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This species is accepted, and its native range is Tropical & S. Africa, W. Indian Ocean.
Calanthe sylvatica

[FTEA]

Orchidaceae, V. S. Summerhayes. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1968

Morphology General Habit
A large erect terrestrial herb up to 65 cm. tall.
Vegetative Multiplication Pseudobulbs
Pseudobulbs erect or suberect, cylindrical-conical, 4–5-noded, 2–5 cm. long, up to 1.2 cm. diameter, obvious only after leaves have rotted.
Morphology Leaves
Leaves 3–5, almost in a rosette, suberect or spreading, lanceolate to elliptic-oblong, acute or acuminate, 15–45 cm. long, 5–13 cm. broad, glossy dark green above, ± pubescent beneath; petiole sulcate, 4–25 cm. long.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescence erect, few–many-flowered, up to 60 cm. or so long; peduncle stout, pubescent; rhachis pubescent; bracts lanceolate, acute or acuminate, suberect to recurved, 1–3 cm. long.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers large, showy, white to rose-purple with a darker lip; callus white to orange; column white.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Dorsal sepal lanceolate to narrowly elliptic or oblong- elliptic, acute, 1.3–3.5 cm. long, 0.4–1.2 cm. broad; lateral sepals similar but oblique.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Petals elliptic to oblanceolate, acute or obtuse, 1–3 cm. long.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Labellum
Lip 3-lobed, adnate at base to column, 1.2–2.5 cm. long, 0.8–2 cm. broad, spurred at base; side lobes ± auriculate, 0.5–7 cm. long; midlobe much larger, flabellate to obovate, emarginate; callus verrucose, of 3 ridges of which the central one is longest. Callus fleshy, 3–7 mm. long.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Spur
Spur pendent, sigmoid or incurved, 1–4 cm. long.
Figures
Fig. 59.
Habitat
In upland forest in East Africa, but in lower altitude rain-forest elsewhere; 900–2750 m.
Distribution
K2 K3 K4 K5 K6 T1 T2 T3 T6 T7 U2 U3 U4 widespread in tropical Africa from Sierra Leone across to Zaire and south to Cape Province of South Africaalso in Madagascar, the Mascarene Is. and possibly tropical Asia

[FZ]

Orchidaceae, I. la Croix and P.J. Cribb. Flora Zambesiaca 11:1. 1995

Morphology General Habit
Large terrestrial herb up to 70 cm tall.
Vegetative Multiplication Pseudobulbs
Pseudobulbs rather obscure, 2–5 × 1.5 cm, conical, with 4–5 nodes.
Morphology Leaves
Leaves 3–5 ± rosulate, suberect to spreading; leaf up to 35 × 12 cm, lanceolate, acute, plicate, dark green; petiole 5–25 cm long.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Peduncle slightly pubescent with 2 sheath-like leaves; inflorescence densely several- to many-flowered.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers white or purple with orange callus.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Pedicel and Ovary
Pedicel and ovary each 10–15 mm long.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Bracts
Bracts 1–3 cm long.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Sepals 9–37 × 4–14 mm, lanceolate, acute, the lateral sepals usually slightly longer than the dorsal ones and oblique.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Petals 8–25 × 4–14 mm, elliptic or oblanceolate.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Labellum
Lip 3-lobed at the base, 11–15 × 6–25 mm, with 3 ridges at the base. Side lobes auriculate or crescent-shaped, 5–7 mm long; mid-lobe flabellate to obovate, emarginate, sometimes with a small tooth in the sinus.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Spur
Spur slender, straight or sigmoid, 1–4 cm long.

[FWTA]

Orchidaceae, V. S. Summerhayes. Flora of West Tropical Africa 3:1. 1968

Ecology
Terrestrial, in forests.

Native to:

Angola, Burundi, Cameroon, Cape Provinces, Comoros, Congo, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Guinea, Gulf of Guinea Is., Kenya, KwaZulu-Natal, Liberia, Madagascar, Malawi, Mauritius, Mozambique, Nigeria, Northern Provinces, Rwanda, Réunion, Sierra Leone, Swaziland, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

Calanthe sylvatica (Thouars) Lindl. appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
Apr 1, 2009 Diwol [141829], Sabah K000395566
May 15, 2008 Cribb, P. [10610], Tanzania 25694.248
May 15, 2008 Milliken, W. [1128], Sulawesi 73093.000
Jan 1, 2008 Drummond, R.B. [1885], Tanzania 18286.000
Jan 1, 2008 Drummond, R.B. [1638], Tanzania 18291.000
Jan 1, 2008 Copley, H. [18], Kenya 19209.000
Jan 1, 2008 Bally, P.R.O. [7873], Kenya 20269.000
Jan 1, 2008 Copley, H. [18A], Kenya 20270.000
Jan 1, 2008 Polhill, R. [1815], Tanzania 23399.000
Jan 1, 2008 Polhill, R. [1815], Tanzania 25129.000
Jan 1, 2008 Papua New Guinea 25694.233
Jan 1, 2008 Zimbabwe 29532.000
Jan 1, 2008 Wild, H. [SRGH 26910], Zimbabwe 29654.000
Jan 1, 2008 Morze, G. [158A], Zambia 30089.000
Jan 1, 2008 Morze, G. [158B], Zambia 30102.000
Jan 1, 2008 Fanshawe, D.B. [4406], Zimbabwe 30850.000
Jan 1, 2008 Moreau [266], Tanzania 30856.000
Jan 1, 2008 Troupin, G. [3157], Congo, DRC 30898.000
Jan 1, 2008 Heppe, F.N., Tanzania 34370.000
Jan 1, 2008 Cribb, P. [11468], Tanzania 40256.000
Jan 1, 2008 Leedal, G.P. [4932], Tanzania 40302.000
Jan 1, 2008 Cribb, P. [10641], Tanzania 40315.000
Jan 1, 2008 Cribb, P. [11486], Tanzania 41003.000
Jan 1, 2008 Cribb, P. [11032], Tanzania 41057.000
Jan 1, 2008 Tanner, L. [78], Tanzania 41059.000
Jan 1, 2008 Cribb, P. [11174], Tanzania 41074.000
Jan 1, 2008 Cribb, P. [11032], Tanzania 41077.000
Jan 1, 2008 Cribbe, P. [10706], Tanzania 41082.000
Jan 1, 2008 Kenya 7420.000
Jan 1, 2008 Milne-Redhead, E. [4093], Angola 9685.000
Oct 9, 2007 Kerr, A.F.G. [070], Thailand K000597161
Madagascar 25174.000
Reunion 26157.000
Morze, G. [111], Zimbabwe 30098.000
Richards, H.M. [10601], Malawi 3062.000
Lamb, A. [AL 85/83], Malaysia 48199.000
Borneo 50691.000
Tanzania 51010.000
Beentje, H.J. [4413], Madagascar 58362.000
Mauritius 600.000
Madagascar 61030.000
Du Puy, B. [MB156], Madagascar 64397.000
Sander, F. [s.n.], Tanzania K000242421
Preuss, P.R. [1061], Cameroon K000106775 Unknown type material
Ong, P.T. [FRI 64204], Peninsular Malaysia K000718104
Chase, M.W. [23324], Réunion 77715.000
Humbert, H. [23307], Madagascar K000718456
Daramola, B. O. [FHI 41063], Cameroon K000106776
Maitland, T.D. [1785], Cameroon K000106778
Johnston, H.H. [107], Cameroon K000106777
Bridson, D. [476], Rwanda Calanthe corymbosa 43772.000
Stolz, A. [671], Malawi Calanthe corymbosa K000242425
Holmes [8], Zambia Calanthe corymbosa 77396.000
Cribb, P. [10308], Tanzania Calanthe volkensii 40305.000
Tanzania Calanthe stolzii 41058.000
Stolz, A. [3], Malawi Calanthe stolzii K000242422 Unknown type material
Stolz, A. [3], Malawi Calanthe stolzii K000242423

First published in Gen. Sp. Orchid. Pl.: 250 (1833)

Accepted by

  • Averyanov, L.V. & al. (2016). New and rare orchids (Orchidaceae) in the flora of Cambodia and Laos Turczaninowia 19: 5-58.
  • Averyanov, L.V. & al. (2018). New and rare orchid species (Orchidaceae) in the flora of Cambodia and Laos Novosti Sistematiki Vysshikh Rastenii 49: 24-41.
  • Bernet, P. (2010). Orchidées de la Réunion: 1-368. Naturae Amici éditions.
  • Clayton, D. & Cribb, P. (2013). The Genus Calanthe: 1-411. Natural history publications (Borneo), Kota Kinabalu.
  • Cribb, P., Hermans, J. & Rakotoarinivo, M. (2009). Field Guide to the Orchids of Madagascar: 1-456. Kew Publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Fischer, E., Rembold, K., Althof, A. & Obholzer, J. (2010). Annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Kakamega forest, Western province, Kenya Journal of East African Natural History 99: 129-226.
  • Govaerts, R. (1999). World Checklist of Seed Plants 3(1, 2a & 2b): 1-1532. MIM, Deurne.
  • Govaerts, R. (2003). World Checklist of Monocotyledons Database in ACCESS: 1-71827. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Johnson, S. & Bytebier, B. (2015). Orchids of South Africa. A field guide: 1-536. Struik nature, Cape Town, South Africa.
  • Jongkind, C. (2014). Fauna & Flora of Liberia, flowering plant species list www.liberianfaunaflora.org.
  • Kurzweil, H. (2010). A precursory study of the Calanthe group (Orchidaceae) in Thailand Adansonia, III, 32: 57-107.
  • Liltved, W.R. & Johnson, S.D. (2012). The Cape orchids. A regional monograph of the orchids of the Cape floristic region 2: 485-1022. Sandstone editions, Cape Town.
  • Lucksom, S.Z. (2007). The orchids of Sikkim and North East Himalaya: 1-984. S.Z.Lucksom, India.
  • Ormerod, P. & Kumar, C.S. (2003). Orchidaceous additions to the Flora of Burma (Myanmar) Rheedea 13: 43-50.
  • Raskoti, B.B. (2009). The Orchids of Nepal: 1-252. Bhakta Bahadur Raskoti and Rita Ale.
  • Sittisujjatham, S. (2006). Wild Orchid of Thailand 1: 1-495. Amarin.
  • Szlachetko, D. & Kowalkoska, A. (2007). Contributions to the orchid flora of Guinea, West Africa Polish Botanical Studies 25: 1-259.
  • Szlachetko, D.L. & Mytnik-Ejsmont, J. (2015). Orchidaceae of West-Central Africa 2: 1-300. Koeltz Scientific books, Koenigsheim, Germany.
  • Szlachetko, D.L. & al. (2004). Flore du Gabon 36: 1-231. Muséum National D'Histoire Naturelle, Paris.
  • Velayos, M. & al. (eds.) (2018). Flora de Guinea Ecuatorial 10: 1-491. Consejo superior de investigaciones científicas, Real jardín botánico, Madrid.
  • Velayos, M., Barberá, P., Cabezas, F.J., de la Estrella, M., Fero, M. & Aedo, C. (2014). Checklist of the vascular plants of Annobón (Equatorial Guinea) Phytotaxa 171: 1-78.
  • Wu, Z. & Hong, D. (eds.) (2009). Flora of China 25: 1-570. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.

Literature

Kew Backbone Distributions

  • Barthelat, F. (2019). La flore illustrée de Mayotte: 1-687. Biotope éditions.
  • Jongkind, C. (2014). Fauna & Flora of Liberia, flowering plant species list www.liberianfaunaflora.org.
  • Szlachetko, D. & Kowalkoska, A. (2007). Contributions to the orchid flora of Guinea, West Africa Polish Botanical Studies 25: 1-259.

Flora of Tropical East Africa

  • Lindl., Gen. Sp. Orch. Pl.: 250 (1833).
  • Perrier in Fl. Madag., Orch. 1: 298 (1939).
  • Reichb. f. in Walpers, Ann. Bot. 6: 914 (1864).
  • Schltr. in F. Fedde, Repertorium Speciorum Novarum Regni Vegetabilis, Beih. 33: 165 (1933).

Art and Illustrations in Digifolia
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Flora Zambesiaca
Flora Zambesiaca
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Flora of Tropical East Africa
Flora of Tropical East Africa
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Flora of West Tropical Africa
Flora of West Tropical Africa
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Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
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Kew Backbone Distributions
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Kew Science Photographs
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