Ilex Tourn. ex L.

This genus is accepted, and its native range is Cosmopolitan.


Aquifoliaceae, B. Verdcourt. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1968

Morphology General Habit
Trees or shrubs
Morphology Leaves
Leaves mostly coriaceous, entire to spinous-toothed; stipules small, persistent or soon falling
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescences solitary or fasciculate, usually composed of 1–few-flowered cymes
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx-lobes 4–6(–9), glabrous or ciliolate
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Petals 4–6(–9), imbricate, ovate, elliptic or rounded, usually connate at the base
sex Male
Male flowers with 4–6(–9) stamens
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Female flowers with 4–6(–9) staminodes; ovary (2–)4–6(–22)-locular; stigma sessile, discoid, ± lobed Male flowers with 4–6(–9) stamens
sex Female
Female flowers with 4–6(–9) staminodes; ovary (2–)4–6(–22)-locular; stigma sessile, discoid, ± lobed
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Drupes usually with (1–)4–6(–many) 1(–2)-seeded pyrenes; stigma persistent.


Aquifoliaceae, E. J. Mendes. Flora Zambesiaca 2:2. 1966

Morphology General Habit
Evergreen trees or shrubs.
Morphology Leaves Stipules
Stipules very small.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescences axillary.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Petals shortly connate at the base, imbricate.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Stamens as many as the petals.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Style
Style absent.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Ovary Ovules
Ovules 1 in each loculus.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruit of 4–5(9) single-seeded pyrenes.

Native to:

Alabama, Albania, Algeria, Andaman Is., Angola, Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Arkansas, Assam, Austria, Azores, Bahamas, Baleares, Bangladesh, Belgium, Belize, Bismarck Archipelago, Bolivia, Borneo, Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, Bulgaria, Burundi, California, Cambodia, Cameroon, Canary Is., Cape Provinces, Caroline Is., Central American Pac, China North-Central, China South-Central, China Southeast, Colombia, Connecticut, Corse, Costa Rica, Cuba, Delaware, Denmark, District of Columbia, Dominican Republic, East Himalaya, Ecuador, El Salvador, Ethiopia, Fiji, Florida, France, Free State, French Guiana, Georgia, Germany, Great Britain, Greece, Guatemala, Guinea, Gulf of Guinea Is., Guyana, Hainan, Haiti, Hawaii, Honduras, Illinois, India, Indiana, Iowa, Iran, Ireland, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Jawa, Kansas, Kentucky, Kenya, Khabarovsk, Korea, Kuril Is., KwaZulu-Natal, Laos, Leeward Is., Lesotho, Lesser Sunda Is., Liberia, Louisiana, Madagascar, Madeira, Maine, Malawi, Malaya, Maluku, Marquesas, Maryland, Massachusetts, Mexican Pacific Is., Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Morocco, Mozambique, Myanmar, Nansei-shoto, Nepal, Netherlands, New Brunswick, New Caledonia, New Guinea, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Newfoundland, Nicaragua, Nicobar Is., Nigeria, North Carolina, North Caucasus, Northern Provinces, Northern Territory, Norway, Nova Scotia, Ogasawara-shoto, Ohio, Oklahoma, Ontario, Pakistan, Panamá, Paraguay, Pennsylvania, Peru, Philippines, Portugal, Prince Edward I., Puerto Rico, Queensland, Québec, Rhode I., Romania, Rwanda, Sakhalin, Sardegna, Sicilia, Sierra Leone, Society Is., Solomon Is., South Carolina, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Sulawesi, Sumatera, Suriname, Swaziland, Switzerland, Taiwan, Tanzania, Tennessee, Texas, Thailand, Tibet, Transcaucasus, Trinidad-Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkey-in-Europe, Uganda, Uruguay, Venezuela, Venezuelan Antilles, Vermont, Vietnam, Virginia, West Himalaya, West Virginia, Windward Is., Wisconsin, Yugoslavia, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

Extinct in:


Introduced into:

Bermuda, British Columbia, Lebanon-Syria, New Zealand North, New Zealand South, Oregon, Washington

Ilex Tourn. ex L. appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status Has image?
Nov 4, 2015 Julaihi et al [S 76822], Sarawak K000618518 No
Jan 1, 2009 Wood [8808], Bolivia K000324839 No
Brazil 72091.000 No
Ribas, O.S. [3370], Brazil K001047015 Yes
Hatschbach, G. [70310], Brazil K001047025 Yes
Irwin, H.S. [22670], Brazil K001047028 Yes
Matinelli, G. [12346], Brazil K001047029 Yes
Kawasaki, M.L. [274], Brazil K001046980 Yes
Harley, R.M. [54064], Brazil K001046982 Yes
Harley, R.M. [7397], Brazil K001046990 Yes
Harley, R.M. [15559], Brazil K001046999 Yes
Hatschbach, G. [71864], Brazil K001047011 Yes
Mello-Silva, R. [11156], Brazil K001033746 Yes
Urbano [9354], Brazil K001033747 Yes
Hatschbach, G. [47505], Brazil K001046998 Yes
Ferraz, E.M.N. [582], Brazil K001047023 Yes
Barbosa, E. [619], Brazil K001047017 Yes
Ribas, O.S. [3501], Brazil K001047013 Yes
Meguro, M. [9378], Brazil K001033739 Yes
Thomas, W.W. [10038], Brazil K001046983 Yes
Alvarenga, D. [355], Brazil K001046987 Yes
Mori, S.A. [11278], Brazil K001046995 Yes
Cordeiro, I. [7537], Brazil K001033749 Yes
Santos, T.S. [2525], Brazil K001046994 Yes
Hatschbach, G. [71875], Brazil K001047010 Yes
Funch, L.S. [1055], Brazil K001046985 Yes
Ribas, O.S. [3268], Brazil K001047014 Yes
Semir, J. [4715], Brazil K001033740 Yes
Harley, R.M. [25087], Brazil K001047004 Yes
Barbosa, E. [656], Brazil K001047022 Yes
Ribas, O.S. [3502], Brazil K001047012 Yes
Pirani, J. [1322], Brazil K001046978 Yes
Thomas, W.W. [10085], Brazil K001046984 Yes
Ribas, O.S. [3162], Brazil K001047016 Yes
Hatschbach, G. [41619], Brazil K001047001 Yes
Acevedo-Rodriguez, P. [8260], Brazil K001046976 Yes
Harley, R.M. [25089], Brazil K001047005 Yes
Arbo, M.M. [4970], Brazil K001033742 Yes
Barbosa, E. [616], Brazil K001047018 Yes
Prance, G.T. [P25052], Brazil K001047030 Yes
Cordeiro, J. [1786], Brazil K001047020 Yes
Saar, E. [5692], Brazil K001046993 Yes
Krieger, L. [16372], Brazil K001033750 Yes
Ganev, W. [3096], Brazil K001046988 Yes
Sucre, D. [7207], Brazil K001033748 Yes
Meguro, M. [9014], Brazil K001047002 Yes
Giulietti, A.M. [1454], Brazil K001046997 Yes
Mello-Silva, R. [11323], Brazil K001033743 Yes
Harley, R.M. [26483], Brazil K001047000 Yes
Hatschbach, G. [65577], Brazil K001047026 Yes
Oldenburger, F.H.F. [1655], Brazil K001046986 Yes
Irwin, H.S. [28873], Brazil K001033741 Yes
Cordeiro, J. [1769], Brazil K001047019 Yes
Furlan, A. [2024], Brazil K001046991 Yes
Assis, L.C.S. [296], Brazil K001047027 Yes
Ribas, O.S. [3180], Brazil K001047021 Yes
Cordeiro, I. [4127], Brazil K001047006 Yes
Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 9023], India K001132114 Yes
Did Ferrreira, C.A. [10943], Brazil K001046977 Yes
Harley, R.M. [25087], Brazil K001047003 Yes
Austin, D.F. [7294], Brazil K001046981 Yes
Mori, S.A. [13162], Brazil K001046996 Yes
Kawasaki, M.L. [280], Brazil K001046979 Yes
Harley, R.M. [24285], Brazil K001046989 Yes
Strang, H. [1137], Brazil K001033745 Yes
Krieger, L. [15303], Brazil K001033744 Yes
Hatschbach, G. [41699], Brazil K001047024 Yes
Queiroz, L.P. [3818], Brazil K001046992 Yes

First published in Sp. Pl.: 125 (1753)

Accepted by

  • Govaerts, R., Nic Lughadha, E., Black, N., Turner, R. & Paton, A. (2021). The World Checklist of Vascular Plants, a continuously updated resource for exploring global plant diversity. Scientific Data 8: 215.


Kew Bulletin

  • Andrews, S. (2002). Aquifoliaceae. In: E. Soepadmo, L. G. Saw & R. C. K. Chung (eds), Tree Flora of Sabah & Sarawak Vol. 4: 1 - 27. Ampang Press Sdn. Bhd., Kuala Lumpur.
  • Chen, S. K., Ma, H. Y., Feng, Y. X., Barriera, G. & Loizeau, P. A. (2008). Aquifoliaceae. In: Z. Y. Wu, P. H. Raven & D. Y. Hong (eds), Flora of China, Vol. 11: 359 - 438. Science Press, Beijing & Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
  • Craib, W. G. (1931). Florae Siamensis Enumeratio, Vol. 1: 277 - 278. Siam Society, Bangkok.
  • Galle, F. C. (1997). Hollies: the genus Ilex, pp. 79 - 102. Timber Press, Portland, Oregon.
  • Hu, S. Y. (1949). The genus Ilex in China I - II. J. Arnold Arbor. 30: 233 - 387.
  • Hu, S. Y. (1950). The genus Ilex in China, III. J. Arnold Arbor. 31: 39 - 80.
  • IUCN (2001). IUCN red list categories and criteria: Version 3.1. IUCN Species Survival Commission. IUCN, Gland and Cambridge.
  • Turrill, W. B. (1914). LXX. — Decades Kewenses. Bull. Misc. Inform., Kew 10: 377 - 381.

Flora of West Tropical Africa

  • —F.T.A. 1: 359.

Flora Zambesiaca

  • Gen. Pl. ed. 5: 60 (1754).
  • Sp. Pl. 1: 125 (1753)

Flora of Tropical East Africa

  • L., Gen. Pl., ed. 5: 60 (1754)
  • Loes. in Nova Acta Leop.-Carol. Deutsch. Akad. Naturf. 78: 8–500 (1901)
  • Sp. Pl.: 125 (1753)

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