Juniperus L.

This genus is accepted, and its native range is Subarctic & Temp. Eurasia to Tropical African Mountains, N. America to Guatemala, Caribbean.


Gymnospermae, R. Melville. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1958

Morphology General Habit
Shrubs and trees when young or throughout life with linear spiny leaves in whorls of 3 or paired, or when adult with scale-like, opposite leaves or mixed foliage, usually dioecious
Morphology Reproductive morphology Cones
Cones on short branchlets or males axillary, of rounded, shield-shaped scales bearing 2–6 pollen sacs; females of 2–4 series of scales in pairs or whorls of 3, each with 1–2 ovules; mature cone fleshy, with few to 1 seed with woody testa.


M. Thulin et al. Flora of Somalia, Vol. 1-4 [updated 2008]

Morphology General Habit
Evergreen trees or shrubs, usually dioecious
Morphology Leaves
Leaves needle-shaped in whorls of 3 or paired, or when adult with scale-like, opposite leaves
Morphology Reproductive morphology Cones
Female cones of 2–8 fleshy scales each bearing 1 ovule; mature cone berry-like, with 1–few seeds with woody testa. Male cones of several rounded scales bearing 2–6 pollen-sacs
Genus of some 70 species, mostlyin the northern hemisphere.


Cupressaceae, John Lewis. Flora Zambesiaca 1:1. 1960

Morphology General Habit
Evergreen trees or shrubs, monoecious or dioecious.
Morphology Leaves
Leaves usually decussate, elliptic, appressed, imbricate and small on mature plants but subulate and spreading on juveniles.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Cones
Male cones of several rounded decussate scales bearing 2–6 pollen-sacs.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Strobili
Female strobili on short lateral shoots, of 2–8 usually decussate fleshy scales each bearing one ovule; mature strobilus a berry-like fruit, the scales swollen, fleshy and confluent.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds 1 or few; testa woody.

Native to:

Afghanistan, Alabama, Alaska, Albania, Alberta, Algeria, Altay, Amur, Arizona, Arkansas, Assam, Austria, Azores, Bahamas, Baleares, Baltic States, Belarus, Belgium, Bermuda, British Columbia, Bulgaria, Buryatiya, California, Canary Is., Central European Rus, China North-Central, China South-Central, China Southeast, Chita, Colorado, Connecticut, Corse, Cuba, Cyprus, Czechoslovakia, Delaware, Denmark, District of Columbia, Djibouti, Dominican Republic, East Aegean Is., East European Russia, East Himalaya, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Finland, Florida, France, Føroyar, Georgia, Germany, Great Britain, Greece, Greenland, Guatemala, Haiti, Hungary, Iceland, Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, Inner Mongolia, Iowa, Iran, Iraq, Ireland, Irkutsk, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Kamchatka, Kansas, Kazakhstan, Kentucky, Kenya, Khabarovsk, Kirgizstan, Korea, Krasnoyarsk, Kriti, Krym, Kuril Is., Labrador, Lebanon-Syria, Libya, Louisiana, Madeira, Magadan, Maine, Malawi, Manchuria, Manitoba, Maryland, Massachusetts, Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Mongolia, Montana, Morocco, Myanmar, Nansei-shoto, Nebraska, Nepal, Netherlands, Nevada, New Brunswick, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, Newfoundland, North Carolina, North Caucasus, North Dakota, North European Russi, Northwest European R, Northwest Territorie, Norway, Nova Scotia, Nunavut, Ogasawara-shoto, Ohio, Oklahoma, Oman, Ontario, Oregon, Pakistan, Palestine, Pennsylvania, Poland, Portugal, Primorye, Prince Edward I., Qinghai, Québec, Rhode I., Romania, Sakhalin, Sardegna, Saskatchewan, Saudi Arabia, Sicilia, Sinai, Somalia, South Carolina, South Dakota, South European Russi, Spain, Sudan, Sweden, Switzerland, Tadzhikistan, Taiwan, Tanzania, Tennessee, Texas, Tibet, Transcaucasus, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkey-in-Europe, Turkmenistan, Tuva, Uganda, Ukraine, Utah, Uzbekistan, Vermont, Virginia, Washington, West Himalaya, West Siberia, West Virginia, Windward Is., Wisconsin, Wyoming, Xinjiang, Yakutskiya, Yemen, Yugoslavia, Yukon, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

Extinct in:

Mexican Pacific Is.

Introduced into:

Ascension, Cape Provinces, Free State, Lesotho, Mauritius, Réunion, St.Helena, Trinidad-Tobago

Juniperus L. appears in other Kew resources:

First published in Sp. Pl.: 1038 (1753)

Accepted by

  • Adams, R.P. (2008). Junipers of the World: The genus Juniperus ed. 2: 1-402. Trafford publishing Co., Vancouver.
  • Zhu, A., Fan, W.S., Adams, R.P. & Mower, J.P. (2018). Phylogenomic evidence for ancient recombination between plastid genomes of the Cupressus-Juniperus-Xanthocyparis complex (Cupressaceae). BioMed Central Evolutionary Biology 18(137): 1-10.


Flora Zambesiaca

  • Gen. Pl. ed. 5: 461 (1754).
  • Sp. Pl. 2: 1038 (1753)

Flora of Somalia

  • Cuf. Enum.: 1–2 (1953).
  • Flora Somalia, Vol 1, (1993) Author: by M. Thulin [updated by M. Thulin 2008]

Flora of Tropical East Africa

  • Gen. Pl, ed. 5 : 461 (1754)
  • Sp. Pl. : 1038 (1753)

  • Art and Illustrations in Digifolia

    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew

  • Flora Zambesiaca

    Flora Zambesiaca

  • Flora of Somalia

    Flora of Somalia

  • Flora of Tropical East Africa

    Flora of Tropical East Africa

  • Kew Backbone Distributions

    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2022. Published on the Internet at and
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families.

  • Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone

    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2022. Published on the Internet at and
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families.