Eulophia obtusa (Lindl.) Hook.f.

This species is accepted, and its native range is Uttarakhand to NW. Bangladesh.

[KBu]

Sourav, M.S.H. et al. 2017. Eulophia obtusa (Orchidaceae: Epidendroideae: Cymbideae) an addition to the flora of Bangladesh, with notes on its ecology and conservation status. Kew Bulletin 72:19. DOI 10.1007/S12225-017-9689-2

Distribution
Northwest India (Uttarakhand, Uttar Pradesh, ?Assam, ?Chhattisgarh), ?Nepal, Bangladesh.
Ecology
The only known site of Eulophia obtusa in Bangladesh is situated in the high Barind tract, one of the major agro-ecological regions comprising about 79% of Godagari upazila. The area lies at about 15 m above sea level, and is not normally flooded, although the grassland in which the orchid occurred was usually water-logged during the peak of the rainy season. The vegetation is composed of grasses like Imperata cylindrica and Saccharum spontaneum as well as herbs and shrubs, including Amorphophallus margaritifer, A. paeoniifolius, Boerhavia diffusa, Chrozophora rottleri, Colocasia esculenta, Commelina benghalensis, Croton bonplandianus, Cyanotis cristata, Cyperus sp., Digera muricata, Euphorbia hirta, Ficus hispida, Kyllinga microcephala, Leucas lavandulifolia, Lippia alba, Parthenium hysterophorus, Phyllanthus virgatus, Solanum villosum, Uraria picta, and others. In North India, Eulophia obtusa has been found in freshwater swamps (Deva & Naithani1986). The elevations have not been recorded for the collections we have seen, but they are probably all from below 200 m asl.
Morphology General Habit
Terrestrial, seasonally deciduous herb, bearing under­ground corms
Morphology General Shoots
Shoots 1 - 5­leaved, usually bifoliate, basal part formed by sheaths enveloping the base of the inflorescence as well as the leaf-bases
Morphology Leaves
Leaves appearing with the inflorescence, grass-like, 35 - 50 cm long, 0.15 - 0.5 cm wide, linear, slightly plicate, apex acuminate, midrib prominent, sheathing at base
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flower 3 - 4 cm diam.; sepals and petals white, lip white tinged pink, with numerous deeper purplish pink, branching veins, zone surrounding the mouth of the spur light green; calli white, green in the basal part of the lip; spur green; column creamy white, apex red-purple, anther yellowish tinged green, with faint purple markings
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Dorsal sepal c. 2.0 x 0.5 cm, oblong-lanceolate, acute, 7-nerved; lateral sepals similar, c. 1.8 x 0.5 cm
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Column
Column 8 mm long, with short foot
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Lip 2.1 x 1.7 cm when flattened, at right angles to the column, 3-lobed; lateral lobes basal, erect, c. 5 x 4 mm, semi-elliptic, rounded; midlobe c. 1.7 x 1.3 cm, elliptic, almost truncate, margins undulate; callus complex, consisting of 3 - 4 short, transverse ribs on either side of the mouth of the spur, and 5 longitudinal ribs of unequal size and height occupying most of the median part of the midlobe; veins thickened; spur c. 6.7 mm long, conico-cylindrical, obtuse, curved forward and appressed on the abaxial surface of the labellum Petals 1.8 x 0.6 cm, oblong- lanceolate, obtuse
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Pedicel
Pedicel with ovary c. 24 mm long, curved, glabrous, terete, ovary ribbed
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruit not seen (Description based on material from Bangladesh only)
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescence erect, 40 - 60 cm tall; peduncle terete with a few distant, c. 5 cm long, linear- triangular, sterile bracts; rachis up to c. 10 cm long, bearing 4 - 12 flowers usually opening simultaneously and more or less evenly spaced
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Bracts
Floral bracts c. 1.4 cm long, lanceolate, acuminate, much shorter than the combined length of pedicel and ovary
Note
An unpublished painting from 9 July 1900 in the Icones collection of Kew by H. Hormusji of an orchid collected in the Raipur District of Central India (Chhattisgarh) and grown by J. Martin represents a taxon that is strikingly similar to the Bangladesh form of E. obtusa in colour, except that it lacks the green tinge in the basal part of the lip. It differs in the much simpler callus structure: instead of a series of small transverse calli along the mouth of the spur there are just two large, wing-shaped, undulate calli, which are connected to three (not five) lamellae on the mid­lobe. Since the artist also drew the column, anther and pollinarium in great detail, we do not think that the simpler callus structure is due to a superficial and inaccurate representation. If this painting represents a form of E. obtusa, then it is evidence for a considerable range extension towards the South. The painting had been annotated as "" Eulophia n. sp."" by R. A. Rolfe. It should be noted that Duthie (1906) claimed that the collecting locality of Eulophia obtusa as cited by Lindley refers to that of a specimen of E. fl ava (Lindl.) Hook. f. There are no locality data on the type sheet of E. obtusa, and we do not know on what grounds Duthie made his claim.
Phenology
Flowering: June - July; fruiting: not seen, but local informants stated that they had seen the plants in fruit.
Vegetative Multiplication Corms
Corm white, dome-shaped, 2.5 - 3.1 cm wide and 3.3 - 5.5 cm high, lying 10 - 20 cm below ground, bearing vermiform, white roots

Native to:

Assam, Bangladesh, India, Nepal, West Himalaya

Eulophia obtusa (Lindl.) Hook.f. appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status Has image?
Royle, J.F. [s.n.], India K000078320 Unknown type material Yes

First published in Fl. Brit. India 6: 3 (1890)

Accepted by

  • Govaerts, R. (2003). World Checklist of Monocotyledons Database in ACCESS: 1-71827. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Jalal, J.S. & Jayanthi, J. (2015). An annotated checklist of the orchids of western himalaya, India. Lankesteriana 15: 7-50.
  • Rokaya, M.B. & al. (2013). An annotated checklist of the orchids of Nepal. Nordic Journal of Botany 31: 511-550.
  • Sarmah, K.K. & Borthakur, S.K. (2009). A checklist of angiospermic plants of Manas national park in Assam, India. Pleione 3: 190-200.

Literature

Kew Bulletin

  • Bone, R. E., Cribb, P. J. & Buerki, S. (2015). Phylogenetics of Eulophiinae (Orchidaceae: Epidendroideae): evolutionary patterns and impli­cations for generic delimitation. Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 179: 43 - 56.
  • Chase, M. W., Cameron, K. M., Freudenstein, J. V., Pridgeon, A. M., Salazar, G., Van den Berg, C. & Schuiteman, A. (2015). An updated classification of Orchidaceae. Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 177: 151 - 174.
  • Deva, S. & Naithani, H. B. (1986). The Orchid Flora of North-west Himalaya. Print and Media Associates, New Delhi.
  • Duthie (1906: 129, t. 111).
  • Duthie, J. F. (1902). Descriptions of some new species of Orchideae from North-West and Central India. J. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, Pt. 2, Nat. Hist. 71: 37 - 45.
  • Duthie, J. F. (1906). The Orchids of North-western Himalaya. Ann. Roy. Bot. Gard. (Calcutta) 9 (2): 1 - 211.
  • Duthie, J. F. (1915). Flora of the Upper Gangetic Plain and of the adjacent Siwalik and Sub-Himalayan Tracts, Volume 3. The Superintendent of Government Printing, Calcutta.
  • Dutta, S. U. & Sarma, G. C. (2013). Orchid diversity at the Chirang Reserve Forest of BTAD, Assam. Global Research Analysis 2 (5): 9 - 10.
  • Govaerts, R., Campacci, M. A., Baptista, D. H., Cribb, P. J., George, A., Kreutz, K. & Wood, J. J. (2016). World checklist of Orchidaceae.The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Available from: http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/Retrieved(accessed 13 February 2016).
  • Hooker 1890: 3
  • Hooker, J. D. (1890). The Flora of British India, Vol. 6. L. Reeve & Co, London.
  • IUCN (2001). IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria: Version 3.1. IUCN Species Survival Commission. IUCN, Gland and Cambridge.
  • Jalal, J. S. (2012). Status, threats and conservation strategies for orchids of western Himalaya, India. J. Threatened Taxa 4 (15): 3401 - 3409.
  • Jalal, J. S. , Kumar, P., Rawat, G. S. & Pangtey, Y. P. S. (2008). Orchidaceae in Uttarakhand, Western Himalaya, India. Checklist 4 (3): 304 - 320.
  • Kuntze, O. (1891). Revisio generum plantarum 2. A. Felix, Leipzig,
  • Lindley, J. (1833). The genera and species of orchidaceous plants. J. Ridgway & sons, London.
  • Martos, F., Johnson, S. D., Peter, C. I. & Bytebier, B. (2014). A molecular phylogeny reveals paraphyly of the large genus Eulophia (Orchidaceae): A case for the reinstatement of Orthochilus. Taxon 63 (1): 9 - 23.
  • Pridgeon,A.M.,Cribb,P.J.,Chase,M.W.&Rasmussen,F. N. (2009). Genera Orchidacearum,vol.5.Epidendroideae (Part two). Oxford University Press, Oxford.
  • Rajbhandari, K. R. & Dahal, S. (2004). Orchids of Nepal: a checklist. Bot. Orient. 4: 89 - 106.
  • Rokaya,M.B.,Raskoti,B.B.,Timsina,B.& Munzbergova, Z. (2013). An annotated checklist of the orchids of Nepal. Nordic J. Bot. 31: 511 - 550.
  • Schlechter, R. (1919). Orchideologiae Sino-Japonicae Prodromus. Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. Beih. 4: 1 - 319.

Kew Backbone Distributions

  • Jalal, J.S. & Jayanthi, J. (2015). An annotated checklist of the orchids of western himalaya, India. Lankesteriana 15: 7-50.
  • Rokaya, M.B. & al. (2013). An annotated checklist of the orchids of Nepal. Nordic Journal of Botany 31: 511-550.
  • Sarmah, K.K. & Borthakur, S.K. (2009). A checklist of angiospermic plants of Manas national park in Assam, India. Pleione 3: 190-200.

  • Herbarium Catalogue Specimens

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  • Kew Backbone Distributions

    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Vascular Plants 2022. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and https://powo.science.kew.org/
    © Copyright 2022 World Checklist of Vascular Plants. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

  • Kew Bulletin

    Kew Bulletin
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone

    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Vascular Plants 2022. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and https://powo.science.kew.org/
    © Copyright 2022 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Vascular Plants. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0