Genus:
Brassica L.

Brassica juncea (L.) Czern.

This species is accepted, and its native range is Caucasus. It is has environmental uses and social uses, as animal food, a poison and a medicine and for fuel and food.

[UPFC]
Distribution
Biogeografic region: Andean. Elevation range: 1750–3250 m a.s.l. Naturalised in Colombia. Colombian departments: Antioquia, Bogotá DC, Cauca, Magdalena, Santander, Valle del Cauca.
Habit
Herb.
Ecology
Habitat according IUCN Habitats Classification: forest and woodland, shrubland, artificial - terrestrial.

[FTEA]

Cruciferae, Bengt Jonsell (University of Stockholm). Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1982

Diagnostic
Very similar to B. integrifolia but basal and lower leaves more coarsely and irregularly dentate with 1–3 pairs of small lateral lobes.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Siliquae often longer (up to 75 mm.) with a narrowly conical beak 6–12 mm. long.
Figures
Fig. 1.
Habitat
Cultivated areas; 50–2000 m.
Distribution
K3 T3 T6 T8 probably indigenous in Central Asia, introduced particularly to E. and S. Asia but also in parts of Europe, tropical and southern Africa, N. Americanowadays extensively cultivated (brown mustard or Sarepta mustard), replacing Brassica nigra (L.) Koch as the main mustard crop

[FZ]

Cruciferae, A. W. Exell. Flora Zambesiaca 1:1. 1960

Morphology General Habit
Annual herb 60–70 cm. tall with purplish nearly glabrous stems.
Morphology Leaves
Leaves stalked, lyrate-pinnatifid to nearly entire, somewhat glaucous.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers pale yellow with pedicels up to 8 mm. long in terminal racemes.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Sepals somewhat spreading.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Petals 4, 5–9 mm. long.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Stamens 6.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Silique 2.5–5 cm. long (usually about 3 cm. in our material), narrowly cylindric, valves with reticulate nervation, with a tapering, seedless beak 5–10 mm. long, at its tip narrower than the stigma.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds 1–1.3 mm. in diam., subspherical, yellowish- or reddish-brown.

[CPLC]

Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

Distribution
Naturalizada en Colombia; Alt. 1750 - 3250 m.; Andes, Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta.
Morphology General Habit
Hierba
Conservation
No Evaluada

[FTEA]

Cruciferae, Bengt Jonsell (University of Stockholm). Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1982

Morphology General Habit
Annual herb, glabrous or somewhat hispid at bases of stem and petioles, somewhat glaucous.
Morphology Stem
Stem erect, usually 30–150 cm. high, with long ascending branches in upper part.
Morphology Leaves
Basal and lower cauline leaves petioled, not auriculate, with obovate attenuate blade up to 20 cm. long and 10 cm. broad, dentate or crenulate; petioles with or without a pair of small triangular lateral lobes; median and upper cauline leaves ± distinctly petioled, not auriculate, obovate and obtuse or oblanceolate and acute, usually 5–10 cm. long, entire to crenulate.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Racemes corymbiform, rather loose, with numerous flowers; in fruit lax, up to 50 cm. long; pedicels ascending, 5–12 mm. long.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Sepals green, oblong, 4–6 mm. long.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Petals bright yellow, clawed, with obovate blade, 6–10 mm. long.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens Anthers
Anthers 1.5–2.5 mm. long.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Ovary
Ovary with 10–20 ovules.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Siliquae linear, often somewhat torulose, sometimes inflated, 25–60 mm. long, (1–)2–3.5 mm. broad, attenuate into a conical seedless beak 2–7 mm. long; valves with distinct ± keeled midnerve.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds dark brown, globose, 1–1.5 mm. in diameter, with a distinct fine reticulum.
Habitat
Weed of cultivations, etc.; 0–2000 m.
Distribution
K3 T1 T2 T3 T6 T7 U2 U4 Z introduced (and sometimes cultivated) in large parts of tropical Africa, Asia and America

[UPFC]
Use Animal Food
Used as animal food.
Use Environmental
Environmental uses.
Use Fuel
Used for fuels.
Use Gene Sources
Used as gene sources.
Use Food
Used for food.
Use Materials
Used as material.
Use Medicines
Medical uses.
Use Poisons
Poisons.
Use Social
Social uses.

Native to:

North Caucasus, Transcaucasus

Introduced into:

Afghanistan, Alabama, Alaska, Alberta, Aleutian Is., Algeria, Altay, Amur, Andaman Is., Angola, Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Arizona, Arkansas, Assam, Austria, Bahamas, Baltic States, Bangladesh, Belarus, Belgium, Belize, Bermuda, Bolivia, Borneo, Botswana, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, British Columbia, Bulgaria, Buryatiya, California, Cambodia, Cape Provinces, Caroline Is., Central African Repu, Central American Pac, Central European Rus, China North-Central, China South-Central, China Southeast, Chita, Colombia, Colorado, Comoros, Congo, Connecticut, Cook Is., Costa Rica, Cuba, Czechoslovakia, Delaware, District of Columbia, Djibouti, Dominican Republic, East European Russia, East Himalaya, Egypt, El Salvador, Florida, France, Free State, French Guiana, Gabon, Georgia, Gilbert Is., Great Britain, Guatemala, Guinea, Gulf of Guinea Is., Haiti, Hawaii, Hungary, Idaho, Illinois, India, Indiana, Iowa, Iran, Iraq, Irkutsk, Ivory Coast, Jamaica, Japan, Jawa, Kansas, Kazakhstan, Kentucky, Kenya, Khabarovsk, Kirgizstan, Korea, Krasnoyarsk, Krym, Kuril Is., Kuwait, KwaZulu-Natal, Leeward Is., Libya, Louisiana, Maine, Malawi, Malaya, Maluku, Manitoba, Marianas, Maryland, Massachusetts, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico Central, Mexico Northwest, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Montana, Mozambique, Nebraska, Nepal, Nevada, New Brunswick, New Caledonia, New Guinea, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New South Wales, New York, New Zealand North, Newfoundland, Nicaragua, Nicobar Is., Niue, Norfolk Is., North Carolina, North Dakota, North European Russi, Northern Provinces, Northwest European R, Northwest Territorie, Norway, Nova Scotia, Ohio, Oklahoma, Oman, Ontario, Oregon, Pakistan, Paraguay, Pennsylvania, Peru, Philippines, Portugal, Primorye, Prince Edward I., Queensland, Québec, Rhode I., Rodrigues, Romania, Rwanda, Réunion, Sakhalin, Saskatchewan, Saudi Arabia, Sierra Leone, Society Is., South Australia, South Carolina, South Dakota, South European Russi, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sulawesi, Sweden, Tadzhikistan, Taiwan, Tanzania, Tennessee, Texas, Trinidad-Tobago, Tunisia, Turkmenistan, Tuva, Ukraine, Utah, Uzbekistan, Venezuela, Vermont, Vietnam, Virginia, Washington, West Himalaya, West Siberia, West Virginia, Western Australia, Windward Is., Wisconsin, Wyoming, Yemen, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

English
Japanese Greens

Brassica juncea (L.) Czern. appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status Has image?
Aug 1, 2008 Ramadhanil et al. [257], Sulawesi K000575047 No
Lange, J. [s.n.], Denmark K000653819 Yes
Lange, J. [s.n.], Denmark K000653818 Yes
s.coll. [Cat. no. 4792] Sinapis ramosa K001039915 Yes
s.coll. [Cat. no. 4792] Sinapis ramosa K001039916 Yes
s.coll. [Cat. no. 4792] Sinapis ramosa K001039913 Yes
s.coll. [Cat. no. 4792] Sinapis ramosa K001039914 Yes
s.coll. [Cat. no. 4794] Sinapis juncea K001039922 Yes
s.coll. [Cat. no. 4794], India Sinapis juncea K001039924 Yes
s.coll. [Cat. no. 4794], India Sinapis juncea K001039925 Yes
Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 4794], Myanmar Sinapis juncea K001039926 Yes
s.coll. [Cat. no. 4794] Sinapis juncea K001039923 Yes
s.coll. [Cat. no. 4794] Sinapis juncea K001039921 Yes
s.coll. [Cat. no. 4797] Sinapis rugosa K001039931 Yes
s.coll. [Cat. no. 4797] Sinapis rugosa K001039930 Yes

First published in Consp. Pl. Charc.: 8 (1859)

Accepted by

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  • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies. Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
  • Ackerfield, J. (2015). Flora of Colorado: 1-818. BRIT Press.
  • Aistova, E. (2009). Check-list of adventive flora of Amur region. Turczaninowia 12(1-2): 17-40.
  • Allred, K.W. (2012). Flora Neomexicana, ed. 2, 1: 1-599. Range Science Herbarium, Las Cruces, New Mexico.
  • B.A.Fedtschenko & al. (1948). Flora Turkmenii 3: 1-280. Turkmenskoe gosudarstvennoe izd., Ashkhabad.
  • Bailey, C. & al. (2015). Guide to the Vascular Plants of Tennessee: 1-813. University of Tennessee press.
  • Barooah, C. & Ahmed, I. (2014). Plant diversity of Assam. A checklist of Angiosperms and Gymnosperms: 1-599. Assam science technology and environment council, India.
  • Barry, J. P. & Celles, J.S. (1991). Flore de Mauritanie 1: 1-359. Centre Regional de Documentation Pedagogique, Nice.
  • Barthelat, F. (2019). La flore illustrée de Mayotte: 1-687. Biotope éditions.
  • Bernal, R., Gradstein, R.S. & Celis, M. (eds.) (2016). Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia 1-2: 1-3068. Libro impreso.
  • Berry, M. (2019). Adventures and aliens news 17. BSBI News 141: 41-47.
  • Boggan, J. Funck, V. & Kelloff, C. (1997). Checklist of the Plants of the Guianas (Guyana, Surinam, Franch Guiana) ed. 2: 1-238. University of Guyana, Georgetown.
  • Bosser, J., Cadet, T., Julien, H.R. & Marais, W. (eds.) (1980). Flore des Mascareignes 31-50: 1. IRD Éditions, MSIRI, RBG-Kew, Paris.
  • Boulos, L. (1999). Flora of Egypt 1: 1-419. Al Hadara Publishing, Cairo.
  • Brako, L. & Zarucchi, J.L. (1993). Catalogue of the Flowering Plants and Gymnosperms of Peru. Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 45: i-xl, 1-1286. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • Chang, C.S., Kim, H. & Chang, K.S. (2014). Provisional checklist of vascular plants for the Korea peninsula flora (KPF): 1-660. DESIGNPOST.
  • Choudhary, R.K., Srivastava, R.C., Das, A.K. & Lee, J. (2012). Floristic diversity assessment and vegetation analysis of Upper Siang district of eastern Himalaya in North East India. Korean Journal of Plant Taxonomy 42: 222-246.
  • Daoud, H.S. in Al-Rawi, A. (1985). Flora of Kuwait 1: 1-224. Alden Press Ltd., U.K.
  • Dassanayake (ed.) (1995). A Revised Handbook to the Flora of Ceylon 9: 1-482. Oxford & IBH Publishing Co. PVT. LTD., New Delhi, Calcutta.
  • Ebel, A. (2005). Review of Brassicaceae family in the flora of Khakassia. Turczaninowia 8(1): 11-38.
  • Exell, A.W. & Wild, H. (eds.) (1960). Flora Zambesiaca 1(1): 1-336. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola. Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Figueiredo, E., Paiva, J., Stévart, T., Oliveira, F. & Smith, G.F. (2011). Annotated catalogue of the flowering plants of São Tomé and Príncipe. Bothalia, A Journal of Botanical Research 41: 41-82.
  • Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2010). Flora of North America North of Mexico 7: 1-797. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.
  • Fosberg, F.R. & Sachet, M.-H. (1987). Flora of the Gilbert Island, Kiribati, Checklist. Atoll Research Bulletin 295: 1-33.
  • GBIF (2008-2020). Global Biodiversity Information Facility http://www.gbif.org/.
  • Garcillán, P.P. & al. (2013). Plantas no nativas naturalizadas de la península de Baja California, México. Botanical Sciences 91: 461-475.
  • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa an annotated checklist. Strelitzia 14: 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Ghazanfar, S.A. (1992). An Annotated Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Oman and their Vernacular names. Scripta Botanica Belgica 2: 1-153.
  • Gilman, A.V. (2015). New flora of Vermont. Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden 110: 1-614.
  • Govaerts, R. (1996). World Checklist of Seed Plants 2(1, 2): 1-492. MIM, Deurne.
  • Grierson, A.J.C. & Long, D.G. (1984). Flora of Bhutan 1(2): 189-462. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
  • Hedge, J. & Rechinger, K.H. (1968). Flora Iranica 57: 1-372. Akademische Druck- u. Verlagsanstalt, Graz.
  • Hutchinson, J., Dalziel, J.M. & Keay, R.W.J. (1954-1958). Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 1: 1-828.
  • Jafri, S.M.H. (1973). Flora of West Pakistan 55: 1-308.
  • Jalas, J., Suominen, J. & Lampinen, R. (eds.) (1996). Atlas Florae Europaeae. Distribution of vascular plants in Europe 11: 1-310.
  • Jones, R.L. (2005). Plant life of Kentucky. An illustrated guide to the vascular flora: 1-833. The universitry press of Kentucky.
  • Jonsell, B. (1982). Flora of Tropical East Africa, Cruciferae: 1-73.
  • Jørgensen, P.M., Nee, M.H. & Beck., S.G. (eds.) (2013). Catálogo de las plantas vasculares de Bolivia. Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 127: 1-1741. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • Kharkevich, S.S. (ed.) (1988). Plantae Vasculares Orientalis Extremi Sovietici 3: 1-419. Nauka, Leningrad.
  • Korovin, E.P. & Vvedensky, A.I. (eds.) (1955). Flora Uzbekistana 3: 1-824. Izd-va Akademii nauk Uzbekskoi SSR, Tashkent.
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  • López Patiño, E.J., Szeszko, D.R., Rascala Pérez, J. & Beltrán Retis, A.S. (2012). The flora of the Tenacingo-Malinalco-Zumpahuacán protected natural area, state of Mexico, Mexico. Harvard Papers in Botany 17: 65-167.
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  • Miller, A.G. & Cope, T.A. (1996). Flora of the Arabian peninsula and Socotra 1: 1-586. Edinburgh university press.
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  • Ovchinnikov, P.N. (ed.) (1978). Flora Tadzhikskoi SSR 5: 1-678. Izd-vo Akademii nauk SSSR, Moskva.
  • Sita, P. & Moutsambote, J.-M. (2005). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Congo, ed. sept. 2005: 1-158. ORSTOM, Centre de Brazzaville.
  • Sykes, W.R. (1970). Contributions to the flora of Niue. Bulletin, New Zealand Department of Scientific and Industrial Research 200: 1-321.
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  • Townsend, C.C. & Guest, E. (eds.) (1980). Flora of Iraq 4(2): 628-1199. Ministry of Agriculture & Agrarian Reform, Baghdad.
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Literature

Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia

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Kew Backbone Distributions

  • (1982). Flora of Australia 8: 1-420. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
  • Abdulina, S.A. (1999). Spisok Sosudistykn Rastenii Kazakhstana: 1-187. Academy of Sciences, Almaty, Kazakhstan.
  • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies. Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
  • Ackerfield, J. (2015). Flora of Colorado: 1-818. BRIT Press.
  • Aistova, E. (2009). Check-list of adventive flora of Amur region. Turczaninowia 12(1-2): 17-40.
  • Allred, K.W. (2012). Flora Neomexicana, ed. 2, 1: 1-599. Range Science Herbarium, Las Cruces, New Mexico.
  • Audru, J., Cesar, J. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1994). Les Plantes Vasculaires de la République de Djibouti. Flore Illustrée 1: 1-336. CIRAD, Départerment d'Elevage et de Médecine vétérinaire, Djibouti.
  • B.A.Fedtschenko & al. (1948). Flora Turkmenii 3: 1-280. Turkmenskoe gosudarstvennoe izd., Ashkhabad.
  • Bailey, C. & al. (2015). Guide to the Vascular Plants of Tennessee: 1-813. University of Tennessee press.
  • Barooah, C. & Ahmed, I. (2014). Plant diversity of Assam. A checklist of Angiosperms and Gymnosperms: 1-599. Assam science technology and environment council, India.
  • Barry, J. P. & Celles, J.S. (1991). Flore de Mauritanie 1: 1-359. Centre Regional de Documentation Pedagogique, Nice.
  • Barthelat, F. (2019). La flore illustrée de Mayotte: 1-687. Biotope éditions.
  • Bernal, R., Gradstein, R.S. & Celis, M. (eds.) (2016). Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia 1-2: 1-3068. Libro impreso.
  • Boggan, J. Funck, V. & Kelloff, C. (1997). Checklist of the Plants of the Guianas (Guyana, Surinam, Franch Guiana) ed. 2: 1-238. University of Guyana, Georgetown.
  • Bosser, J., Cadet, T., Julien, H.R. & Marais, W. (eds.) (1980). Flore des Mascareignes 31-50: 1. IRD Éditions, MSIRI, RBG-Kew, Paris.
  • Boulos, L. (1999). Flora of Egypt 1: 1-419. Al Hadara Publishing, Cairo.
  • Boulvert, Y. (1977). Catalogue de la Flore de Centrafrique 2(1): 1-85. ORSTROM, Bangui.
  • Brako, L. & Zarucchi, J.L. (1993). Catalogue of the Flowering Plants and Gymnosperms of Peru. Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 45: i-xl, 1-1286. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • Britton, N. (1918). Flora of Bermuda: 1-585. Charles Scribner's Sons, New York.
  • Chang, C.S., Kim, H. & Chang, K.S. (2014). Provisional checklist of vascular plants for the Korea peninsula flora (KPF): 1-660. DESIGNPOST.
  • Choudhary, R.K., Srivastava, R.C., Das, A.K. & Lee, J. (2012). Floristic diversity assessment and vegetation analysis of Upper Siang district of eastern Himalaya in North East India. Korean Journal of Plant Taxonomy 42: 222-246.
  • Collenette, S. (1999). Wildflowers of Saudi Arabia: 1-799. National commission for wildlife conservation and development (NCWCD), Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
  • Daoud, H.S. in Al-Rawi, A. (1985). Flora of Kuwait 1: 1-224. Alden Press Ltd., U.K.
  • Dassanayake (ed.) (1995). A Revised Handbook to the Flora of Ceylon 9: 1-482. Oxford & IBH Publishing Co. PVT. LTD., New Delhi, Calcutta.
  • Dobignard, A. & Chatelain, C. (2011). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 3: 1-449. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
  • Dy Phon, P. (2000). Dictionnaire des plantes utilisées au Cambodge: 1-915. Chez l'auteur, Phnom Penh, Cambodia.
  • Ebel, A. (2005). Review of Brassicaceae family in the flora of Khakassia. Turczaninowia 8(1): 11-38.
  • Exell, A.W. & Wild, H. (eds.) (1960). Flora Zambesiaca 1(1): 1-336. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola. Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Figueiredo, E., Paiva, J., Stévart, T., Oliveira, F. & Smith, G.F. (2011). Annotated catalogue of the flowering plants of São Tomé and Príncipe. Bothalia, A Journal of Botanical Research 41: 41-82.
  • Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2010). Flora of North America North of Mexico 7: 1-797. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.
  • Forzza, R.C., Zappi, D. & Souza, V.C. (2016-continuously updated). Flora do Brasil 2020 em construção http://reflora.jbrj.gov.br/reflora/listaBrasil/ConsultaPublicaUC/ResultadoDaConsultaNovaConsulta.do.
  • Fosberg, F.R. & Sachet, M.-H. (1987). Flora of the Gilbert Island, Kiribati, Checklist. Atoll Research Bulletin 295: 1-33.
  • Fosberg, F.R., Sachet, M.-H., Oliver, R. (1979). A geographical checklist of the Micronesian Dicotyledonae. Micronesica; Journal of the College of Guam 15: 41-295.
  • GBIF (2008-2020). Global Biodiversity Information Facility http://www.gbif.org/.
  • Garcillán, P.P. & al. (2013). Plantas no nativas naturalizadas de la península de Baja California, México. Botanical Sciences 91: 461-475.
  • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa an annotated checklist. Strelitzia 14: 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Ghazanfar, S.A. (1992). An Annotated Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Oman and their Vernacular names. Scripta Botanica Belgica 2: 1-153.
  • Gilman, A.V. (2015). New flora of Vermont. Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden 110: 1-614.
  • Gorchakovskii, P.L. & al. (1994). Opredelitel' sosudistykkhrastenii srednego Urala: 1-524. Nauka, Moscow.
  • Hammel, B.E., Grayum, M.H., Herrera, C. & Zamora, N. (eds.) (2020). Manual de Plantas de Costa Rica 4(2): 1-524. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
  • Hedge, J. & Rechinger, K.H. (1968). Flora Iranica 57: 1-372. Akademische Druck- u. Verlagsanstalt, Graz.
  • Hultén, E.O.G. (1960). Flora of the Aleutian Islands and westernmost Alaska Peninsula: with notes on the flora of Commander Islands, ed. 2: 1-376. Weinheim : J. Cramer ; New York : Hafner Pub. Co.
  • Hutchinson, J., Dalziel, J.M. & Keay, R.W.J. (1954-1958). Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 1: 1-828.
  • Jafri, S.M.H. (1973). Flora of West Pakistan 55: 1-308.
  • Jalas, J., Suominen, J. & Lampinen, R. (eds.) (1996). Atlas Florae Europaeae. Distribution of vascular plants in Europe 11: 1-310.
  • Jones, R.L. (2005). Plant life of Kentucky. An illustrated guide to the vascular flora: 1-833. The universitry press of Kentucky.
  • Jonsell, B. (1982). Flora of Tropical East Africa, Cruciferae: 1-73.
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  • López Patiño, E.J., Szeszko, D.R., Rascala Pérez, J. & Beltrán Retis, A.S. (2012). The flora of the Tenacingo-Malinalco-Zumpahuacán protected natural area, state of Mexico, Mexico. Harvard Papers in Botany 17: 65-167.
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Useful Plants and Fungi of Colombia

  • Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R., & Celis, M. (eds.). (2020). Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia. v1.1. Universidad Nacional de Colombia. Dataset/Checklist. https://doi.org/10.15472/7avdhn
  • Burkill HM. (1995). The useful plants of west tropical Africa, Vols. 1-3. The useful plants of west tropical Africa, Vols 1-3.
  • Cámara-Leret, R., & Dennehy, Z. (2019). Information gaps in indigenous and local knowledge for science-policy assessments. Nature Sustainability 2:736-741.
  • Dempewolf, H., Eastwood, R. J., Guarino, L., Khoury, C. K., Müller, J. V. & Toll, J. (2014). Adapting agriculture to climate change: a global initiative to collect, conserve, and use crop wild relatives. Agroecology and Sustainable Food Systems, 38, 369-377.
  • Diazgranados et al. (2021). Catalogue of plants of Colombia. Useful Plants and Fungi of Colombia project. In prep.
  • Diazgranados, M., Allkin, B., Black N., Cámara-Leret, R., Canteiro C., Carretero J., Eastwood R., Hargreaves S., Hudson A., Milliken W., Nesbitt, M., Ondo, I., Patmore, K., Pironon, S., Turner, R., Ulian, T. (2020). World Checklist of Useful Plant Species. Produced by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Knowledge Network for Biocomplexity.
  • FPI (2021). Food Plants International. https://fms.cmsvr.com/fmi/webd/Food_Plants_World?homeurl=https://foodplantsinternational.com/plants/
  • GBIF.org (2021). GBIF species matching tool. https://www.gbif.org/tools/species-lookup
  • GRIN (2021). Germplasm Resources Information Network from the United States Department of Agriculture. https://www.ars-grin.gov/
  • Medicinal Plant Names Services (MPNS) v.10 (2021); http://mpns.kew.org/
  • PROTA (2021). Plants Resources of Tropical Africa. https://prota4u.org/database/
  • RBG, Kew (2021). Kew Economic Botany Collection. https://ecbot.science.kew.org/
  • RBG, Kew (ed.) (1999). Survey of Economic Plants for Arid and Semi-Arid Lands (SEPASAL) database. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, London.
  • Willis, K.J. (ed.) (2017). State of the World’s Plants 2017. Report. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

Flora of Tropical East Africa

  • Binns, Check-list Fl. Malawi 1: 41 (1968).
  • Czern., Consp. Pl. Chark.: 8 (1859).
  • Exell & Gonçalves in Fl. Moçamb. 11: 5 (1973), saltern pro parte.
  • Exell in Flora Zambesiaca 1: 186 (1960), pro parte.
  • Keay, Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 1: 97 (1954).
  • Marais in Flora of Southern Africa 13: 7 (1970).
  • O.E. Schulz in A. Engler, Das Pflanzenreich IV. 105, 70: 55 (1919).
  • Oliv. in Flora of Tropical Africa 1: 65 (1868), pro parte.
  • Robyns & Boutique in Flore du Congo Belge et du Ruanda-Urundi, 2: 530 (1951), saltern pro parte.
  • Th. Dur. & Schinz, Consp. Fl. Afr. 1(2): 116 (1898), verisim. pro parte.

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  • Kew Living Collection Database

    Common Names from Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew Living Collection https://www.kew.org/

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    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2022. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
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