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This species is accepted, and its native range is Tropical & Subtropical Old World.
Gymnema sylvestre

[FTEA]

Apocynaceae (part 2), David Goyder, Timothy Harris, Siro Masinde, Ulrich Meve, Johan Venter. Flora of Tropical East Africa, 2012

Morphology General Habit
Scandent shrub or woody twiner with white latex.
Morphology Stem
Stems to ± 5 m long, young shoots shortly villous with white or tawny hairs, older stems lenticellate, to ± 2.5 cm in diameter at base, arising from a long taproot 0.5–1.5(–2) cm long.
Morphology Leaves Leaf lamina
Lamina broadly ovate, obovate, elliptic or suborbicular, 3–7 × 1.5–5 cm, apex acute, shortly attenuate or narrowing abruptly into a short acumen, base rounded or very weakly cordate, pubescent on both surfaces
Morphology Leaves
Leaves opposite, petiole
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescences extra-axillary, single or paired, much shorter than the adjacent leaves, forming dense subumbelliform clusters of flowers.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Peduncles
Peduncles (0.3–)0.5–1.5 cm long, densely pubescent.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Pedicel
Pedicels 2–5 mm long, pubescent
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Sepals lanceolate to broadly ovate or orbicular, 1–2 × 0.5–1 mm, apex rounded, pubescent with ciliate margins.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Corolla yellow, orange or cream, glabrous except on the corona; tube 1–1.5 mm long, ± completely enclosing the gynostegium; lobes spreading, oblong or triangular with a rounded or somewhat truncate apex, ± 1.5 × 1 mm, margins ciliate
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corona
Corolline corona forming five fleshy ridges running from the corolla lobe sinus down the length of the corolla tube, pubescent along the lateral faces, frequently bifid and projecting somewhat at the mouth of the corolla tube
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Staminal corona absent
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens Anthers
Anther wings ± 0.8 mm long
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Pollinarium
Pollinaria minute, corpusculum ovoid, 0.1 mm long; translator arms slender, ± 0.1 mm long.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Pollinia
Pollinia ovoid, ± 0.1 mm long
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Style
Stylar head projecting for ± 1 mm beyond anthers, ovoidconical
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Follicles single, fusiform, 5–9 × ± 0.7 cm, slender, tapering gently into a long attenuate tip, smooth, glabrous
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds flattened, ± 9 × 5 mm, oblong with a narrow margin; coma ± 3.5 cm long
Figures
Fig 58/5, p 192
Ecology
Riverine forest margins, thicket and dry bushland, frequently on sand; 700–1500 m
Distribution
Flora districts: U1 U2 U3 U4 K4 K5 K7 T1 T3 T4 T5 T6 T7 Z Range: Widely distributed across Old World tropics - in Africa from the northeastern provinces of South Africa northwards to Senegal and Mauritania in the west and Ethiopia in the east, then via the Arabian Peninsula to the Indian subcontinent.

Native to:

Angola, Assam, Bangladesh, Benin, Botswana, Burkina, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Cape Provinces, Caprivi Strip, Central African Repu, Chad, China South-Central, China Southeast, Comoros, Congo, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Gabon, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Hainan, India, Ivory Coast, Kenya, KwaZulu-Natal, Laos, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaya, Mali, Mauritania, Mozambique, Namibia, Nansei-shoto, Niger, Nigeria, Northern Provinces, Northern Territory, Queensland, Rwanda, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Taiwan, Tanzania, Togo, Uganda, Vietnam, Western Australia, Yemen, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

Gymnema sylvestre (Retz.) R.Br. ex Sm. appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
Keay, R.W.J. [FHI 25401], Nigeria 22863.000
Milne-Redhead, E. [5069A], Ghana 22864.000
Keay, R.W.J. [FHI 28040], Nigeria 23274.000
Milne-Redhead, E. [5069], Ghana 23671.000
Faulkner [991], Tanzania 25407.000
Polhill, R. [1261], Tanzania 3415.000
Bridson, D. [223], Rwanda 43779.000
Collenette, I.S. [7262], Saudi Arabia 55753.000
Polhill, R. [1131], Tanzania 6384.000
Milne-Redhead, E. [11258], Tanzania 6924.000
Goyder, D.J. [5002], Mozambique 71672.000
Gerrard, W.T. [1314], South Africa K000305344
McKen [3], South Africa K000305345 Unknown type material
Quartin-Dillon [s.n.], Ethiopia K000305347
Schimper [807], Ethiopia K000305348
unknown [49], Senegal K000305350
s.coll. [Cat. no. 8184] K001129171
s.coll. [Cat. no. 8184] K001129172
s.coll. [Cat. no. 8184] K001129173
Thwaites, G.H.K. [1844], Sri Lanka K000872847
s.coll. [1845] K000872848
Thwaites, G.H.K. [1844], Sri Lanka K000872846
Bidgood, S. [BO/02], Botswana K000823860
Lötter, M.C. [2025], Mozambique Marsdenia sylvestris K000823770
Wright, C. [337], Hong Kong Gymnema affine K000872850
s.coll. [194], Hong Kong Gymnema affine K000872852
Oldham, R. [330], Taiwan Gymnema affine K000872854
Champion, J.G. [194], Hong Kong Gymnema affine K000872853
s.coll. [194], Hong Kong Gymnema affine K000872851 Unknown type material
s.coll. [8184], China Gymnema affine K000872849 Unknown type material

First published in A.Rees, Cycl. 17: n.° 4 (1811)

Accepted by

  • Barthelat, F. (2019). La flore illustrée de Mayotte: 1-687. Biotope éditions.
  • Berhaut, J. (1971). Flore illustrée du Sénégal 1: 1-626. Gouvernement du Sénégal, Ministère du développement rural direction des eaux et forêta, Dakar.
  • Bruyns, P.V. (2014). The Apocynaceae of Namibia Strelitzia 34: 1-158. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Govaerts, R. (2003). World Checklist of Seed Plants Database in ACCESS G: 1-40325.
  • Hepper, F.N. (ed.) (1963). Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 2: 1-544.
  • Iwatsuki, K., Yamazaki, T., Boufford, D.E. & Ohba, H. (eds.) (1993). Flora of Japan IIIa: 1-482. Kodansha Ltd., Tokyo.
  • Lebrun, J.-P., Audru, J., Gaston, A. & Mosnier, M. (1972). Catalogue des Plantes Vasculaires du Tchad Méridional: 1-289. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
  • Lebrun, J.P., Toutain, B., Gaston, A. & Boudet, G. (1991). Catalogue des Plantes Vasculaires du Burkina Faso: 1-341. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
  • Lejoy, J., Ndjele, M.-B. & Geerinck, D. (2010). Catalogue-flore des plantes vasculaires des districts de Kisangani et de la Tshopo (RD Congo) Taxonomania. Revue de Taxonomie et de Nomenclature Botaniques 30: 1-307.
  • Peyre de Fabregues, B. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1976). Catalogue des Plantes Vascularies du Niger: 1-433. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
  • Sikarwar, R.L.S. (2014). Angiosperm diversity assessment of Chitrakootthe legendary place of Vindhyan range, India Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 38: 563-619.
  • Sita, P. & Moutsambote, J.-M. (2005). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Congo, ed. sept. 2005: 1-158. ORSTOM, Centre de Brazzaville.

Not accepted by

  • Catarino, L., Martins, E.S., Diniz, M.A. & Pinto-Basto, M.F. (2006). Check-list da flora vascular do parque natural das Lagos de Cufada (Guiné-Bissau) Garcia de Orta, Série de Botânica 17: 97-141. [Cited as Marsdenia sylvestris.]
  • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. [Cited as Marsdenia sylvestris.]
  • Goyder, S., Harris, T., Masinde, S., Meve, U. & Venter, J. (2012). Flora of Tropical East Africa, Apocynaceae(2): 1-530. [Cited as Marsdenia sylvestris.]

Literature

Kew Backbone Distributions

  • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
  • Barthelat, F. (2019). La flore illustrée de Mayotte: 1-687. Biotope éditions.
  • Berhaut, J. (1971). Flore illustrée du Sénégal 1: 1-626. Gouvernement du Sénégal, Ministère du développement rural direction des eaux et forêta, Dakar.
  • Boudet, G., Lebrun, J.P. & Demange, R. (1986). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Mali: 1-465. Etudes d'Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux.
  • Bruyns, P.V. (2014). The Apocynaceae of Namibia Strelitzia 34: 1-158. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Catarino, L., Martins, E.S., Diniz, M.A. & Pinto-Basto, M.F. (2006). Check-list da flora vascular do parque natural das Lagos de Cufada (Guiné-Bissau) Garcia de Orta, Série de Botânica 17: 97-141.
  • Collenette, S. (1999). Wildflowers of Saudi Arabia: 1-799. National commission for wildlife conservation and development (NCWCD), Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
  • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Dy Phon, P. (2000). Dictionnaire des plantes utilisées au Cambodge: 1-915. Chez l'auteur, Phnom Penh, Cambodia.
  • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Goyder, D.J., Gilbert, M.G. & Venter, H.J.T. (2020). Flora Zambesiaca 7(3): 1-375. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Goyder, S., Harris, T., Masinde, S., Meve, U. & Venter, J. (2012). Flora of Tropical East Africa, Apocynaceae(2): 1-530.
  • Hedberg, I., Edwards, S. & Nemomissa, S. (eds.) (2003). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 4(1): 1-352. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
  • Hepper, F.N. (ed.) (1963). Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 2: 1-544.
  • Jagtap, A.P. & Singh, N.P. (1999). Fascicles of Flora of India 24: 1-332. Botanical Survey of India, New Delhi.
  • Lebrun, J.-P., Audru, J., Gaston, A. & Mosnier, M. (1972). Catalogue des Plantes Vasculaires du Tchad Méridional: 1-289. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
  • Lebrun, J.P., Toutain, B., Gaston, A. & Boudet, G. (1991). Catalogue des Plantes Vasculaires du Burkina Faso: 1-341. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
  • Lejoy, J., Ndjele, M.-B. & Geerinck, D. (2010). Catalogue-flore des plantes vasculaires des districts de Kisangani et de la Tshopo (RD Congo) Taxonomania. Revue de Taxonomie et de Nomenclature Botaniques 30: 1-307.
  • Newman, M., Ketphanh, S., Svengsuksa, B., Thomas, P., Sengdala, K., Lamxay, V. & Armstrong, K. (2007). A checklist of the vascular plants of Lao PDR: 1-394. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
  • Onana, J.M. (2011). The vascular plants of Cameroon a taxonomic checklist with IUCN assessments: 1-195. National herbarium of Cameroon, Yaoundé.
  • Peyre de Fabregues, B. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1976). Catalogue des Plantes Vascularies du Niger: 1-433. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
  • Sita, P. & Moutsambote, J.-M. (2005). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Congo, ed. sept. 2005: 1-158. ORSTOM, Centre de Brazzaville.
  • Wood, J.R.I. (1997). A Handbook of the Yemen Flora: 1-434. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

Art and Illustrations in Digifolia
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew

Flora of Tropical East Africa
Flora of Tropical East Africa
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
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Kew Backbone Distributions
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Kew Science Photographs
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

Plants and People Africa
Common Names from Plants and People Africa http://www.plantsandpeopleafrica.com/
© Plants and People Africa http://www.plantsandpeopleafrica.com http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/