Syzygium cumini (L.) Skeels

First published in Bull. Bur. Pl. Industr. U.S.D.A. 248: 25 (1912)
This species is accepted
The native range of this species is Tropical & Subtropical Asia to N. Queensland. It is a tree and grows primarily in the wet tropical biome. It is has environmental uses and social uses, as a medicine and invertebrate food and for fuel and food.

Descriptions

IUCN Red List of Threatened Species https://www.iucnredlist.org/species/49487196/145821979

Conservation
LC - least concern
[IUCN]

Myrtaceae, F. White. Flora Zambesiaca 4. 1978

Morphology General Habit
Evergreen tree 6–15 m. tall.
Morphology General Bark
Bark rough, dark.
Morphology Leaves
Leaf-lamina up to 13 x 5 cm., elliptic or oblanceolate-elliptic, apex subacuminate or shortly acuminate, base cuneate.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescence a lateral, lax panicle, mostly borne in the axils of fallen leaves on older stems, very rarely also axillary or terminal.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Receptacle
Receptacle (including pseudopedicel) + calyx c. 0·5 cm. long; calyx + upper receptacle 0·2 cm. long; filaments 0·5–0·6 cm. long.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruit up to 2·4 x 2 cm., ellipsoid or subglobose.
[FZ]

Distribution
Biogeografic region: Andean, Caribbean. Elevation range: 150–2430 m a.s.l. Cultivated in Colombia. Colombian departments: Cesar, Cundinamarca, Valle del Cauca.
Habit
Tree.
Conservation
IUCN Red List Assessment (2021): LC.
Ecology
Habitat according IUCN Habitats Classification: forest and woodland, savanna, shrubland, wetlands (inland), artificial - terrestrial.
Vernacular
Aceituno dulce
[UPFC]

Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

Distribution
Cultivada en Colombia; Alt. 150 - 2430 m.; Andes, Llanura del Caribe, Valle del Cauca.
Morphology General Habit
Árbol
[CPLC]

Extinction risk predictions for the world's flowering plants to support their conservation (2024). Bachman, S.P., Brown, M.J.M., Leão, T.C.C., Lughadha, E.N., Walker, B.E. https://nph.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1111/nph.19592

Conservation
Predicted extinction risk: not threatened. Confidence: confident
[AERP]

Bernal, R., G. Galeano, A. Rodríguez, H. Sarmiento y M. Gutiérrez. 2017. Nombres Comunes de las Plantas de Colombia. http://www.biovirtual.unal.edu.co/nombrescomunes/

Vernacular
aceituno, aceituno dulce, jambolán, pomarroso, uva, uvito, yambolán
[UNAL]

Myrtaceae, B. Verdcourt, B.Sc., Ph.D. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 2001

Morphology General Habit
Glabrous evergreen tree or large shrub, 6–25 m tall with spreading crown; outer bark pale yellow brown, white or grey, densely thinly flaky (described as rough or smooth); inner bark rough, thick and fibrous.
Morphology Leaves
Leaves shiny, mostly very regularly oblong-elliptic but can be elliptic, oblanceolate-elliptic or ovate-lanceolate, 6–17(–20) cm long, 2.5–8.5 cm wide, acuminate to a rounded tip which is often down-curved, cuneate at the base; ± coriaceous; main lateral nerves numerous and close, ± 40; petiole 0.8–2 cm long.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Cymes terminal and axillary, or mostly lateral borne in the axils of fallen leaves on older stems, about 10 cm long; flowers drying pale orange-brown.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx often drying orange-brown, obconic, 4–5 mm long, 3–4 mm wide, very obscurely 4(–5)-lobed, practically truncate, rim orange.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Petals white, elliptic, 4 mm long, 3 mm wide.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Stamens white, 4–6 mm long with very slender filaments.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Style
Style 5–6 mm long.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruits dark purple-red, broadly ellipsoid, oblong or subglobose, often somewhat curved, 2.4–3.5(–5) cm long, 2 cm wide (2x1 cm dry), crowned by 2 mm diameter calyx-rim, 1-seeded (rarely 2–5-seeded or seedless in some varieties); pulp white, acid.
Habitat
Native plots, plantation edges, seashore and coastal bush and savanas on coral rock, more or less naturalised in some coastal areas; 0–1650 m
Distribution
K4 K7 P T1 T2 T3 T4 T6 U4 Z India, Sri Lanka to S China, Malesia and Pacificcultivated throughout tropics and often naturalised
[FTEA]

Uses

Use Environmental
Environmental uses.
Use Fuel
Used for fuels.
Use Gene Sources
Used as gene sources.
Use Food
Used for food.
Use Invertebrate Food
Used as invertebrate food.
Use Materials
Used as material.
Use Medicines
Medical uses.
Use Social
Social uses.
[UPFC]

Common Names

English
Jambolan, Java Plum

Sources

  • Angiosperm Extinction Risk Predictions v1

    • Angiosperm Threat Predictions
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0
  • Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia

    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
  • Flora Zambesiaca

    • Flora Zambesiaca
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
  • Flora of Tropical East Africa

    • Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
  • Herbarium Catalogue Specimens

    • Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/
  • IUCN Categories

    • IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
  • Kew Backbone Distributions

    • The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Vascular Plants 2024. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and https://powo.science.kew.org/
    • © Copyright 2023 World Checklist of Vascular Plants. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0
  • Kew Living Collection Database

    • Common Names from Plants and People Africa http://www.plantsandpeopleafrica.com/
  • Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone

    • The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Vascular Plants 2024. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and https://powo.science.kew.org/
    • © Copyright 2023 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Vascular Plants. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0
  • Kew Science Photographs

    • Copyright applied to individual images
  • Universidad Nacional de Colombia

    • ColPlantA database
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
  • Useful Plants and Fungi of Colombia

    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0