Megathyrsus maximus (Jacq.) B.K.Simon & S.W.L.Jacobs

This species is accepted, and its native range is Tropical & S. Africa, W. Indian Ocean, Arabian Peninsula. It is used as animal food and a medicine and has environmental uses.

[UNAL]

Bernal, R., G. Galeano, A. Rodríguez, H. Sarmiento y M. Gutiérrez. 2017. Nombres Comunes de las Plantas de Colombia. http://www.biovirtual.unal.edu.co/nombrescomunes/

Vernacular
castilla, guinea, guinea pajarito, guinedón, hierba india, india, indio, pasto castilla, pasto chigüiro, pasto guinea, pasto indio, saboya, yerba de Guinea, yerba india, zaina

[CPLC]

Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

Distribution
Naturalizada y adventicia en Colombia; Alt. 0 - 2000 m.; Amazonia, Andes, Guayana y Serranía de La Macarena, Islas Caribeñas, Llanura del Caribe, Orinoquia, Pacífico, Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, Valle del Cauca, Valle del Magdalena.
Morphology General Habit
Hierba
Conservation
Preocupación Menor

[UPFC]
Distribution
Biogeografic region: Amazonia, Andean, Guiana Shield, Caribbean, Orinoquia, Pacific. Elevation range: 0–2000 m a.s.l. Naturalised in Colombia. Colombian departments: Amazonas, Antioquia, Arauca, Atlántico, Bolívar, Boyacá, Caldas, Caquetá, Casanare, Cauca, Cesar, Chocó, Córdoba, Cundinamarca, Guainía, Guaviare, Huila, Magdalena, Meta, Nariño, Norte de Santander, Putumayo, Quindío, Risaralda, San Andrés y Providencia, Santander, Sucre, Tolima, Valle del Cauca, Vaupés, Vichada.
Habit
Herb.
Ecology
Habitat according IUCN Habitats Classification: forest and woodland, savanna, shrubland, artificial - terrestrial.

[GB]
Morphology General Habit
Perennial; caespitose. Culms erect, or geniculately ascending; 40-80 cm long. Culm-internodes elliptical in section; distally glabrous. Culm-nodes glabrous. Lateral branches lacking, or sparse. Leaf-sheaths glabrous on surface. Ligule a ciliolate membrane; truncate. Leaf-blades 15-40 cm long; 2-10 mm wide. Leaf-blade surface glabrous; hairless throughout, or except near base.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescence a panicle. Panicle open; ovate; 10-25 cm long. Primary panicle branches ascending, or spreading; 5-15 cm long. Spikelets solitary. Fertile spikelets pedicelled. Pedicels filiform; flexuous; 5-10 mm long.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Spikelets
Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets oblong; dorsally compressed; acute; 2.5-3 mm long; falling entire.
Fertile
Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets oblong; dorsally compressed; acute; 2.5-3 mm long; falling entire.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Bracts Glume
Glumes reaching apex of florets; thinner than fertile lemma; gaping. Lower glume orbicular; 0.24-0.33 length of spikelet; membranous; without keels; 1-3 -veined. Lower glume surface pubescent. Lower glume apex obtuse; muticous, or mucronate. Upper glume ovate; 1 length of spikelet; membranous; without keels; 5 -veined. Upper glume surface pubescent. Upper glume apex acute.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Florets
Basal sterile florets male; with palea. Lemma of lower sterile floret similar to upper glume; oblong; 1 length of spikelet; membranous; 5-7 -veined; pubescent; acute. Fertile lemma oblong; dorsally compressed; 2.5-3 mm long; indurate; pallid; without keel. Lemma surface rugose. Lemma margins convolute. Lemma apex obtuse. Palea involute; indurate.
Distribution
Africa: western Indian ocean.
Reference
Paniceae. Gr Madag 1997.

[FSOM]

M. Thulin et al. Flora of Somalia, Vol. 1-4 [updated 2008] https://plants.jstor.org/collection/FLOS

Morphology General Habit
Loosely to densely tufted perennial up to 150(–200) cm high, erect from a shortly rhizomatous base or ascending and rooting from the lower nodes; leaves linear to narrowly lanceolate, 12–40 cm x 4–35 mm
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Panicle oblong or pyramidal, 12–45 cm long, usually much-branched, the branches ascending to spreading, the lowermost in a whorl
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Spikelets
Spikelets oblong, 3–4.5 mm long, glabrous or pubescent, blunt or acute; lower glume broadly ovate, 1/3–1/2 the length of the spikelet, 3-nerved, obtuse or acute; upper lemma conspicuously transversely rugose.
Distribution
N1; S1–3; tropical and southern Africa and Arabia
Ecology
Altitude range 0–1700 m.
Vernacular
Arabsa, baldoli, caws lagoley, weineh (Somali).

[GB]
Morphology General Habit
Perennial, or annual (rarely); caespitose. Rhizomes short. Butt sheaths pubescent. Culms erect, or geniculately ascending; robust, or of moderate stature, or slender; (25-)75-200(-450) cm long; without nodal roots, or rooting from lower nodes. Culm-internodes distally glabrous, or hispid, or pilose. Culm-nodes glabrous, or bearded. Leaf-sheaths wider than blade at the collar, or as wide as blade at the collar. Ligule a ciliate membrane. Leaf-blades linear, or lanceolate; (6-)12-40(-100) cm long; (4-)12-35 mm wide. Leaf-blade surface glabrous, or pubescent, or pilose. Leaf-blade apex acuminate.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescence a panicle. Panicle open; oblong, or pyramidal; 12-45(-60) cm long. Primary panicle branches ascending, or spreading; whorled at lower nodes. Spikelets solitary. Fertile spikelets pedicelled. Pedicels straight, or flexuous; glabrous, or bearing a few hairs; hairy at tip.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Spikelets
Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets oblong; dorsally compressed; obtuse, or acute; (2.5-)3-4.5(-5) mm long; falling entire.
Fertile
Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets oblong; dorsally compressed; obtuse, or acute; (2.5-)3-4.5(-5) mm long; falling entire.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Bracts Glume
Glumes dissimilar; reaching apex of florets; thinner than fertile lemma. Lower glume ovate; 0.33-0.5 length of spikelet; membranous; without keels; 3 -veined. Lower glume surface glabrous, or pubescent. Lower glume apex obtuse, or acute. Upper glume ovate; 1 length of spikelet; membranous; without keels; 5 -veined. Upper glume surface glabrous, or pubescent. Upper glume apex acute.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Florets
Basal sterile florets male, or barren; with palea. Lemma of lower sterile floret similar to upper glume; ovate; 1 length of spikelet; membranous; 5 -veined; without grooves; glabrous, or pubescent; acute. Fertile lemma oblong; dorsally compressed; 2.5-5 mm long; indurate; pallid; without keel. Lemma surface rugose. Lemma margins involute. Lemma apex obtuse. Palea involute; indurate. Palea surface rugose.
Distribution
Europe: southeastern. Africa: north, Macaronesia, west tropical, west-central tropical, northeast tropical, east tropical, southern tropical, south, middle Atlantic ocean, and western Indian ocean. Asia-temperate: western Asia, Arabia, China, and eastern Asia. Asia-tropical: India, Indo-China, Malesia, and Papuasia. Australasia: Australia and New Zealand. Pacific: southwestern, south-central, northwestern, and north-central. North America: south-central USA, southeast USA, and Mexico. South America: Mesoamericana, Caribbean, northern South America, western South America, Brazil, and southern South America.
Reference
Paniceae. FTEA.

[GB]
Morphology General Habit
Perennial. Rhizomes short. Culms erect, or geniculately ascending; 1.5 mm diam.; rooting from lower nodes. Culm-internodes smooth; distally glabrous. Lateral branches ample. Leaf-sheaths loose; striately veined; glabrous on surface. Ligule a ciliolate membrane. Leaf-blades linear, or lanceolate; 20-25 cm long; 4-5 mm wide. Leaf-blade surface glabrous; hairless except near base. Leaf-blade margins smooth, or scaberulous. Leaf-blade apex acuminate.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescence a panicle. Peduncle 5-20 cm long. Panicle open; ovate; loose; 10-16 cm long; 2.5-3 cm wide. Primary panicle branches distant; 4-5 -nate; whorled at lower nodes; simple, or sparsely divided. Panicle branches capillary; flexuous. Spikelets solitary. Fertile spikelets pedicelled. Pedicels flexuous; unequal; 1.5-5 mm long.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Spikelets
Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets elliptic, or oblong; dorsally compressed; 2.5-2.8 mm long; falling entire.
Fertile
Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets elliptic, or oblong; dorsally compressed; 2.5-2.8 mm long; falling entire.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Bracts Glume
Glumes dissimilar; reaching apex of florets; thinner than fertile lemma. Lower glume ovate; 0.7 mm long; 0.25-0.33 length of spikelet; membranous; without keels; 5 -veined. Lower glume surface tuberculate. Lower glume apex emarginate, or obtuse. Upper glume ovate; 1 length of spikelet; membranous; without keels. Upper glume surface tuberculate. Upper glume apex obtuse.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Florets
Basal sterile florets barren; without significant palea. Lemma of lower sterile floret similar to upper glume; ovate; 1 length of spikelet; membranous. Fertile lemma elliptic; dorsally compressed; 2-2.2 mm long; indurate; without keel. Lemma surface punctate; rugulose. Lemma margins involute. Palea involute; indurate.
Distribution
Africa: western Indian ocean.
Reference
Paniceae. Camus 2007.

[CPLC]

Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

Distribution
Colombia

[UPFC]
Use Animal Food
Used as animal food.
Use Environmental
Environmental uses.
Use Medicines
Medical uses.

Native to:

Aldabra, Angola, Benin, Botswana, Burkina, Burundi, Cameroon, Cape Provinces, Central African Repu, Chad, Comoros, Congo, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Free State, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Gulf of Guinea Is., Gulf States, Ivory Coast, Kenya, KwaZulu-Natal, Liberia, Madagascar, Malawi, Mauritius, Mozambique, Mozambique Channel I, Namibia, Nigeria, Northern Provinces, Oman, Rodrigues, Rwanda, Réunion, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Socotra, Somalia, Sudan, Swaziland, Tanzania, Togo, Uganda, Yemen, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

Introduced into:

Alabama, Andaman Is., Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Arizona, Ascension, Bahamas, Bangladesh, Belize, Bermuda, Bolivia, Borneo, Brazil North, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, California, Canary Is., Cape Verde, Caroline Is., Cayman Is., Central American Pac, Chagos Archipelago, China Southeast, Colombia, Cook Is., Costa Rica, Cuba, Czechoslovakia, Djibouti, Dominican Republic, East Himalaya, Easter Is., Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Fiji, Florida, French Guiana, Galápagos, Georgia, Guatemala, Guyana, Haiti, Hawaii, Honduras, India, Jamaica, Japan, Jawa, Laos, Lebanon-Syria, Leeward Is., Lesser Sunda Is., Line Is., Louisiana, Madeira, Malaya, Mali, Marianas, Marquesas, Marshall Is., Mauritania, Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Myanmar, Netherlands Antilles, New Caledonia, New Guinea, New South Wales, New Zealand North, Nicaragua, Niue, Norfolk Is., Northern Territory, Oklahoma, Pakistan, Palestine, Panamá, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Puerto Rico, Queensland, Samoa, Sicilia, Society Is., Solomon Is., South Australia, Southwest Caribbean, Spain, Sri Lanka, St.Helena, Sulawesi, Sumatera, Suriname, Taiwan, Texas, Thailand, Tonga, Trinidad-Tobago, Tuamotu, Tubuai Is., Turks-Caicos Is., Vanuatu, Venezuela, Venezuelan Antilles, Victoria, Vietnam, Western Australia, Windward Is.

English
Brown top buffel-grass, Bush buffalo grass, Common buffalo grass, Guinea grass

Megathyrsus maximus (Jacq.) B.K.Simon & S.W.L.Jacobs appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status Has image?
Feb 19, 2014 Brazil K001059519 No
Feb 19, 2014 Brazil K001059511 No
Feb 19, 2014 Brazil K001059506 No
Feb 19, 2014 Brazil K001059507 No
Feb 19, 2014 Brazil K001059507 No
Feb 19, 2014 Brazil K001059508 No
Feb 19, 2014 Brazil K001059508 No
Feb 19, 2014 Brazil K001059521 No
Feb 19, 2014 Brazil K001059510 No
Feb 19, 2014 Brazil K001059512 No
Feb 19, 2014 Brazil K001059513 No
Feb 19, 2014 Brazil K001059514 No
Feb 19, 2014 Brazil K001059516 No
Feb 19, 2014 Brazil K001059517 No
Feb 19, 2014 Brazil K001059518 No
Feb 19, 2014 K001059520 No
Feb 19, 2014 Brazil K001059522 No
Feb 19, 2014 Brazil K001059523 No
Feb 19, 2014 Brazil K001059515 No
Feb 19, 2014 Brazil K001059509 No
Apr 11, 2002 Ecuador Panicum maximum K001467918 Yes
Jun 1, 2001 Etuge, M. [1545], Cameroon Panicum maximum K000107874 No
Jan 2, 1985 Venezuela Panicum maximum K001467909 Yes
Apr 13, 1978 Venezuela Panicum maximum K001467904 Yes
Dec 6, 1973 Ecuador Panicum maximum K001467917 Yes
Nov 18, 1973 Peru Panicum maximum K001467924 Yes
Jan 1, 1973 Irwin, H.S. [9259], Brazil Panicum maximum K001059509 Yes
Nov 1, 1935 unknown [s.n.], Guinea Panicum maximum K000257020 Unknown type material Yes
Jan 1, 1913 Dusén, P. [14023], Brazil Panicum maximum K001059514 Yes
Lemos Froes, R. [19942], Bahia Panicum maximum K000003772 Yes
Calderon, C.E. [2221], Bahia Panicum maximum K000003774 No
Calderon, C.E. [2221], Bahia Panicum maximum K000003770 No
Bolland, G. [0], Brazil Panicum maximum K000003769 No
Gardner [1873], Brazil Panicum maximum K000003779 Yes
Noblick, L.R. [2613], Bahia Panicum maximum K000003777 No
Grupo Pedra do Cavalo [10], Bahia Panicum maximum K000003773 No
Gardner [1873], Brazil Panicum maximum K000003780 Yes
Gardner [0], Pernambuco Panicum maximum K000003778 Yes
Noblick, L.R. [3282], Bahia Panicum maximum K000003771 No
Harley, R.M. [16628], Bahia Panicum maximum K000003776 No
Harley, R.M. [16628], Bahia Panicum maximum K000003775 No
Menyhart [898], Mozambique Panicum maximum K000282439 Yes
Drège, South Africa Panicum maximum K000255541 isosyntype Yes
Holst, C. [8716], Tanzania Panicum maximum K000255575 syntype Yes
Thomas [123], Kenya Panicum maximum K000255576 syntype Yes
Chevalier, A. [9625], Central African Republic Panicum maximum K000255586 Yes
Chevalier, A. [9543], Central African Republic Panicum maximum K000255585 Yes
Vogel [128], Sierra Leone Panicum maximum K000257021 Unknown type material Yes
Thronning [s.n.], Guinea Panicum maximum K000257022 Unknown type material Yes
Thronning [s.n.], Guinea Panicum maximum K000257023 Unknown type material Yes
Banks, J. [s.n.], Jamaica Panicum maximum K000309161 Yes
Smitinand, T. [4841], Thailand Panicum maximum K000682752 No
Laegaard, S. [21751], Thailand Panicum maximum K000682751 No
Chuml, H. [246], Cameroon Panicum maximum K000182332 No
Maitland, T.D. [15], Cameroon Panicum maximum K000182336 No
Eiten, G. [10318], Brazil Panicum maximum K001059506 Yes
Riedel [952], Brazil Panicum maximum K001059515 Yes
s.coll. [Cat. no. 8715] Panicum maximum K001131355 Yes
Burchell, W.J. [1474], Brazil Panicum maximum K001059518 Yes
Brunt, M.A. [1040], Cameroon Panicum maximum K000182333 No
s.coll. [Cat. no. 8715] Panicum maximum K001131357 Yes
Humbert, H. [28804], Madagascar Panicum maximum K001096176 isotype Yes
Philcox, D. [3158], Brazil Panicum maximum K001059507 Yes
Kerr, A.F.G. [s.n.], Thailand Panicum maximum K000620760 No
s.coll. [s.n.] Panicum maximum K001059520 Yes
Maitland, T.D. [332], Cameroon Panicum maximum K000182334 No
s.coll. [Cat. no. 8715] Panicum maximum K001131354 Yes
s.coll. [Cat. no. 8715] Panicum maximum K001131358 Yes
De Silva, F. [Cat. no. 8715] Panicum maximum K001131359 Yes
Swainson [s.n.], Brazil Panicum maximum K001059519 Yes
Hoehne, W. [12697], Brazil Panicum maximum K001059511 Yes
Spruce, R. [s.n.], Peru Panicum maximum K000201669 Yes
Glaziou, A.F.M. [5437], Brazil Panicum maximum K001059510 Yes
s.coll. [Cat. no. 8715] Panicum maximum K001131356 Yes
Maitland, T.D. [152], Cameroon Panicum maximum K000182335 No
Gaudichaud-Beaupre, C. [s.n.], Brazil Panicum maximum K001059516 Yes
Hatschbach, G.G. [14083], Brazil Panicum maximum K001059512 Yes
Glaziou, A.F.M. [4333], Brazil Panicum maximum K001059513 Yes
Burchell, W.J. [1711], Brazil Panicum maximum K001059523 Yes
Irwin, H.S. [5531], Brazil Panicum maximum K001059508 Yes
Pohl [1152], Brazil Panicum maximum K001059522 Yes
Tweedie, J. [s.n.], Brazil Panicum maximum K001059517 Yes
Swainson [s.n.], Brazil Panicum maximum K001059521 Yes
s.coll. [Cat. no. 8715] Panicum maximum K001131353 Yes
Panama Panicum maximum K001467896 Yes
Panama Panicum maximum K001467897 Yes
Panama Panicum maximum K001467898 Yes
Panama Panicum maximum K001467899 Yes
Panama Panicum maximum K001467900 Yes
Venezuela Panicum maximum K001467901 Yes
Venezuela Panicum maximum K001467902 Yes
Venezuela Panicum maximum K001467903 Yes
Venezuela Panicum maximum K001467905 Yes
Venezuela Panicum maximum K001467906 Yes
Venezuela Panicum maximum K001467907 Yes
Venezuela Panicum maximum K001467908 Yes
Galapagos Panicum maximum K001467910 Yes
Colombia Panicum maximum K001467911 Yes
Colombia Panicum maximum K001467912 Yes
Colombia Panicum maximum K001467913 Yes
Smith, H.H. [2153], Colombia Panicum maximum K001467914 Yes
Ecuador Panicum maximum K001467915 Yes
Ecuador Panicum maximum K001467916 Yes
Ecuador Panicum maximum K001467919 Yes
Ecuador Panicum maximum K001467920 Yes
Ecuador Panicum maximum K001467921 Yes
Ecuador Panicum maximum K001467922 Yes
Peru Panicum maximum K001467923 Yes
Peru Panicum maximum K001467925 Yes
Peru Panicum maximum K001467926 Yes
Peru Panicum maximum K001467927 Yes
Peru Panicum maximum K001467928 Yes
Hinton, G.B. [4823], México State Urochloa maxima K000476075 No

First published in Austrobaileya 6: 572 (2003)

Accepted by

  • Muer, T., Sauerbier, H. & Cabrara Calixto, F. (2020). Die Farn- und Blütenpflanzen Madeiras: 1-792. Verlag und Versandbuchhandlung Andreas Kleinsteuber.
  • Powell, A.M. & Worthington, R.D. (2018). Flowering plants of Trans-Pecos Texas and ajacent areas: 1-1444. BRIT Press.

Not accepted by

  • Clayton, W.D., Harman, K.T. & Williamson, H. (2006). World Grass Species - Synonymy database The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. [Cited as Panicum maximum.]

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  • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
  • Hộ, P.-H. (2000). Câycỏ Việtnam. An Illustrated flora of Vietnam, ed. 2, 3: 1-1020. Pham-hoang Ho, Montréal.
  • Hubbard, C.E. & Vaughan, R.E. (1940). Grasses of Mauritius and Rodriguez: 1-128. Crown Agents for the Colonies, London.
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  • Jørgensen, P.M. & León-Yánez, S. (eds.) (1999). Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Ecuador. Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 75: i-viii, 1-1181. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • Karthikeyan, S., Jain, S.K., Nayar, M.P. & Sanjappa, M. (1989). Florae Indicae Enumeratio: Monocotyledonae: 1-435. Botanical Survey of India, Calcutta.
  • Koyama, T. (1987). Grasses of Japan and its neighboring regions: an identification manual: 1-570. Kodansha, Tokyo, Japan.
  • Lebrun, J.-P., Audru, J., Gaston, A. & Mosnier, M. (1972). Catalogue des Plantes Vasculaires du Tchad Méridional: 1-289. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
  • Lewalle, J. (1970). Liste floristique et répartition altitudinale de la flore du Burundi occidental: 1-84. Université officielle de Bujumbura.
  • Lisowski, S. (2009). Flore (Angiospermes) de la République de Guinée. Scripta Botanica Belgica 41: 1-517.
  • Maliya, S.D. & Datt, B. (2010). A contribution to the flora of Katarniyaghat wildlife sanctuary, Baharaich district, Uttar Pradesh. Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 34: 42-68.
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  • Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008). Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas: 1-1576. SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.
  • Newman, M., Ketphanh, S., Svengsuksa, B., Thomas, P., Sengdala, K., Lamxay, V. & Armstrong, K. (2007). A checklist of the vascular plants of Lao PDR: 1-394. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
  • Noltie, H.J. (2000). Flora of Bhutan 3(2): 457-883. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
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Useful Plants and Fungi of Colombia

  • Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R., & Celis, M. (eds.). (2020). Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia. v1.1. Universidad Nacional de Colombia. Dataset/Checklist. https://doi.org/10.15472/7avdhn
  • Diazgranados et al. (2021). Catalogue of plants of Colombia. Useful Plants and Fungi of Colombia project. In prep.
  • GBIF.org (2021). GBIF species matching tool. https://www.gbif.org/tools/species-lookup
  • Instituto de Investigación de Recursos Biológicos Alexander von Humboldt (2015). Listado de especies de Productos No Maderables del caribe colombiano. 366 registros, aportados por: Garcia, H. (Contacto del Recurso), López Camacho, R. (Creador del recurso), Espitia Palencia, L. (Proveedor del metadatos). Versión 2.0. http://i2d.humboldt.org.co/ceiba/resource.do?r=le_bst-caribe_plantae_2015
  • Medicinal Plant Names Services (MPNS) v.10 (2021); http://mpns.kew.org/

  • Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia

    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • Flora of Somalia

    Flora of Somalia
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora

    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • Herbarium Catalogue Specimens

    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

  • Kew Backbone Distributions

    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Vascular Plants 2022. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and https://powo.science.kew.org/
    © Copyright 2022 World Checklist of Vascular Plants. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

  • Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone

    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Vascular Plants 2022. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and https://powo.science.kew.org/
    © Copyright 2022 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Vascular Plants. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

  • Kew Science Photographs

    Copyright applied to individual images

  • Plants and People Africa

    Common Names from Plants and People Africa http://www.plantsandpeopleafrica.com/
    © Plants and People Africa http://www.plantsandpeopleafrica.com http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

  • Universidad Nacional de Colombia

    ColPlantA database
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • Useful Plants and Fungi of Colombia

    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0