. no. 3560] Syzygium jambolanum K001119718
Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 3560], Nepal Syzygium jambolanum K001119723
s.coll. [Cat. no. 3560], India Syzygium jambolanum K001119720

First published in Bull. Bur. Pl. Industr. U.S.D.A. 248: 25 (1912)

Accepted by

  • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
  • Baksh-Comeau, Y., Maharaj, S.S., Adams, C.D., Harris, S.A., Filer, D.L. & Hawthorne, W.D. (2016). An annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Trinidad and Tobago with analysis of vegetation types and botanical 'hotspots' Phytotaxa 250: 1-431.
  • Balkrishna, A. (2018). Flora of Morni Hills (Research & Possibilities): 1-581. Divya Yoga Mandir Trust.
  • Berendsohn, W.G., Gruber, A.K. & Monterrosa Salomón, J. (2012). Nova Silva Cusatlantica. Árboles natinos e introducidos de El Salvador. Parte 2: Angiospermae - Familias M a P y Pteridophyta Englera 29-2: 1-300.
  • Byng, J.W. & al. (2016). Revision of Eugenia and Syzygium (Myrtaceae) from the Comoro archipelago Phytotaxa 252: 162-184.
  • Catarino, L., Sampaio Martins, E., Pinto-Basto, M.F. & Diniz, M.A. (2006). Plantas Vasculares e Briófitos da Guiné-Bissau: 1-298. Instituto de investigação científica tropical, Instituto Português de apoio ao desenvolvimento.
  • Davidse, G. & al. (eds.) (2009). Flora Mesoamericana 4(1): 1-855. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México, D.F.
  • Fischer, E., Rembold, K., Althof, A. & Obholzer, J. (2010). Annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Kakamega forest, Western province, Kenya Journal of East African Natural History 99: 129-226.
  • Govaerts, R. (2003). World Checklist of Selected Plant Families Database in ACCESS: 1-216203. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Govaerts, R., Sobral, N., Ashton, P., Barrie, F., Holst, B.K., Landrum, L.L., Matsumoto, K., Fernanda Mazine, F., Nic Lughadha, E., Proença, C. & al. (2008). World Checklist of Myrtaceae: 1-455. Kew Publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
  • Jørgensen, P.M., Nee, M.H. & Beck., S.G. (eds.) (2013). Catálogo de las plantas vasculares de Bolivia Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 127: 1-1741. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • Leti, M., Hul, S., Fouché, J.-G., Cheng, S.K. & David, B. (2013). Flore photographique du Cambodge: 1-589. Éditions Privat, Toulouse.
  • MacKee, H.S. (1994). Catalogue des plantes introduites et cultivées en Nouvelle-Calédonie, ed. 2: 1-164. Museum national d'histoire naturelle, Paris.
  • Soh, W.K. & Parnell, J. (2015). A revision of Syzygium Gaertn. (Myrtaceae) in Indochina (Cambodia, Laos and Vietnam) Adansonia, sér. 3, 37: 179-275.
  • Sykes, W.R. (2016). Flora of the Cook Islands: 1-973. National Tropical Botanical Garden, Hawaii.
  • Tuiwawa, S.H., Craven, L.A., Sam, C. & Crisp, M.D. (2013). The genus Syzygium (Myrtaceae) in Vanuatu Blumea 58: 53-67.
  • Welsh, S.L. (1998). Flora Societensis: 1-420. E.P.S. Inc. Utah.
  • Wu, Z., Raven, P.H. & Hong, D. (eds.) (2007). Flora of China 13: 1-548. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.

Literature

Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia

  • Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

Kew Backbone Distributions

  • (2019). https://www.mapress.com/j/pt/article/view/phytotaxa.427.2.2/38099 epublication.
  • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
  • Ananda Rao, T. & Ellis, J.L. (1995). Flora of Lakshadweep islands off the Malabar coast, peninsular India, with emphasis on phytogeographical distribution of plants Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 19: 235-250.
  • Baksh-Comeau, Y., Maharaj, S.S., Adams, C.D., Harris, S.A., Filer, D.L. & Hawthorne, W.D. (2016). An annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Trinidad and Tobago with analysis of vegetation types and botanical 'hotspots' Phytotaxa 250: 1-431.
  • Berendsohn, W.G., Gruber, A.K. & Monterrosa Salomón, J. (2012). Nova Silva Cusatlantica. Árboles natinos e introducidos de El Salvador. Parte 2: Angiospermae - Familias M a P y Pteridophyta Englera 29-2: 1-300.
  • Byng, J.W. & al. (2016). Revision of Eugenia and Syzygium (Myrtaceae) from the Comoro archipelago Phytotaxa 252: 162-184.
  • Catarino, L., Sampaio Martins, E., Pinto-Basto, M.F. & Diniz, M.A. (2006). Plantas Vasculares e Briófitos da Guiné-Bissau: 1-298. Instituto de investigação científica tropical, Instituto Português de apoio ao desenvolvimento.
  • Davidse, G. & al. (eds.) (2009). Flora Mesoamericana 4(1): 1-855. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México, D.F.
  • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
  • Holst, B.K. (2008). Personal communication on Myratceae 8 SEL.
  • Jørgensen, P.M., Nee, M.H. & Beck., S.G. (eds.) (2013). Catálogo de las plantas vasculares de Bolivia Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 127: 1-1741. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • Leti, M., Hul, S., Fouché, J.-G., Cheng, S.K. & David, B. (2013). Flore photographique du Cambodge: 1-589. Éditions Privat, Toulouse.
  • Lisowski, S. (2009). Flore (Angiospermes) de la République de Guinée Scripta Botanica Belgica 41: 1-517.
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  • Sykes, W.R. (2016). Flora of the Cook Islands: 1-973. National Tropical Botanical Garden, Hawaii.
  • Tuiwawa, S.H., Craven, L.A., Sam, C. & Crisp, M.D. (2013). The genus Syzygium (Myrtaceae) in Vanuatu Blumea 58: 53-67.
  • Welsh, S.L. (1998). Flora Societensis: 1-420. E.P.S. Inc. Utah.
  • Wiriadinata, H., Girmansyah, D., Hunter, J.M., Hoover, W.S. & Kartawinata, K. (2013). Floristic study of West Sumbawa, Indonesia Reinwardtia 13: 391-404.

Flora of Tropical East Africa

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Useful Plants and Fungi of Colombia

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  • Art and Illustrations in Digifolia

    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew

  • Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia

    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • Colombian resources for Plants made Accessible

    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

  • Flora Zambesiaca

    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • Flora of Tropical East Africa

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • Herbarium Catalogue Specimens

    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

  • Kew Backbone Distributions

    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2022. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

  • Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone

    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2022. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

  • Kew Science Photographs

    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

  • Universidad Nacional de Colombia

    ColPlantA database
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • Useful Plants and Fungi of Colombia

    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0