Galanthus nivalis L.

First published in Sp. Pl.: 288 (1753)
This species is accepted
The native range of this species is Pyrenees to Ukraine. It is a bulbous geophyte and grows primarily in the temperate biome.


Native to:

Albania, Austria, Belarus, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Poland, Romania, Sicilia, Spain, Switzerland, Turkey-in-Europe, Ukraine, Yugoslavia

Introduced into:

Belgium, Great Britain, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, Netherlands, New Brunswick, New Jersey, New York, Newfoundland, North Carolina, Norway, Ohio, Ontario, Pennsylvania, Sweden, Utah, Virginia, Washington


Homotypic Synonyms

Heterotypic Synonyms

POWO follows these authorities in accepting this name:

  • Diev, M.M. (2014). Galyantusy: 1-167. K.M.K., Moskva.
  • Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2002). Flora of North America North of Mexico 26: 1-723. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.
  • Govaerts, R. (2003). World Checklist of Seed Plants Database in ACCESS G: 1-40325.
  • Knapp, W.M. & Naczi, R.F.C. (2021). Vascular plants of Maryland, USA. A comprehensive account of the state's botanical diversity. Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 113: 1-151.
  • Mirek, Z., Piękoś-Mirkowa, H., Zając, A. & Zając, M (2020). Vascular plants of Poland an annotated checklist: 1-526. W. Szafer institute of botany, Polish academy of sciences, Krakow, Poland.
  • Rico, E. & al. (eds.) in Castroviejo, S. & al. (eds.) (2013). Flora Iberica 20: 1-651. Real Jardín Botánico, CSIC, Madrid.
  • Tutin, T.G. & al. (eds.) (1980). Flora Europaea 5: 1-452. Cambridge University Press.

Kew Species Profiles

  • Sampled Red List Index Conservation Assessment for Galanthus nivalis. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland.
  • Bishop, M., Davis, A. P. & Grimshaw, J. (2006). Snowdrops: A Monograph of Cultivated Galanthus. Griffin Press, Cheltenham.
  • Davis, A. P. (1999). The Genus Galanthus. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew in association with Timber Press, Oregon.
  • Heinrich, M. & Teoh, H. L. (2004). Galanthamine from snowdrop – the development of a modern drug against Alzheimer’s disease from local Caucasian knowledge. J. Ethnopharmacol. 92: 147-162.
  • Sanderson, H. & Prendergast, H. D. V. (2002). Commercial uses of wild and traditionally managed plants in England and Scotland. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

Kew Backbone Distributions

  • Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2002). Flora of North America North of Mexico 26: 1-723. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.

Other Data

Other Kew resources that provide information on this taxon:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status Has image?
Aug 1, 2008 Huet, A. [1854], France K000464069 Yes
Mar 1, 1882 Grecescu, D. [s.n.], Romania K000457107 No
Mar 1, 1882 Grecescu, D. [s.n.], Romania K000457108 No
Mar 1, 1882 Grecescu, D. [s.n.], Romania K000457106 No
Jun 2, 1851 Coqueray, J. [s.n.], France K000457118 No
Jun 2, 1851 Coqueray, J. [s.n.], France K000457121 No
Davis, A. 70348.000 No
64350.000 No
70434.000 No
Marr, A.J. [136], Italy 73718.000 No
73303.000 No
Zinger, N. [s.n.], Ukraine K000457092 No
Favrat, L. [s.n.], Switzerland K000457097 No
Unverricht, C. [s.n.], Poland K000457110 No
s.coll. [s.n.], Austria K000457114 No
s.coll. [s.n.], Italy K000457115 No
s.coll. [s.n.], France K000457120 No
Durand-Duquesney [s.n.], France K000457134 No
Daville [s.n.], France K000457135 No
Hill, A.W. [2526], Greece K000457148 No
Hill, A.W. [2526], Greece K000457149 No
Pichler [s.n.], Italy K000457154 No
Maly [s.n.], Bosnia & Herzegovina K000457161 No
Margittai, A. [s.n.], Ukraine K000457103 No
Otruba, J. [s.n.], Czech Republic K000457102 No
Bornet [s.n.], France K000457119 No
s.coll. [s.n.], Austria K000457125 No
Martindale, G.E. [7], Croatia K000457157 No
s.coll. [s.n.], France K000457137 No
Thomas [s.n.], Switzerland K000457098 No
s.coll. [s.n.], Italy K000457116 No
Martindale, G.E. [7], Croatia K000457156 No
Cope, T.A. [RBG 23], United Kingdom K000914590 Yes
Gerard, C. [s.n.], France K000457129 No
Joad, G.C. [s.n.], Italy K000457277 No
s.coll. [s.n.], Bosnia & Herzegovina K000457162 No
s.coll. [s.n.], Belgium K000457111 No
s.coll. [s.n.], Bulgaria K000457163 No
s.coll. [s.n.], Austria K000457124 No
Pichler [s.n.], Italy K000457152 No
Jarris, P. [s.n.], France K000457131 No
Whitehead, M.J. [15], Italy K000457167 No
Billiet, P. [s.n.], France K000457126 No
Tommasini, M. [s.n.], Italy K000457153 No
Porta [s.n.], Italy K000457151 No
Meline, C. [s.n.], France K000457138 No
Mathew, B. [7529], Montenegro K000457155 No
Pennington, R.V. [3], Albania K000457164 No
Savostjaniv, A. [33], Ukraine K000457091 No
Mathew, B. [4032], Serbia K000457159 No
Vollmann [1433], Germany K000457095 No
Bouvet, G. [s.n.], France K000457139 No
s.coll. [s.n.], Italy K000457145 No
Nowak, J. [s.n.], Poland K000457166 No
Maillard, A. [s.n.], France K000457136 No
Buysson Du [s.n.], France K000457130 No
Billiet, P. [s.n.], France K000457127 No
Fiori, A. [s.n.], Italy K000457144 No
s.coll. [s.n.], Ukraine K000457090 No
Pop, I. [s.n.], Romania K000457105 No
Fiori, A. [s.n.], Italy K000457143 No
Ball, J. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000457506 No
s.coll. [99911], Austria K000457101 No
s.coll. [s.n.], France K000457123 No
s.coll. [564], Poland K000457094 No
Maly [s.n.], Bosnia & Herzegovina K000457160 No
s.coll. [s.n.], Switzerland K000457113 No
Meline, C. [s.n.], France K000457142 No
Dostal, J. [s.n.], Czech Republic K000457146 No
Feuz [17], Austria K000457099 No
s.coll. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000457507 No
Joad, G.C. [564], Poland K000457093 No
s.coll. [s.n.], France K000457133 No
Gilliat-Smith, B. [409], Bulgaria K000457165 No
Reverchon, E. [s.n.], France K000457128 No
Hepp, E. [1433], Germany K000457096 No
Vayreda [s.n.], Spain K000457117 No
Gerard, C. [s.n.], France K000457140 No
Marr, A.J. [75], Montenegro K000457158 No
s.coll. [s.n.], Austria K000457100 No
Jarris, P. [s.n.], France K000457141 No
Horton, S.V. [853], Greece K000457147 No
Blonski, F. [s.n.], Poland K000457109 No
Huet, A. [s.n.], France K000457132 No
Goulimy, C.N. [10], Greece K000457150 No
Picquet, C. [s.n.], Belgium K000457112 No
Volak, J. [s.n.], Czech Republic K000457104 No
s.coll. [s.n.], France K000457122 No


  • Herbarium Catalogue Specimens

    • Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew
  • IUCN Categories

    • IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
  • Kew Backbone Distributions

    • The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Vascular Plants 2023. Published on the Internet at and
    • © Copyright 2022 World Checklist of Vascular Plants.
  • Kew Living Collection Database

    • Common Names from Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew Living Collection
  • Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone

    • The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Vascular Plants 2023. Published on the Internet at and
    • © Copyright 2022 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Vascular Plants.
  • Kew Science Photographs

    • Copyright applied to individual images
  • Kew Species Profiles

    • Kew Species Profiles