Potamogeton nodosus Poir.

This species is accepted, and its native range is Cosmopolitan.

[FTEA]

Potamogetonaceae, J.J. Symoens. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 2006

Morphology General Habit
Aquatic herb with submerged and floating leaves.
Vegetative Multiplication Rhizomes
Rhizomes robust, long-creeping, biennial or perennial, much-branched, producing apical fusiform turions.
Morphology Leaves
Submerged leaves pale green when fresh and green or brownish green when dried, petiolate, lanceolate to oblong-lanceolate, often absent after fructification; petiole (20– )30– 150 mm long; lamina 50– 280 mm long, 10– 38(– 50) mm wide, translucent, 11– 21-veined, finely denticulate, at least when young, gradually tapering to a cuneate base and an acute apex; floating leaves bright green, petiolate; petiole (30– )100– 210 mm, mostly longer than lamina, ± brown-reddish; lamina lanceolate-elliptical or oblong-elliptical to broadly elliptical or obovate, (40– )50– 150 mm long, 20– 50(– 60) mm wide, 11– 23-veined, opaque but sometimes only slightly leathered, cuneate or ± rounded at base, not discoloured and without folds at its base, apex acute to slightly obtuse; stipules axillary, open, convolute and enfolding the stem, 20– 60(– 125) mm, with 2 veins more prominent than the others and forming dorsal ridges.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Peduncles 40– 130 mm, not or slightly thickened above; spikes cylindrical, 14– 50 mm long, 4– 10 mm wide, with up to 15 contiguous flower whorls.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers numerous, tepals 0.2– 0.3 mm long, suborbicular, carpels (3– )4.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruitlets brown or reddish brown, 2.7– 4 mm long, ventrally nearly straight, dorsal keel sharp, the lateral rather prominent, beak 0.3– 0.5(– 0.8) mm long, straight or slightly recurved.
Morphology Stem
Stem anatomy:stele of trio or proto type, endodermis of O-type, interlacunar bundles absent, subepidemal bundles absent, peudohypodermis absent. Stem short-lived or annual, slender to robust, terete, to 2.5 m long, unbranched or sparingly branched.
Habitat
Shallow parts of lakes, ponds, pans, pools, swamps, also in rivers, often in muddy soil; water depth 1.5– 2 m; sometimes in extensive colonies, associated with Nymphaea caerulea, N. indica, etc.; ± 750 m
Distribution
T4 T8 widely distributed in AfricaNorth Africa (from Morocco to Egypt, including Saharan oases)also in Macaronesia, Socotra, Seychelles and Mascarene Islands, Europe, southwestern, central and tropical Asia to Indonesia, Philippines and New Guinea, North and central America

Native to:

Afghanistan, Albania, Alberta, Algeria, Amur, Andaman Is., Angola, Arizona, Arkansas, Assam, Austria, Azores, Bahamas, Baleares, Baltic States, Bangladesh, Belarus, Belgium, Botswana, Brazil North, British Columbia, Bulgaria, California, Cambodia, Canary Is., Cape Provinces, Caprivi Strip, Central European Rus, Chad, China North-Central, China South-Central, Chita, Colorado, Comoros, Connecticut, Corse, Cuba, Cyprus, Czechoslovakia, Delaware, District of Columbia, Dominican Republic, East Aegean Is., East European Russia, East Himalaya, Egypt, Ethiopia, Florida, France, Free State, Georgia, Germany, Great Britain, Greece, Guatemala, Gulf of Guinea Is., Gulf States, Haiti, Hawaii, Hungary, Idaho, Illinois, India, Indiana, Iowa, Iran, Iraq, Italy, Jamaica, Jawa, Kansas, Kazakhstan, Kentucky, Khabarovsk, Kriti, Krym, KwaZulu-Natal, Lebanon-Syria, Leeward Is., Lesotho, Lesser Sunda Is., Libya, Louisiana, Madagascar, Madeira, Maine, Marianas, Marion-Prince Edward, Maryland, Massachusetts, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexican Pacific Is., Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Montana, Morocco, Myanmar, Namibia, Nebraska, Nepal, Netherlands, Nevada, New Brunswick, New Caledonia, New Guinea, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, Niger, North Carolina, North Caucasus, North Dakota, North European Russi, Northern Provinces, Northern Territory, Northwest European R, Ohio, Oklahoma, Oman, Ontario, Oregon, Pakistan, Palestine, Panamá, Pennsylvania, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Primorye, Puerto Rico, Québec, Rhode I., Romania, Réunion, Sardegna, Saskatchewan, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Seychelles, Sicilia, Sinai, Socotra, South Carolina, South Dakota, South European Russi, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Sulawesi, Sumatera, Switzerland, Tadzhikistan, Taiwan, Tanzania, Tennessee, Texas, Thailand, Transcaucasus, Trinidad-Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkey-in-Europe, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, Utah, Uzbekistan, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Vermont, Vietnam, Virginia, Washington, West Himalaya, West Virginia, Western Australia, Windward Is., Wisconsin, Wyoming, Xinjiang, Yemen, Yugoslavia, Zambia, Zimbabwe

Potamogeton nodosus Poir. appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
Jan 1, 2012 Heath [1716], Botswana K000524427
Feb 1, 2004 Cheek, M. [9158], Cameroon K000198655
Feb 1, 2002 Gosline, G. [186], Cameroon K000025715
Jan 1, 2002 Hill, C.J. [8216], Illinois K000099526 lectotype
Jan 1, 1960 Pringle, C.G. [1390], Chihuahua K000574286
Jan 1, 1950 s.coll. [275], Martinique K000574281 syntype
Jan 1, 1950 Rovirosa, J.N. [667], Tabasco K000574287
Jan 1, 1950 Sintenis, P. [2537], Puerto Rico K000574282 isotype
Jan 1, 1950 Will [470], Jamaica K000574284 lectotype
Sintenis, P. [2537], Puerto Rico K000574283 Unknown type material
Uotila, P. [19333], Iran K000283560
Tuckerman, E. [s.n.], USA K000203536
Tuckerman, E. [s.n.], USA K000203535
Hepper, F.N. [4605], Sri Lanka Potamogeton indicus 40986.000
Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 5175], India Potamogeton indicus K001120054
Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 5175], Myanmar Potamogeton indicus K001120055
s.coll. [Cat. no. 5175] Potamogeton indicus K001120051
s.coll. [Cat. no. 5175] Potamogeton indicus K001120056
s.coll. [Cat. no. 5175], India Potamogeton indicus K001120052
s.coll. [Cat. no. 5175] Potamogeton indicus K001120053
Feb 10, 2016 Pleyte [180] Potamogeton malaianus K001045604
Feb 10, 2016 Schodde, R. [2318], Papua New Guinea Potamogeton malaianus K001045616

First published in J.B.A.M.de Lamarck, Encycl., Suppl. 4: 535 (1816)

Accepted by

  • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2005). Monocotyledons and Gymnosperms of Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 52: 1-415.
  • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
  • Ackerfield, J. (2015). Flora of Colorado: 1-818. BRIT Press.
  • Adams, C.D. (1972). Flowering Plants of Jamaica: 1-848. University of the West Indies, Mona.
  • Ahmed, Z.U. (ed.) (2008). Encyclopedia of Flora and Fauna of Bangladesh 12: 1-505. Asiatic Society of Bangladesh.
  • Andrews, F.W. (1956). The Flowering Plants of the Sudan 3: 1-579. T.Buncle & co., LTD., Arbroath, Scotland.
  • Bailey, C. & al. (2015). Guide to the Vascular Plants of Tennessee: 1-813. University of Tennessee press.
  • Barry, J. P. & Celles, J.S. (1991). Flore de Mauritanie 2: 360-550. Centre Regional de Documentation Pedagogique, Nice.
  • Barthelat, F. (2019). La flore illustrée de Mayotte: 1-687. Biotope éditions.
  • Boulos, L. (1995). Flora of Egypt Checklist: i-xii, 1-287. Al Hadara Publishing, Cairo.
  • Boulos, L. (2005). Flora of Egypt 4: 1-617. Al Hadara Publishing, Cairo.
  • Brundu, G. & Camarda, I. (2013). The Flora of Chad: a checklist and brief analysis PhytoKeys 23: 1-18.
  • Castroviejo, S. & al. (eds.) (2010). Flora Iberica 17: 1-298. Real Jardín Botánico, CSIC, Madrid.
  • Chang, C.S., Kim, H. & Chang, K.S. (2014). Provisional checklist of vascular plants for the Korea peninsula flora (KPF): 1-660. DESIGNPOST.
  • Chaudhary, S.A. (2001). Flora of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia 3: 1-368. Ministry of Agriculture & Water, Riyadh.
  • Correll, D.S. & Correll, H.B. (1982). Flora of the Bahama Archipelago: 1-1692. J.Cramer, Vaduz.
  • Czerepanov, S.K. (1995). Vascular Plants of Russia and Adjacent States (The Former USSR): 1-516. Cambridge University Press.
  • Danin, A. (2004). Distribution Atlas of Plants in the Flora Palaestina area: 1-517. The Israel Academy of Sciences and Humanities, Jerusalem.
  • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Dassanayake (ed.) (2000). A Revised Handbook to the Flora of Ceylon 14: 1-307. Oxford & IBH Publishing Co. PVT. LTD., New Delhi, Calcutta.
  • Davidse, G. & al. (eds.) (1994). Flora Mesoamericana 6: 1-543. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México, D.F.
  • Davis, P.H. (ed.) (1984). Flora of Turkey and the East Aegean Islands 8: 1-632. Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh.
  • Dimopoulos, P., Raus, T., Bergmeier, E., Constantinidis, T., Iatrou, G., Kokkini, S., Strid, A., & Tzanoudakis, D. (2013). Vascular plants of Greece. An annotated checklist: 1-372. Botanic gardens and botanical museum Berlin-Dahlem, Berlin and Hellenic botanical society, Athens.
  • Dobignard, D. & Chatelain, C. (2010). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 1: 1-455. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
  • Douglas, G.W., Meidinger, D. & Penny, J.L. (2002). Rare Native Vascular Plants of British Columbia, ed. 2: 1-358. Province of British Columbia.
  • Espejo Serena, A. & López-Ferrari, A.R. (2000). Las Monocotiledóneas Mexicanas una Sinopsis Florística 1(9-11): 1-337. Consejo Nacional de la Flora de México, México D.F.
  • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Fischer, M.A. & Niklfeld, H. (eds.) (2011). Floristische Neufunde (99-123) Neilrichia 6: 365-396.
  • Fournet, J. (2002). Flore illustrée des phanérogames de Guadeloupe et de Martinique 2: 1325-2538. Gondwana editions.
  • Ghazanfar, S.A. (1992). An Annotated Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Oman and their Vernacular names Scripta Botanica Belgica 2: 1-153.
  • Gilman, A.V. (2015). New flora of Vermont Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden 110: 1-614.
  • Hansen, A. & Sunding, P. (1985). Flora of Macaronesia. Checklist of vascular plants. 3. revised edition Sommerfeltia 1: 5-103.
  • Hara, H., Stearn, W.T. & Williams, H.J. (1978). An Enumeration of the Flowering Plants of Nepal 1: 1-154. Trustees of British Museum, London.
  • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
  • Jones, R.L. (2005). Plant life of Kentucky. An illustrated guide to the vascular flora: 1-833. The universitry press of Kentucky.
  • Jongbloed, M., Western, R.A. & Boer, B. (2000). Annotated Check-list for plants in the U.A.E.: 1-90. Zodiac Publishing, Dubai.
  • Khan, M.S. & Mahbuba Halim (1989). Flora of Bangladesh 40: 1-9. Bangladesh National Herbarium, Dhaka.
  • Kress, W.J., DeFilipps, R.A., Farr, E. & Kyi, D.Y.Y. (2003). A Checklist of the Trees, Shrubs, Herbs and Climbers of Myanmar Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 45: 1-590.
  • Lambion, J., Delvosalle, L. & Duvigneaud, J. (2004). Nouvelle flore de la Belgique du G. D. de Luxembourg, du Nord de la France et des régions voisines, ed. 5: 1-1167. Edition du Patrimoine du Jardin botanique national de Belgique.
  • Larson, J., Reif, B., Nelson, B.E. & Hartman, R.L. (2014). Floristic studies in North Central New Mexico, U.S.A. the Sange de Cristo mountains Journal of the Botanical Research Institute of Texas 8: 271-303.
  • Leon, H. (1946). Flora de Cuba 1: 1-441. Cultural S. A., La Habana.
  • Levin, G.A. & Moran, R. (1989). The vascular flora of isla Socorro, Mexico: 1-71. Dept. of Botany, San Diego Natural History Museum, San Diego.
  • Liogier, H.A. & Martorell, L.F. (2000). Flora of Puerto Rico and Adjacent Islands: a Systematic Synopsis ed. 2: 1-382. Editorial de la Universidad de Puerto Rico, San Juan.
  • Maire, R. (1952). Flore de l'Afrique du Nord 1: 1-366. Paul Lechevalier, Paris.
  • Meikle, R.D. (1985). Flora of Cyprus 2: 833-1970. The Bentham-Moxon Trust Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Merkodovich, N.A. (ed.) (1941). Flora Uzbekistana 1: 1-566. Izd-va Akademii nauk Uzbekskoi SSR, Tashkent.
  • Mohlenbrock, R.H. (2014). Vascular Flora of Illinois. A Field Guide, ed. 4: 1-536. Southern Illinois University Press, Carbondale.
  • Noltie, H.J. (1994). Flora of Bhutan 3(1): 1-456. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
  • Nooteboom, H.P. (ed.) (2002). Flora Malesiana 16: 1-224. Noordhoff-Kolff N.V., Djakarta.
  • Ovczinnikov, P.N. (ed.) (1957). Flora Tadzhikskoi SSR 1: 1-547. Izd-vo Akademii nauk SSSR, Moskva.
  • Packer, J.G. & Gould, J. (2007). Vascular Plants of alberta 1: 1-281. University of Calgary Press.
  • Pavlov, N.V. (ed.) (1956). Flora Kazakhstana 1: 1-354. Alma-Ata, Izd-vo Akademii nauk Kazakhskoi SSR.
  • Peyre de Fabregues, B. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1976). Catalogue des Plantes Vascularies du Niger: 1-433. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
  • Powell, A.M. & Worthington, R.D. (2018). Flowering plants of Trans-Pecos Texas and ajacent areas: 1-1444. BRIT Press.
  • Rechinger. K.H. (1971). Flora Iranica 78-86 Naturhistorisches Museums Wien.
  • Retief, E. & Meyer, N.L. (2017). Plants of the Free State inventory and identification guide Strelitzia 38: 1-1236. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Symoens, J.J. (2006). Potamogetonaceae Flora of Tropical East Africa: 1-16.
  • Takhtajan, A.L. (ed.) (2006). Konspekt Flora Kavkaza 2: 1-466. Editio Universitatis Petropolitanae.
  • Tanaka, N., Koyama, T. & Murata, J. (2005). The flowering plants of Mt. Popa, central Myanmar - Results of Myanmar-Japanese joint expeditions, 2000-2004 Makinoa 5: 1-102.
  • Timberlake, J.R. & Martins, E.S. (eds.) (2009). Flora Zambesiaca 12(2): 1-208. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Townsend, C.C. & Guest, E. (eds.) (1985). Flora of Iraq 8: 1-440. Ministry of Agriculture & Agrarian Reform, Baghdad.
  • Villaseñor, J.L. (2016). Checklist of the native vascular plants of Mexico Revista Mexicana de Biodiversidad 87: 559-902.
  • Wagner, W.L., Herbst, D.R. & Sohmer, S.H. (1999). Manual of the Flowering Plants of Hawai'i. Revised Edition, Volume 2 Special Publications; Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum 97: 989-1919.
  • Williams, R.O. (1986). Flora of Trinidad and Tobago 3(4): 279-380. Government Printing Office, Port-of-Spain.
  • Wood, J.R.I. (1997). A Handbook of the Yemen Flora: 1-434. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

Literature

Kew Backbone Distributions

  • Ackerfield, J. (2015). Flora of Colorado: 1-818. BRIT Press.
  • Adams, C.D. (1972). Flowering Plants of Jamaica: 1-848. University of the West Indies, Mona.
  • Andrews, F.W. (1956). The Flowering Plants of the Sudan 3: 1-579. T.Buncle & co., LTD., Arbroath, Scotland.
  • Bailey, C. & al. (2015). Guide to the Vascular Plants of Tennessee: 1-813. University of Tennessee press.
  • Boulos, L. (1995). Flora of Egypt Checklist: i-xii, 1-287. Al Hadara Publishing, Cairo.
  • Castroviejo, S. & al. (eds.) (2010). Flora Iberica 17: 1-298. Real Jardín Botánico, CSIC, Madrid.
  • Chaudhary, S.A. (2001). Flora of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia 3: 1-368. Ministry of Agriculture & Water, Riyadh.
  • Chou, S., Chhnang, P. & Kim, Y. (2016). A Checklist for the Seed Plants of Cambodia: 1-272. National Institute of Biological Resources, Korea.
  • Correll, D.S. & Correll, H.B. (1982). Flora of the Bahama Archipelago: 1-1692. J.Cramer, Vaduz.
  • Danin, A. (2004). Distribution Atlas of Plants in the Flora Palaestina area: 1-517. The Israel Academy of Sciences and Humanities, Jerusalem.
  • Dassanayake (ed.) (2000). A Revised Handbook to the Flora of Ceylon 14: 1-307. Oxford & IBH Publishing Co. PVT. LTD., New Delhi, Calcutta.
  • Davidse, G. & al. (eds.) (1994). Flora Mesoamericana 6: 1-543. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México, D.F.
  • Davis, P.H. (ed.) (1984). Flora of Turkey and the East Aegean Islands 8: 1-632. Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh.
  • Dobignard, D. & Chatelain, C. (2010). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 1: 1-455. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
  • Douglas, G.W., Meidinger, D. & Penny, J.L. (2002). Rare Native Vascular Plants of British Columbia, ed. 2: 1-358. Province of British Columbia.
  • Espejo Serena, A. & López-Ferrari, A.R. (2000). Las Monocotiledóneas Mexicanas una Sinopsis Florística 1(9-11): 1-337. Consejo Nacional de la Flora de México, México D.F.
  • Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2000). Flora of North America North of Mexico 22: 1-352. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.
  • Fournet, J. (2002). Flore illustrée des phanérogames de Guadeloupe et de Martinique 2: 1325-2538. Gondwana editions.
  • Ghazanfar, S.A. (1992). An Annotated Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Oman and their Vernacular names Scripta Botanica Belgica 2: 1-153.
  • Gilman, A.V. (2015). New flora of Vermont Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden 110: 1-614.
  • Hansen, A. & Sunding, P. (1985). Flora of Macaronesia. Checklist of vascular plants. 3. revised edition Sommerfeltia 1: 5-103.
  • Hara, H., Stearn, W.T. & Williams, H.J. (1978). An Enumeration of the Flowering Plants of Nepal 1: 1-154. Trustees of British Museum, London.
  • Jones, R.L. (2005). Plant life of Kentucky. An illustrated guide to the vascular flora: 1-833. The universitry press of Kentucky.
  • Jongbloed, M., Western, R.A. & Boer, B. (2000). Annotated Check-list for plants in the U.A.E.: 1-90. Zodiac Publishing, Dubai.
  • Kaplan, Z. & Symnoens, J.-J. (2005). Taxonomy, distribution and nomenclature of three confused broad-leaved Potamogeton species occuring in Africa and on surrounding islands Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 148: 329-357.
  • Khan, M.S. & Mahbuba Halim (1989). Flora of Bangladesh 40: 1-9. Bangladesh National Herbarium, Dhaka.
  • Kharkevich, S.S. (ed.) (1987). Plantae Vasculares Orientalis Extremi Sovietici 2: 1-448. Nauka, Leningrad.
  • Krasnoborov, I.M. (ed.) (2000). Flora of Siberia 1: 1-189. Scientific Publishers, Inc., Enfield, Plymouth.
  • Lambion, J., Delvosalle, L. & Duvigneaud, J. (2004). Nouvelle flore de la Belgique du G. D. de Luxembourg, du Nord de la France et des régions voisines, ed. 5: 1-1167. Edition du Patrimoine du Jardin botanique national de Belgique.
  • Larson, J., Reif, B., Nelson, B.E. & Hartman, R.L. (2014). Floristic studies in North Central New Mexico, U.S.A. the Sange de Cristo mountains Journal of the Botanical Research Institute of Texas 8: 271-303.
  • Leon, H. (1946). Flora de Cuba 1: 1-441. Cultural S. A., La Habana.
  • Levin, G.A. & Moran, R. (1989). The vascular flora of isla Socorro, Mexico: 1-71. Dept. of Botany, San Diego Natural History Museum, San Diego.
  • Liogier, H.A. & Martorell, L.F. (2000). Flora of Puerto Rico and Adjacent Islands: a Systematic Synopsis ed. 2: 1-382. Editorial de la Universidad de Puerto Rico, San Juan.
  • Maire, R. (1952). Flore de l'Afrique du Nord 1: 1-366. Paul Lechevalier, Paris.
  • Meikle, R.D. (1985). Flora of Cyprus 2: 833-1970. The Bentham-Moxon Trust Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Merkodovich, N.A. (ed.) (1941). Flora Uzbekistana 1: 1-566. Izd-va Akademii nauk Uzbekskoi SSR, Tashkent.
  • Mohlenbrock, R.H. (2014). Vascular Flora of Illinois. A Field Guide, ed. 4: 1-536. Southern Illinois University Press, Carbondale.
  • Moscoso, R.H. (1943). Catalogus Florae Domingensis: 1-732. New York.
  • Noltie, H.J. (1994). Flora of Bhutan 3(1): 1-456. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
  • Nooteboom, H.P. (ed.) (2002). Flora Malesiana 16: 1-224. Noordhoff-Kolff N.V., Djakarta.
  • Packer, J.G. & Gould, J. (2007). Vascular Plants of alberta 1: 1-281. University of Calgary Press.
  • Pavlov, N.V. (ed.) (1956). Flora Kazakhstana 1: 1-354. Alma-Ata, Izd-vo Akademii nauk Kazakhskoi SSR.
  • Peyre de Fabregues, B. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1976). Catalogue des Plantes Vascularies du Niger: 1-433. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
  • Quézel, P. (1958). Mission Botanique au Tibesti: 1-357. Université d'Alger.
  • Rechinger. K.H. (1971). Flora Iranica 78-86 Naturhistorisches Museums Wien.
  • Retief, E. & Meyer, N.L. (2017). Plants of the Free State inventory and identification guide Strelitzia 38: 1-1236. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Rubtsova, T.A. & Starchenko, V.M. (2006). Floristic records in Jewish Autonomous region Botanicheskii Zhurnal. Moscow & Leningrad 91: 476-480.
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  • Takhtajan, A.L. (ed.) (2006). Konspekt Flora Kavkaza 2: 1-466. Editio Universitatis Petropolitanae.
  • Timberlake, J.R. & Martins, E.S. (eds.) (2009). Flora Zambesiaca 12(2): 1-208. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Townsend, C.C. & Guest, E. (eds.) (1985). Flora of Iraq 8: 1-440. Ministry of Agriculture & Agrarian Reform, Baghdad.
  • Wagner, W.L., Herbst, D.R. & Sohmer, S.H. (1999). Manual of the Flowering Plants of Hawai'i. Revised Edition, Volume 2 Special Publications; Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum 97: 989-1919.
  • Werier, D. (2017). Catalogue of the Vascular plants of New York state Memoirs of the Torrey Botanical Club 27: 1-542. New York Botanical Garden.
  • Williams, R.O. (1986). Flora of Trinidad and Tobago 3(4): 279-380. Government Printing Office, Port-of-Spain.
  • Wood, J.R.I. (1997). A Handbook of the Yemen Flora: 1-434. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (2010). Flora of China 23: 1-515. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
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Flora of Tropical East Africa

  • Cook, Aquat. Wetl. Pl. S. Afr.: 235 (2004).
  • Dandy in Journal of the Linnean Society of London, Botany 50: 531, map fig. 7 (1937) pro parte.
  • Kaplan & Symoens in Journal of the Linnean Society of London, Botany 148: 332, fig. 1, 2, fig. 3 map (2005).
  • Poir. in Lam., Encycl. Méthod. Bot., Suppl. 4: 535 (1816).

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