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This species is accepted, and its native range is Africa.
Nymphaea lotus L.

[FZ]

Nymphaeaceae, F. A. Mendoça. Flora Zambesiaca 1:1. 1960

Morphology General Habit
Robust aquatic herb with tuberous rhizome.
Morphology Leaves
Leaves 10–32 x 11–28 cm., coriaceous, orbicular or suborbicular, incised-cordate, somewhat peltate, lobes nearly closed or slightly overlapping, margin ± repand, dentate-mucronate, teeth formed by the convergence at the margin of (2) 3 nerves, upper surface smooth, under surface prominently nerved to the edge, primary lateral nerves 7–9 on each side of the midrib, forking dichotomously 3–4 times and not themselves forming a closed reticulation, secondary nerves 7–9 pairs arising from the midrib.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers white or cream, 10–18 cm. in diam., peduncle stout, glabrous (in specimens from our area).
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Sepals 4, 4.5–9 x 2–3.5 cm., ovate-oblong or oblong-lanceolate, obtuse.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Petals c. 20, the outermost as long as the sepals, oblong or oblong-lanceolate, rounded or acute at the apex.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Stamens 40–60; anthers obtuse, without prolongation of the connective.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Carpels
Carpels 20–30; style-appendage 7–10 mm. long.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruit 4–6 cm. in diam., depressed-globose.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds 1.2 mm. long, ellipsoid, with longitudinal lines of hairs.

[FTEA]

Nymphaeaceae, B. Verdcourt. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1989

Morphology General Habit
Robust aquatic herb with tuberous rhizome; tubers ovoid, roughened with leaf-scars (fide Muschler).
Morphology Leaves
Leaves green above, often blotched reddish, purplish green or bronze beneath, ± round, 10–32(–50) cm. long, 11–28(–50) cm. wide, incised-cordate at the base, slightly peltate, the lobes touching or slightly overlapping, repand and dentate-mucronate at the margin, the sharp and often brown-tipped teeth formed by the convergence of (2–)3 nerves, very rarely some juvenile leaves entire, ± coriaceous, smooth above, prominently nerved to the edge, beneath with 7–9 primary lateral nerves on each side forking dichotomously 3–4 times and an equal number of secondary lateral nerves, glabrous, puberulous or distinctly to densely pubescent beneath.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers (6–)10–18(–25 fide Muschler) cm. wide, open on 4 successive nights from 7.30 p.m. to 11 a.m. (fide Muschler) 8 a.m. (fide Jex-Blake) or during the day (in S. Africa fide Obermeyer), held ± 15 cm. above the water-level; peduncle stout, glabrous or puberulous.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Sepals 4, green, often with cream veins, ovate-oblong to oblong-lanceolate, 4.5–9(–11) cm. long, 2–3.5 cm. wide, obtuse.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Petals ± 16–20, white or slightly yellowish, oblong to oblong-lanceolate, the outermost as long as the sepals, often with median green line outside, rounded or ± acute at the apex.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Stamens yellow, 40–80(–90); anthers obtuse, usually practically without a connective-appendage or sometimes up to ± 3 mm. long.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Carpels
Carpels 20–30, yellowish, sometimes crimson outside; stylar processes yellow, tinged purple-brown, 7–10 mm. long.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruit depressed-globose, 4–9 cm. diameter.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds ellipsoid, 1.2–1.45 mm. long, 1.1 mm. wide, with longitudinal lines of hairs.
Figures
Fig. 1/8,9, p. 8.
Habitat
Sheltered water 0.5–2.5 m. deep, also swamps; 0–1200 m.
Distribution
Egypt and widespread in tropical Africa to S. Africa and Madagascar, also in Europe (hot springs in NW. Roumania), Hungary (probably introduced)? a variety in Australiaknown from Tertiary deposits in Roumaniawidely cultivated (see note) in U.S.A. (Florida and Louisiana), Guyana, Panama, Venezuela, Colombia and Brasil K1 K3 K5 K6 K7 P T1 T2 T3 T4 T6 T7 T8 U1

[CPLC]

Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

Distribution
Cultivada en Colombia; Alt. 110 - 1600 m.; Andes, Pacífico, Valle del Magdalena.
Morphology General Habit
Hierba, acuática

[FSOM]

M. Thulin et al. Flora of Somalia, Vol. 1-4 [updated 2008] https://plants.jstor.org/collection/FLOS

Morphology Leaves
Leaves ± round, 10–32(–50) x 11–28(–50) cm, slightly peltate, green above, often ± reddish or purplish beneath, basal lobes touching or slightly overlapping, dentate-mucronate with sharp and often brown-tipped teeth at the margins, glabrous or pubescent beneath
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Flowers usually 10–18 cm wide, held above the water
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Sepals green, 4.5–9(–11) x 2–3.5 cm, obtuse
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Petals c. 16–20, white or cream, the outermost as long as the sepals
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Stamens yellow, 40–80(–90); anthers without or sometimes with a broad up to 3 mm long connective-appendage
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Carpels
Carpels 20–30; stylar processes yellowish, 7–10 mm long
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruit depressed-globose, 4–9 cm in diam.
Distribution
S1–3 widespread in tropical and southern Africa, Madagascar, also in Europe; widely cultivated.
Ecology
Altitude range 0–200 m.
Vernacular
Bocore, mungin (Somali).

[FWTA]

Nymphaeaceae, Hutchinson and Dalziel. Flora of West Tropical Africa 1:1. 1954

Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Petals white; flowers open from early evening until late morning.

Native to:

Angola, Benin, Botswana, Burkina, Burundi, Cameroon, Central African Repu, Chad, Congo, Egypt, Ethiopia, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Gulf of Guinea Is., Ivory Coast, Kenya, KwaZulu-Natal, Liberia, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Mauritania, Mozambique, Niger, Nigeria, Northern Provinces, Romania, Rwanda, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Somalia, Sudan, Swaziland, Tanzania, Togo, Uganda, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

Introduced into:

Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Brazil Southeast, Colombia, Costa Rica, Florida, Guyana, Louisiana, Mauritius, Panamá, Seychelles, Society Is., Venezuela

English
Egyptian lily, Lotus water lily, White water lily

Nymphaea lotus L. appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
Oct 1, 2005 Etuge, M. [5160], Cameroon K000338412
Oct 1, 2005 Etuge, M. [5160], Cameroon K000338413
Jul 1, 2002 Etuge, M. [4096], Cameroon K000026907
Duke, B.O.L. [11], Gambia 16566.000
Buckley, J.C., India 18894.000
Buckley, J.C., India 22073.000
Robson, N.K.B. [72], Zambia 22126.000
Chevalier, A. [1039], Mali K000386652
Staudt, A. [477], Cameroon K000105670
s.coll. [7256], Pakistan K000659030
Chevalier, A. [1314], Mali K000386653

First published in Sp. Pl.: 511 (1753)

Accepted by

  • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
  • Barry, J. P. & Celles, J.S. (1991). Flore de Mauritanie 1: 1-359. Centre Regional de Documentation Pedagogique, Nice.
  • Boggan, J. Funck, V. & Kelloff, C. (1997). Checklist of the Plants of the Guianas (Guyana, Surinam, Franch Guiana) ed. 2: 1-238. University of Guyana, Georgetown.
  • Bosser, J., Cadet, T., Julien, H.R. & Marais, W. (eds.) (1980). Flore des Mascareignes 31-50: 1. IRD Éditions, MSIRI, RBG-Kew, Paris.
  • Boudet, G., Lebrun, J.P. & Demange, R. (1986). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Mali: 1-465. Etudes d'Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux.
  • Boulos, L. (1999). Flora of Egypt 1: 1-419. Al Hadara Publishing, Cairo.
  • Boulvert, Y. (1977). Catalogue de la Flore de Centrafrique 2(1): 1-85. ORSTROM, Bangui.
  • Brundu, G. & Camarda, I. (2013). The Flora of Chad: a checklist and brief analysis PhytoKeys 23: 1-18.
  • Catarino, L., Martins, E.S., Diniz, M.A. & Pinto-Basto, M.F. (2006). Check-list da flora vascular do parque natural das Lagos de Cufada (Guiné-Bissau) Garcia de Orta, Série de Botânica 17: 97-141.
  • Correa A., Mireya D. Galdames, Carmen Correa A., M. D., C. Galdames & M. S. de Stapf (2004). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares de Panamá: 1-599. Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute.
  • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Dy Phon, P. (2000). Dictionnaire des plantes utilisées au Cambodge: 1-915. chez l'auteur, Phnom Penh, Cambodia.
  • Edwards, S., Tadesse, M., Demissew, S. & Hedberg, I. (eds.) (2000). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 2(1): 1-532. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
  • Exell, A.W. & Wild, H. (eds.) (1960). Flora Zambesiaca 1(1): 1-336. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Flora of North America Editorial Committee (1997). Flora of North America North of Mexico 3: 1-590. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.
  • Florence, J. (2004). Flore de la Polynésie Française 2: 1-503. IRD editions, Paris.
  • Fosberg, F.R., Sachet, M.-H., Oliver, R. (1979). A geographical checklist of the Micronesian Dicotyledonae Micronesica; Journal of the College of Guam 15: 41-295.
  • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa an annotated checklist Strelitzia 14: 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Grierson, A.J.C. & Long, D.G. (1984). Flora of Bhutan 1(2): 189-462. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
  • Hammel, B.E. & al. (eds.) (2007). Manual de Plantas de Costa Rica, volumen VI, Dicotyledóneas (Haloragaceae-Phytolaccaceae) Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 111: 1-933. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
  • Hutchinson, J., Dalziel, J.M. & Keay, R.W.J. (1954-1958). Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 1: 1-828.
  • Idárraga-Piedrahita, A., Ortiz, R.D.C., Callejas Posada, R. & Merello, M. (eds.) (2011). Flora de Antioquia: Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares 2: 1-939. Universidad de Antioquia, Medellín.
  • Lebrun, J.-P., Audru, J., Gaston, A. & Mosnier, M. (1972). Catalogue des Plantes Vasculaires du Tchad Méridional: 1-289. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
  • Lejoy, J., Ndjele, M.-B. & Geerinck, D. (2010). Catalogue-flore des plantes vasculaires des districts de Kisangani et de la Tshopo (RD Congo) Taxonomania 30: 1-307.
  • Lisowski, S. (2009). Flore (Angiospermes) de la République de Guinée Scripta Botanica Belgica 41: 1-517.
  • Masharabu, T., Bigendako, M.J., Lejoly, J., Nkengurutse, J., Noret, N., Bizuru, E. & Bogaert, J. (2010). Etude analytique de la flore et de la végétation du Parc National de la Ruvubu, Burundi International Journal of Biological and Chemical Sciences 4: 834-856.
  • Newman, M., Ketphanh, S., Svengsuksa, B., Thomas, P., Sengdala, K., Lamxay, V. & Armstrong, K. (2007). A checklist of the vascular plants of Lao PDR: 1-394. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
  • Peyre de Fabregues, B. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1976). Catalogue des Plantes Vascularies du Niger: 1-433. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
  • Sita, P. & Moutsambote, J.-M. (2005). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Congo, ed. sept. 2005: 1-158. ORSTOM, Centre de Brazzaville.
  • Sosef, M.S.M. & al. (2006). Check-list des plantes vasculaires du Gabon Scripta Botanica Belgica 35: 1-438.
  • Thulin, M. (ed.) (1993). Flora of Somalia 1: 1-493. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Urziceanu, M. & al. (2020). Updated list of non-native ornamental plants in Romania Contributii Botanice Universitatea "Babes-Bolyai" din Cluj-Napoca 55: 59-82.
  • Verdcourt, B. (1989). Flora of Tropical East Africa, Nymphaeaceae: 1-12.
  • Welsh, S.L. (1998). Flora Societensis: 1-420. E.P.S. Inc. Utah.

Literature

Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia

  • ColPlantA (2021). "ColPlantA. Facilitated by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet; http://www.colplanta.org/"

Flora of West Tropical Africa

  • Chev. Fl. Viv. 1: 89 (incl. var. rogeoni A. Chev., and var. sinoensis Stapf).
  • Conard Water-lilies 194, t. 16
  • Gilg in Engl. Bot. Jahrb. 41: 366
  • —F.T.A. 1: 52

Kew Backbone Distributions

  • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
  • Barry, J. P. & Celles, J.S. (1991). Flore de Mauritanie 1: 1-359. Centre Regional de Documentation Pedagogique, Nice.
  • Boggan, J. Funck, V. & Kelloff, C. (1997). Checklist of the Plants of the Guianas (Guyana, Surinam, Franch Guiana) ed. 2: 1-238. University of Guyana, Georgetown.
  • Bosser, J., Cadet, T., Julien, H.R. & Marais, W. (eds.) (1980). Flore des Mascareignes 31-50: 1. IRD Éditions, MSIRI, RBG-Kew, Paris.
  • Boudet, G., Lebrun, J.P. & Demange, R. (1986). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Mali: 1-465. Etudes d'Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux.
  • Boulos, L. (1999). Flora of Egypt 1: 1-419. Al Hadara Publishing, Cairo.
  • Boulvert, Y. (1977). Catalogue de la Flore de Centrafrique 2(1): 1-85. ORSTROM, Bangui.
  • Castle, G.E. (1994). Flore des Seychelles Dicotylédones: 1-663. Orstom Editions.
  • Catarino, L., Martins, E.S., Diniz, M.A. & Pinto-Basto, M.F. (2006). Check-list da flora vascular do parque natural das Lagos de Cufada (Guiné-Bissau) Garcia de Orta, Série de Botânica 17: 97-141.
  • Correa A., Mireya D. Galdames, Carmen Correa A., M. D., C. Galdames & M. S. de Stapf (2004). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares de Panamá: 1-599. Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute.
  • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Edwards, S., Tadesse, M., Demissew, S. & Hedberg, I. (eds.) (2000). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 2(1): 1-532. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
  • Exell, A.W. & Wild, H. (eds.) (1960). Flora Zambesiaca 1(1): 1-336. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Flora of North America Editorial Committee (1997). Flora of North America North of Mexico 3: 1-590. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.
  • Forzza, R.C., Zappi, D. & Souza, V.C. (2016-continuously updated). Flora do Brasil 2020 em construção http://reflora.jbrj.gov.br/reflora/listaBrasil/ConsultaPublicaUC/ResultadoDaConsultaNovaConsulta.do.
  • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa an annotated checklist Strelitzia 14: 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Hammel, B.E. & al. (eds.) (2007). Manual de Plantas de Costa Rica, volumen VI, Dicotyledóneas (Haloragaceae-Phytolaccaceae) Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 111: 1-933. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
  • Hutchinson, J., Dalziel, J.M. & Keay, R.W.J. (1954-1958). Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 1: 1-828.
  • Idárraga-Piedrahita, A., Ortiz, R.D.C., Callejas Posada, R. & Merello, M. (eds.) (2011). Flora de Antioquia: Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares 2: 1-939. Universidad de Antioquia, Medellín.
  • Lebrun, J.-P., Audru, J., Gaston, A. & Mosnier, M. (1972). Catalogue des Plantes Vasculaires du Tchad Méridional: 1-289. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
  • Lebrun, J.p., Toutain, B., Gaston, A. & Boudet, G. (1991). Catalogue des Plantes Vasculaires du Burkina Faso: 1-341. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
  • Lejoy, J., Ndjele, M.-B. & Geerinck, D. (2010). Catalogue-flore des plantes vasculaires des districts de Kisangani et de la Tshopo (RD Congo) Taxonomania 30: 1-307.
  • Lisowski, S. (2009). Flore (Angiospermes) de la République de Guinée Scripta Botanica Belgica 41: 1-517.
  • Masharabu, T., Bigendako, M.J., Lejoly, J., Nkengurutse, J., Noret, N., Bizuru, E. & Bogaert, J. (2010). Etude analytique de la flore et de la végétation du Parc National de la Ruvubu, Burundi International Journal of Biological and Chemical Sciences 4: 834-856.
  • Peyre de Fabregues, B. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1976). Catalogue des Plantes Vascularies du Niger: 1-433. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
  • Sita, P. & Moutsambote, J.-M. (2005). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Congo, ed. sept. 2005: 1-158. ORSTOM, Centre de Brazzaville.
  • Sosef, M.S.M. & al. (2006). Check-list des plantes vasculaires du Gabon Scripta Botanica Belgica 35: 1-438.
  • Thulin, M. (ed.) (1993). Flora of Somalia 1: 1-493. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Troupin, G. (ed.) (1978). Flora du Rwanda 1: 1-413. Musee Royal de l'Afrique Centrale.
  • Welsh, S.L. (1998). Flora Societensis: 1-420. E.P.S. Inc. Utah.

Flora of Somalia

  • Flora Somalia, Vol 1, (1993) Author: by M. Thulin [updated by M. Thulin 2008]

Flora of Tropical East Africa

  • A.D.Q. Agnew, Upland Kenya Wild Flowers p. 81 (1974).
  • Blundell, Wild. Fl. E. Afr.: 20, t. 31 (1987).
  • Casper & Krausch, Süsswasserfl. Mitteleuropa 24: 468 (1981).
  • Conard, The Waterlilies: 194, t. 16 (1905).
  • DC., Regn. Veg. Syst. Nat 2: 53 (1821).
  • Exell & Mendonça, Consp. Fl. Angol. 1: 46 (1937).
  • Gilgin A. Engler, Botanische Jahrbücher für Systematik, Pflanzengeschichte und Pflanzengeographie 41: 366 (1908).
  • Hadidi in Mitt. Bot. Staats., München 10: 470–475 (1971).
  • Hauman in Flore du Congo Belge et du Ruanda-Urundi, 2: 156 (1951).
  • Keay in Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 1: 66 (1954).
  • L., Sp. Pl.: 511 (1753).
  • Mendonça in Flora Zambesiaca 1: 176 (1960).
  • Mendonça, Fl. Moçamb. 8: 2 (1973).
  • Milne-Redh. in Mem. N.Y. Bot. Gard. 8: 216 (1953).
  • Muschler, Man. Fl. Egypt 1: 358 (1912).
  • Obermeyer in Fl. Pl. S. Afr., t. 1541 (1969).
  • Oliv. in Trans. Linn. Soc. 29: 27 (1872).
  • Oliv., Flora of Tropical Africa 1: 52 (1868)
  • Peter in Abh. Ges. Wiss. Göttingen n.f. 13(2): 60, t. 2 (1928).
  • R. O. Williams, Useful and Ornamental Plants in Zanzibar and Pemba p. 382 (1949).
  • Tutin in Fl. Europaea 1: 205 (1964).
  • Täckh., Students’ Fl. Egypt, ed. 2: 144, t. 39A (1974).
  • Verdc. in KB. 44: 00 (1989), in press.
  • Wiersema in Sida 9: 230–234 (1982) (distr. in Western hemisphere).

Art and Illustrations in Digifolia
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew

Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Colombian resources for Plants made Accessible
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Flora Zambesiaca
Flora Zambesiaca
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Flora of Somalia
Flora of Somalia
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Flora of Tropical East Africa
Flora of Tropical East Africa
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Flora of West Tropical Africa
Flora of West Tropical Africa
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Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

Kew Backbone Distributions
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Kew Science Photographs
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Plants and People Africa
Common Names from Plants and People Africa http://www.plantsandpeopleafrica.com/
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