Ruehssia amylacea (Barb.Rodr.) F.Esp.Santo & Rapini

This species is accepted, and its native range is Brazil (Pará).


Espírito Santo, F., Rapini, A., Ribeiro, P.L. et al. (2019). Phylogeny of the tribe Marsdenieae (Apocynaceae), reinstatement of Ruehssia and the taxonomic treatment of the genus in Brazil. Kew Bulletin 74: 30.

Ruehssia amylacea is reported in three states along the Brazilian Amazon region, but by only one or two records in each, with an area of occupancy estimated as 12,000 km2. Besides being severely fragmented, the last collection of this species was almost 40 years ago. Therefore, the species is assessed as Endangered: EN B2ab(ii,iii,iv).
Brazil, in the states of Amapá, Amazonas and Pará. According to Barbosa Rodrigues (1891), the species was common in the “Amazon Valley” due to its use in folk medicine. However, only four collections of Ruehssia amylacea have been reported so far.
Amazon lowland.
Morphology General Habit
Plants climbing; stems glabrous
Morphology Leaves
Leaves with petiole 1 – 1.9 cm long, glabrous; lamina 5.5 – 10.9 × 2.7 – 5.2 cm, elliptic, base attenuate to arising, apex acute to acuminate, margins revolute, adaxially with or without 2 colleters at the base of the main vein, papyraceous, glabrous
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Sepals 2.3 – 2.6 × 1 – 1.2 mm, elliptic to slightly obovate, apex cuneate, margins ciliate, abaxially glabrous, adaxially with 5 alternisepalous colleters at the base of calyx
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Corolla campanulate, cream, purplish or light pink, abaxially glabrous, adaxially pilose on throat and lower half of lobes; tube 1.9 – 2.5 × 2.6 – 3 mm; lobes 3 – 3.5 × 2 – 2.9 mm, oblong to broadly elliptic, suberect, apex rounded, margins sparsely ciliate
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corona
Corona lobes 1.4 – 1.6 × 0.8 – 1 mm, a lower portion auriculate, transversely elliptic to suborbicular, fused to the anther, an upper portion ovate with apex acute to lanceolate, free, exceeding the style-head
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynostegium
Gynostegium c. 1.8 mm high, subsessile, inserted in the corolla tube; style-head c. 0.4 × 0.5 mm, subglobose; anthers c. 0.18 × 0.13 mm, apical membranous appendix 0.41 – 5.2 × 0.4 – 0.44 mm, broadly ovate; corpusculum 0.14 – 0.16 × 0.03 – 0.04 mm, lanceolate, apex obtuse, straight; caudicles 0.11 – 0.14 mm long; pollinia 0.16 – 0.18 × 0.08 – 0.09 mm, obovoid.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescences scorpioid, with 2 or 3 umbelliform cymes, 5 – 9 flowers per cyme; peduncle 1.7 – 3 cm long, glabrous; bracts c. 1.1 × 0.45 mm, ovate to lanceolate, margins ciliate; pedicels 6 – 9 mm long, glabrous
Ruehssia amylacea has elliptic, basally attenuate leaves, scorpioid inflorescences with two to three umbelliform cymes, flowers usually with elliptic sepals, purplish-cream or light pink, campanulate corolla with oblong to broadly elliptic lobes, and corona lobes with an auriculate, transversely elliptic to suborbicular lower portion and a lanceolate to ovate, apically acute upper portion. Since the specimen collected by Barbosa Rodrigues is unknown, we selected the original illustration of Elcomarhiza amylacea in Barbosa Rodrigues (1891: tab. 6) as the lectotype. The species was described in a separate genus, Elcomarhiza, which derives from “Elcoma” (wound) and “Rhizos” (root), in reference to the use of the starch extracted from its roots in popular medicine, for the treatment of ulcers and wounds.
Collected with flowers in January and June; fruits not observed.
“In Rio Negro, ad igarapé Tarumá uaçu” [lectotype: Barbosa Rodrigues (1891: tab. 6)].
Popularly known by the indigenous name “Kumaka”, “Kumakaá” or “Cumacá” (Barbosa Rodrigues 1891).

It was commonly used by superstitious people because of miraculous properties (Barbosa Rodrigues, 1891: p. 45, our translantion): “If by this side, it is sought, much more it is by the superstitious people, who believe that the whole plant has supernatural virtues; so that the judge who assigns a sentence in ink with starch of the Kumakaá dissolved in it will never give it contrary to the defendant; he who, by his heart, wishes to imprison another, or to receive without denial, a favor will write in the same ink; the woman or man whose clothing is gummed with the same starch will become constant the extreme lover; the girls who hide a leaf of the plant in their hair will have the power to be beautiful, even if they are ugly. . .”

Native to:

Brazil North

Ruehssia amylacea (Barb.Rodr.) F.Esp.Santo & Rapini appears in other Kew resources:

First published in Kew Bull. 74(2)-30: 14 (2019)

Accepted by

  • Govaerts, R., Nic Lughadha, E., Black, N., Turner, R. & Paton, A. (2021). The World Checklist of Vascular Plants, a continuously updated resource for exploring global plant diversity. Scientific Data 8: 215.


Kew Bulletin

  • Bachman, S., Moat, J., Hill, A., de la Torre, J. & Scott, B. (2011). Supporting Red List threat assessments with GeoCAT: Geospatial Conservation Assessment Tool. ZooKeys 150: 117 – 126.
  • Baillon, H. E. (1890). Histoire des plantes, Vol. 10. Libraire Hachette & Co, Paris.
  • Baldwin, B. G. & Markos, S. (1998). Phylogenetic utility of the external transcribed spacer (ETS) of 18S – 26S rDNA: congruence of ETS and ITS trees of Calycadenia (Compositae). Molec. Phylogenet. Evol. 10: 449 – 463.
  • Barbosa Rodrigues, J. (1891). Eclogae plantarum novarum. Vellosia, ed. 2: 1 – 133.
  • Beardsley, P. M. & Olmstead, R. G. (2002). Redefining Phrymaceae: the placement of Mimulus, tribe Mimuleae, and Phryma. Amer. J. Bot. 87: 1093 – 1102.
  • Bentham, G. & Hooker, J. D. (1876). Genera plantarum, Vol. 2. Reeve & Co, London.
  • Brandegee, T. S. (1917). Plantae mexicanae purpusianae, VIII. Univ. Calif. Publ. Bot. 6: 363 – 375.
  • Bruyns, P. V. & Forster, P. I. (1991). Recircumscription of the Stapelieae (Asclepiadaceae). Taxon 40: 381 – 391.
  • Bullock, A. A. (1956). Notes on African Asclepiadaceae: VIII. Kew Bull. 11: 503 – 522.
  • Bullock, A. A. (1964). A new name in Asclepiadaceae. Kew Bull. 17: 487.
  • Decaisne, J. (1844). Asclepiadaceae. In: A. P. de Candolle (ed.), Prodromus systematis naturalis regni vegetabilis, Vol. 8: 490 – 665. Fortin, Masson & Cie, Paris.
  • Domingos-Melo, A., Nadia, T. L., Wiemerm, A. P., Cocucci, A. A. & Machado, I. C. (2019). Beyond taxonomy: anther skirt is a diagnostic character that provides specialized noctuid pollination in Marsdenia megalantha (Asclepiadoideae–Apocynaceae). Pl. Syst. Evol. 305: 103 – 114.
  • Doyle, J. J. & Doyle, J. L. (1987). A rapid DNA isolation procedure for small quantities of fresh leaf tissue. Phytochem. Bull. 19: 11 – 15.
  • Dugand, A. (1952). Noticias botanicas Colombianas, XI. Mutisia 9: 1 – 8.
  • Dugand, A. (1966). Asclepiadaceae nuevas o interesantes de Colômbia y países vecinos. Caldasia 9: 399 – 456.
  • D’Arcy, W. G. (1970). Jacquin names, some notes on their typification. Taxon 19(4): 554 – 560.
  • Endress, M. E. & Bruyns, P. V. (2000). A revised classification of the Apocynaceae s.l. Bot. Rev. 66: 1 – 56.
  • Endress, M. E., Liede-Schumann, L. & Meve, U. (2014). An updated classification for Apocynaceae. Phytotaxa 159: 175 – 194.
  • Endress, M. E., Meve, U., Middleton, D. J. & Liede-Schumann, S. (2018). Apocynaceae. In: J. W. Kadereit & V. Bittrich (eds), Flowering plants. Eudicots. Apiales and Gentianales (except Rubiaceae), K. Kubitzki (ed.), Families and genera of vascular plants Vol. 15: 207 – 411. Springer, Cham.
  • Espírito Santo, F. S., Bitencourt, C., Ribeiro, P. L. & Rapini, A. (2018b). Two new species of Marsdenia (Apocynaceae) from limestone outcrops in Brazil. Willdenowia 48: 109 – 116.
  • Espírito Santo, F. S., Santos, A. P. B., Ribeiro, P. L. & Rapini, A. (2018a). Three new species of Marsdenia (Apocynaceae) from Brazil. Acta Bot. Brasil. 32: 247 – 253.
  • Espírito Santo, F. S., Sousa, D. J. L., Chagas, D. B., Morais, I. L., Ribeiro, P. L. & Rapini, A. (2018c). Four new species of Marsdenia (Apocynaceae) from the Cerrado Domain. Syst. Bot. 43: 571 – 578.
  • Fishbein, M., Livshultz, T., Straub, S. C. K., Simões, A. O., Boutte, J., McDonnell, A. & Foote, A. (2018). Evolution on the backbone: Apocynaceae phylogenomics and new perspectives on growth forms, flowers, and fruits. Amer. J. Bot. 105(3): 495 – 513.
  • Fontella-Pereira, J. & Morillo, G. (1984). Asclepiadaceae Brasilienses, I. Novos tâxons e localidades em Asclepiadaceae. Bradea 4(12): 77 – 79.
  • Fontella-Pereira, J. & Morillo, G. (1993). Asclepiadaceae brasilienses, X. Novas espécies em Blepharodon Decne. e Marsdenia R.Br. Acta Bot. Venez. 16(2 – 4): 73 – 77.
  • Fontella-Pereira, J. & Morillo, G. (1996). Contribuição ao estudo das Asclepiadaceae brasileiras, XXVI. Um novo táxon do gênero Marsdenia R.Br. do Estado do Rio de Janeiro. Pabstia 7(4): 1 – 4.
  • Fontella-Pereira, J. & Paixão, R. J. (1996). Pabstia 7(2): 1 – 3.
  • Fontella-Pereira, J. (1965). Contribuição ao estudo das Asclepiadaceae brasileiras, II. Sellowia 17: 61 – 76
  • Fontella-Pereira, J. (1970). Contribuição ao estudo das Asclepiadaceae brasileiras, VI. Novas combinações e novos sinônimos. Loefgrenia 43: 1 – 3.
  • Fontella-Pereira, J. (1994). Estudos em Asclepiadaceae, XXIX. Espécies novas da caatinga e novas combinações em Petalostelma. Pabstia 5(1): 4 – 6.
  • Fontella-Pereira, J. (2002). Estudos em Asclepiadaceae XXX — uma nova espécie de Marsdenia. Bradea 8: 289 – 290.
  • Fontella-Pereira, J., Valente, M. C., Marquete, N. M. S. & Ichaso, C. L. F. (2004). Apocináceas-Asclepiadóideas. In: A. Reis (ed.), Flora ilustrada catarinense. Herbário Barbosa Rodrigues, Itajaí.
  • Fournier, E. (1885). Asclepiadaceae. In: C. F. P. Martius & A. W. Eichler (eds), Flora brasiliensis Vol. 6, pars 4: 189 – 332, tabs 50 – 98. Typographia Regia, Monachii.
  • Goyder, D. J. & Morillo, G. (1994). A new species of Marsdenia (Asclepiadaceae) from N.E. Brazil. Asklepios 63: 18 – 22; tab. 1 – 2.
  • Goyder, D. J. (2006). An overview of Asclepiad biogeography. In: S. A. Ghazanfar & H. J. Beentje (eds), Taxonomy and ecology of African plants, their conservation and sustainable use, pp. 205 – 214. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Hemsley, W. B. (1904) Marsdenia imthurnii. Bot. Mag. 60 (1407 or sér. 3, 713): tab. 7953.
  • Hooker, W. J. (1826). Harrisonia loniceroides. Honey-suckle-like Harrisonia. Bot. Mag. 53: Tab. 2699.
  • Hooker, W. J. (1843). On Baxteria (of Mr. Brown), a new genus of plants from South Australia London. J. Bot. 2: 492 – 495.
  • Hooker, W. J. (1847). Marsdenia maculata. Spotted-leaved Marsdenia Bot. Mag. 73 (or sér. 3, 3): tab. 4299.
  • IUCN (2001). IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria version 3.1. IUCN Species Survival Commission, Gland & Cambridge.
  • IUCN Standards and Petitions Subcommittee (2016). Guidelines for using the IUCN Red List categories and criteria. Version 12. Prepared by the Standards and Petitions Subcommittee. Available at
  • Jacquin, N. J. (1760). Enumeratio Systematica Plantarum: 17. Theodorum Haak, Leiden.
  • Jacquin, N. J. (1763). Selectarum stirpium americanum historia, in qua ad linnaeanum systema determinatae descriptiaeque situntur plantae illiae, quas in insula Martinica, Jamaica, Domingo. Ex officina Krausian.
  • Juarez-Jaimes, V. & Saynes, A. (2015). A new species of Marsdenia (Apocynaceae, Asclepiadoideae) from the Pochutla Region in the State of Oaxaca, Mexico. Novon 24: 27 – 30.
  • Jussieu, A. H. L. (1825). Mémoire sur le groupe des Rutacées. Mém. Mus. Hist. Nat. 12: 384 – 542.
  • Jørgensen, P. M., Nee, M. H. & Beck, S. G. (eds) (2014). Catálogo de plantas vasculares de Bolivia. Monogr. Syst. Bot. Missouri Bot. Gard. 127: 1 – 1744.
  • Karsten, G. K. W. H. (1849). Ruehssia estebanensis, Ruehssia glauca, Ruehssia macrophylla, Ruehssia maculata, Ruehssia pubescens. Verh. Vereins. Beförd. Gartenbaues Königl. Preuss. Staaten 19: 305.
  • Koch, I., Rapini, A., Kinoshita, L. S., Simões, A. O. & Spina, A. P. (2015). Apocynaceae. In: Lista de Espécies da Flora do Brasil. Jardim Botânico do Rio de Janeiro. ( Accessed 28 Jan. 2018.
  • Liede-Schumann, S., Rapini, A., Goyder, D. J. & Chase, M. W. (2005). Phylogenetics of the New World subtribes of Asclepiadeae (Apocynaceae–Asclepiadoideae): Metastelmatinae, Oxypetalinae, and Gonolobinae. Syst. Bot. 30: 183 – 194.
  • Livshultz, T., Liede-Schumann, S., Meve, U., Wanntorp, L. & Forster, P. (2016). Phylogeny of Marsdenieae (Apocynaceae, Asclepiadoideae) and the cirscumscription of Marsdenia R.Br. based on chloroplast and nuclear loci. 23 rd Symposium on Biodiversity and Evolutionary Biology of the German Botanical Society. Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, Munich.
  • Livshultz, T., Mead, J. V., Goyder, D. J. & Brannin, M. (2011). Climate niches of milkweeds with plesiomorphic traits (Secamonoideae; Apocynaceae) and the milkweed sister group link ancient African climates and floral evolution. Amer. J. Bot. 98: 1966 – 1977.
  • Malme, G. O. A. (1900). Die Asclepiadaceen des Regnell'schen Herbars. Bih. Kongl. Svenska Vetensk-Akad. Handl. 34: 1 – 102.
  • Malme, G. O. A. (1936). Asclepiadaceae brasilienses novae vel minus bene cognitae. Ark. Bot. 28A(5): 1 – 28.
  • Meve, U. & Liede, S. (2004). Subtribal division of Ceropegieae (Apocynaceae-Asclepiadoideae). Taxon 53: 61 – 72.
  • Miller, M. A., Pfeiffer, W. & Schwartz, T. (2010). Creating the CIPRES science gateway for inference of large phylogenetic trees. In: Proceedings of the Gateway Computing Environments Workshop (GCE), New Orleans. Pp. 1 – 8.
  • Moore, S. M. (1895). The phanerogamic botany of the Matto Grosso Expedition, 1891-92. Trans. Linn. Soc. London, Bot. 4: 264 – 516 + pl. 21 – 39.
  • Morillo, G. N. & Carnevali, G. (1987). Marsdenia suberosa (Fourn.) Malme y sus afines. Ernstia 45: 1 – 10.
  • Morillo, G. N. & Spellman, D. L. (1976). Three new South American species of Marsdenia. Phytologia 33(1): 82 – 88.
  • Morillo, G. N. (1974a). Tres nuevas especies de Marsdenia. Acta Bot. Venez. 9: 311 – 316.
  • Morillo, G. N. (1974b). Novedades venezolanas en el género Marsdenia (Asclepiadaceae). Bol. Soc. Venez. Ci. Nat. 31: 113 – 116.
  • Morillo, G. N. (1977). Nuevas especies, nuevas combinaciones y nuevos nombres en la Asclepiadaceae suramericanas. Mem. Soc. Ci. Nat. La Salle 37(107): 119 – 127.
  • Morillo, G. N. (1978). El género Marsdenia em Venezuela, Colombia y Ecuador. Acta Bot. Venez. 13: 23 – 76.
  • Morillo, G. N. (1987). Notas sobre Marsdenia R.Br. en el Neotropico. Ernstia 43: 18 – 26.
  • Morillo, G. N. (1993). Nuevos taxones sudamericanos en el genero Marsdenia R. Br. (Asclepiadaceae). Anales Jard. Bot. Madrid 51: 55 – 63.
  • Morillo, G. N. (1998). Notas sobre el genero Marsdenia R. Br. en el neotrópico. Ernstia, ser. 2, 8(1): 3 – 8.
  • Nylander, J. A. (2004). MrModeltest v.2. Program distributed by the author. Evolutionary Biology Centre, Uppsala University.
  • Ollerton, J., Liede-Schumann, S., Endress, M. E., Meve, U., Rech, A. R., Shuttleworth, A., Keller, H. A., Fishbein, M., Alvarado-Cárdenas, L. O., Amorim, F. W., Bernhardt, P., Celep, F., Chirango, Y., Chiriboga-Arroyo, F., Civeyrel, L., Cocucci, A., Cranmer, L., Silva-Batista, I. C., Jager, L., Deprá, M. S., Domingos-Melo, A., Dvorsky, C., Agostini, K., Freitas, L., Gaglianone, M. C., Galetto, L., Gilbert, M., González-Ramírez, I., Gorostiague, P., Goyder, D., Hachuy-Filho, L., Heiduk, A., Howard, A., Ionta, G., Islas-Hernández, S. C., Johnson, S. D., Joubert, L., Kaiser-Bunbury, C. N., Kephart, S., Kidyoo, A., Koptur, S., Koschnitzke, C., Lamborn, E., Livshultz, T., Machado, I. C., Marino, S., Mema, L., Mochizuki, K., Morellato, L. P. C., Mrisha, C. K., Muiruri, E. W., Nakahama, N., Nascimento, V. T., Nuttman, C., Oliveira, P. E., Peter, C. I., Punekar, S., Rafferty, N., Rapini, A., Ren, Z.-X., Rodríguez-Flores, C. I., Rosero, L., Sakai, S., Sazima, M., Steenhuisen, S.-L., Tan, C.-W., Torres, C., Trøjelsgaard, K., Ushimaru, A., Vieira, M. F., Wiemer, A. P., Yamashiro, T., Nadia, T., Queiroz, J. & Quirino, Z. (2019). The diversity and evolution of pollination systems in large plant clades: Apocynaceae as a case study. Ann. Bot. 123: 311 – 325.
  • Omlor, R. (1998). Generische Revision der Marsdenieae (Asclepiadaceae). Diss. Universität Kaiserslautem. Shaker Verlag, Aachen.
  • Pessoa, C. R. M., Riet-Correa, F., Medeiros, R. M. T., Simões, S. V. D. & Rapini, A. (2011). Poisoning by Marsdenia hilariana and Marsdenia megalantha (Apocynaceae) in ruminants. Toxicon 58: 610 – 613.
  • Pugliesi, L. & Rapini, A. (2015). Tropical refuges with exceptionally high phylogenetic diversity reveal contrasting phylogenetic structures. Int. J. Biodiversity 7: ID 758019.
  • Rapini, A. & Fontella-Pereira, J. F. (2011). Two new species of Marsdenia R. Br. (Apocynaceae: Asclepiadoideae) from the semi-arid region of Brazil. Kew Bull. 66: 137 – 142.
  • Rapini, A. (2012). Taxonomy “under construction”: advances in the systematics of Apocynaceae, with emphasis on the Brazilian Asclepiadoideae. Rodriguésia 63(1): 75 – 88.
  • Rapini, A., Berg, C. & Liede-Schumann, S. (2007). Diversification of Asclepiadoideae (Apocynaceae) in the New World. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 94: 407 – 422.
  • Rapini, A., Chase, M. W., Goyder, D. J. & Griffiths, J. (2003). Asclepiadeae classification: evaluating the phylogenetic relationships of New World Asclepiadoideae (Apocynaceae). Taxon 52: 33 – 50.
  • Rapini, A., Goyder, D. J., Espírito Santo, F. S., Fontella-Pereira, J., Ribeiro, P. L. & Liede-Schumann, S. (2018). (2657) Proposal to conserve the name Telosma against Stephanotella (Apocynaceae). Taxon 67: 1217 – 1218.
  • Rapini, A., Mello-Silva, R. & Kawasaki, M. L. (2001). Asclepiadoideae (Apocynaceae) da Cadeia do Espinhaço de Minas Gerais. Brasil. Bol. Bot. Univ. São Paulo 19: 55 – 169.
  • Rapini, A., Silva, R. F. S. & Sampaio, L. N. P. (2009). Apocynaceae. In: A. M. Giulietti, A. Rapini, M. J. G. Andrade, L. P. Queiroz & J. M. C. Silva (orgs), Plantas raras do Brasil, pp. 54 – 64. Conservação internacional, Belo Horizonte.
  • Reichenbach, H. G. L. (1828). Conspectus Regni Vegetabilis, pp. 131. Carolum Cnobloch, Lipsiae.
  • Ribeiro, P. L., Rapini, A., Damascena, L. S. & Berg, C. (2014). Plant diversification in the Espinhaço Range: insights from the biogeography of Minaria (Apocynaceae). Taxon 6: 1253 – 1264.
  • Ribeiro, P. L., Rapini, A., Silva, U. C. S. & Berg, C. (2012). Using multiple analytical methods to improve phylogenetic hypotheses in Minaria (Apocynaceae). Molec. Phylogenet. Evol. 65: 915 – 925.
  • Roemer, J. A. & Schultes, J. J. (1820). Systema Vegetabilium 6. J. G. Cottae, Stuttgartiae
  • Ronquist, F., Teslenko, M., Mark, P., Ayres, D. L., Darling, A., Höhna, S., Larget, B., Liu, L., Suchard, M. A. & Huelsenbeck, J. P. (2012). MrBayes 3.2: Efficient Bayesian phylogenetic inference and model choice across a large model space. Syst. Biol. 61: 539 – 542.
  • Rothe, W. (1915). Über die Gattung Marsdenia R. Br. und die Stammpflanze der Condurango-rinde. Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 52: 354 – 434.
  • Rusby, H. H. (1920). Descriptions of three hundred new species of South American plants. Henry Hurd Rusby, New York.
  • Santos, R. G. P. (2013). Estudo taxonômico das Asclepiadeae e Marsdenieae (Asclepiadoideae-Apocynaceae) do Estado do Rio de Janeiro. M.Sc. diss. Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro.
  • Schlechtendal, D. F. L. (1853) [1855]. Plantae Wagenerianae Columbicae. Linnaea 26: 127 – 144; 631 – 674.
  • Schumann, K. (1898). Asclepiadaceae. In: I. Urban (ed.), Plantae novae americanae imprimis Glaziovianae II. Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 25 (Beibl. 60): 19 – 23.
  • Shaw, J., Lickey, E. B., Beck, J. T., Farmer, S. B., Liu, W., Miller, J., Siripun, K. C., Winder, C. T., Schilling, E. E. & Small, R. L. (2005). The tortoise and the hare. II. Relative utility of 21 noncoding chloroplast DNA sequences for phylogenetic analysis. Amer. J. Bot. 92: 142 – 166.
  • Shaw, J., Lickey, E. B., Schilling, E. & Small, R. (2007). Comparison of whole chloroplast genome sequences to choose noncoding regions for phylogenetic studies in angiosperms: the tortoise and the hare III. Amer. J. Bot. 94: 275 – 288.
  • Spellman, D. L. & Morillo, G. (1976). New names and combinations in Asclepiadaceae. Phytologia 34: 152.
  • Steudel, E. G. (1841). Nomenclator Botanicus. Editio secunda 1. J. G. Cottae, Stuttgartiae et Tubingae.
  • Stevens, W. D. (2009). Apocynaceae. In: G. Davidse, M. Sousa, S. Knapp. & F. Chiang (eds), Flora Mesoamericana Vol. 4: 733 – 741. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México, D.F.; Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis; The Natural History Museum, London.
  • Sun, Y., Skinner, D. Z., Liang, G. H. & Hulbert, S. H. (1994). Phylogenetic analysis of Sorghum and related taxa using internal transcribed spacers of nuclear ribosomal DNA. Theor. Appl. Genet. 89: 26 – 32.
  • Swarupanandan, K., Mangaly, J. K., Sonny, T. K., Kishorekumar, K. & Basha, S. C. (1996). The subfamilial and tribal classification of the family Asclepiadaceae. Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 120: 327 – 369.
  • Taberlet, P., Gielly, L., Pautou, G. & Bouvet, J. (1991). Universal primers for amplification of three non-coding regions of chloroplast DNA. Pl. Molec. Biol. 17: 1105 – 1109.
  • Viana, P. L., Mota, N. F. O., Gil, A. S. B., Salino, A., Zappi, D. C., Harley, R. M., Ilkiu-Borges, A. L., Secco, R. S., Almeida, T. E., Watanabe, M. T. C., Santos, J. U. M., Trovó, M., Maurity, C. & Giulietti, A. M. (2016). Flora of the cangas of the Serra dos Carajás, Pará, Brazil: history, study area and methodology. Rodriguésia 67: 1107 – 1124.
  • Wanntorp, L. & Forster, P. I. (2007). Phylogenetic relationships between Hoya and the monotypic genera Madangia, Absolmsia, and Micholitzia (Apocynaceae, Marsdenieae): insights from flower morphology. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 94(1): 36 – 55.
  • Wanntorp, L., Gotthardt, K. & Muellner, A. N. (2011). Revisiting the wax plants (Hoya, Marsdenieae, Apocynaceae): phylogenetic tree using the chloroplast markers matK gene and psbA-trnH intergenic spacer. Taxon 60: 4 – 14.
  • White, T. J., Bruns, T. D., Lee, S. & Taylor, J. (1990). Amplification and direct sequencing of fungal ribosomal RNA genes for phylogenetics. In: M. A. Innis, D. H. Gelfand, J. J. Sninsky & T. J. White (eds), PCR protocols, a guide to methods and applications, pp. 315 – 322. Academic Press, San Diego.
  • Woodson jr., R. E. (1931). New South American Asclepiadaceae. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 18: 557 – 563.

Kew Backbone Distributions

  • Forzza, R.C. & al. (2012). Lista de Espécies da Flora do Brasil

  • Kew Backbone Distributions

    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2022. Published on the Internet at and
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families.

  • Kew Bulletin

    Kew Bulletin

  • Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone

    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2022. Published on the Internet at and
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families.