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This species is accepted, and its native range is SE. & S. Brazil.
Phymatidium falcifolium

[KBu]

De Brito, A. (2007). A Taxonomic Revision of the Genus Phymatidium (Orchidaceae: Oncidiinae). Kew Bulletin, 62(4), 529-560. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/20443388

Distribution
Brazil: Santa Catarina, Paraná, São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, and Espírito Santo. Herter (1930) reported this species for Uruguay
Ecology
Epiphytic, usually on trees and shrubs near river margins and waterfalls in the forest. Alt. 0 - 1 000 m.
Morphology General Habit
Plant up to c. 100 mm tall, usually forming dense clumps
Morphology Leaves
Leaves up to c. 7 x 1.5 mm wide (c. 4 mm across the base), many, in a dense spiral along the stem, conduplicate, falcate, soft, slightly fleshy, arching, somewhat twisted, shortly carinate abaxially, slightly concave, ovate, sheathing and shortly decurrent at base, becoming somewhat linear-caudate toward the apex, acuminate, pale-green
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers not resupinate, white with green centre and spreading segments
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Lateral sepals c. 3.5 x 1 mm, obliquely ovate-lanceolate to oblong-lanceolate, acute to obtuse, abaxially, slightly carinate, white Dorsal sepal c. 3 x 1 mm, oblong-lanceolate, acute to obtuse, abaxially slightly carinate, white
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Column
Column c. 1.5 mm long (excluding the tabula infrastigmatica), incurved, somewhat clavate in side view, sulcate underneath, wingless, white; stigmatic cavity small, ovate lanceolate, placed at the base of the column, ovate lanceolate; rostellum very short, curved forwards; tabula infrastigmatica c. 1.5 x 2 mm, conspicuous, solid, thick, shiny green, somewhat 3-lobed and reniform when spread and seen from above, with a raised, convex, obovoid, conspicuous callus at the middle; anther c. 1.5 x 1 mm, operculate, ovate in outline, the apex shortly emarginate and slightly recurved; pollinia arranged in two superposed unequal pairs, the superior pair obovoid, the inferior slightly globose; stipe c. 1 mm long, cuneiform, curved forwards at base, the apex truncate to obscurely trilobed bearing two small, cupulate sockets; viscidium very small, concave, slightly oblong with a broader, rounded apex
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Lip c. 3 x 2 mm, slightly ovate, oblong or slightly obovate when spread, white, provided adaxially with a large, concave, auriculate-ovate callosity which is densely glandular within and occupies c. 3/4 of the lip surface, the lateral margins are deflexed, erose, lacerate or denticulate, whereas the front margins are smoother and usually undulate or obscurely denticulate Petals c. 3.2 x 1.5 mm, oblong, slightly ovate or oblong lanceolate, acute to obtuse, abaxially slightly carinate, white
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Ovary
Ovary c. 1 mm long
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Pedicel
Pedicel c. 4 mm long, twisted, angular, usually bent near the apex
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Capsule c. 4.5 x 4 mm, subglobose, the pedicel c. 3 mm long.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescences few, up to c. 100 mm long, few (c. 2) to many-flowered (c. 10), racemose; peduncle up to c. 40 mm long, angular in cross-section, covered by a number of widely spaced, decurrent, narrowly ovate-lanceolate sterile bracts, c. 4 x 1 mm; rachis up to c. 70 mm long; floral bracts similar to the sterile ones
Morphology Roots
Roots many, terete, flexuous, glabrous
Morphology Stem
Stem up to c. 100 mm long, terete, ascending, branched
Note
Examination of the type of Phymatidium falcifolium has proved that this species and the well known P. tillandsioides Barb. Rodr. are conspecific. The reason for these two species having been kept separated for more than a century is most probably because of a floral analysis which Lindley drew on the type sheet of P. falcifolium in his herbarium at Kew. This rather schematic drawing shows clearly but mistakenly a narrowly unguiculate lip, different column morphology and a convex, rather than concave, callus on the lip. Lindley had apparently little material of this species and his drawing seems to have been based on dried, pressed flowers. I have dissected and drawn a flower from the type specimen and it agrees well with the material of P. tillandsioides. Because of its habit, which resembles some of the dwarf species of the genus Tillandsia L. (Bromeliaceae), Phymatidium falcifolium can be easily recognised. It is common in the Atlantic forest of Brazil and is widely cultivated. When compared with other members of Phlymatidium, this species presents unique features. It is the only species with conduplicate leaves and has distinctive leaf anatomy (Toscano de Brito 1998) and seed morphology (Toscano de Brito 1999). Its floral morphology is also quite different, especially the large callus, which occupies almost three-quarters of the lip surface. This species was misidentified as P delicatulum in Senghas (1995: 1901, f. 1859). Examination of the type specimen of P. lopesii Ruschi has confirmed the view of Pabst & Dungs (1977), who considered it conspecific with P. falcifolium. The specific epithet derives from the Latin falx, a scythe or sickle, and folium, a leaf, in reference to the shape of the leaves.
Type
Brazil, without precise locality, Prescott s.n. (holotype K!).

Native to:

Brazil South, Brazil Southeast

Phymatidium falcifolium Lindl. appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
May 1, 1993 Burchell [3728-2] K000886649
Mar 1, 1993 Gardner, G. [645], Brazil K000886647
Mar 1, 1993 s.coll. [s.n.] K000886637
May 22, 1986 Lewis, G.P. [1401], Paraná K000886645
Prescott [s.n.] 74478.000 holotype
74493.000 Unknown type material
Toscano de Brito, A. [675], Rio de Janeiro 65112.000
s.coll. [s.n.] 77997.000
Glaziou [12209], Rio de Janeiro K000886642
Pabst, G. [8733], Rio de Janeiro K000886644
Rohr, P.J.A. [2063], Santa Catarina K000886646
Burchell [3728-2] K000886648
Usteri, A. [s.n.], Brazil K000886638
Rio de Janeiro 76118.000
Lewis et al. [1401], Brazil 74582.000
Miers, J. [3475], Rio de Janeiro K000886639
Miers, J. [s.n.] K000886640
s.coll. [s.n.] K000886643
Glaziou, A.F.M. [18538], Rio de Janeiro K000886641
Phymatidium tillandsioides 10427.000
Mason, L.M. [228], Brazil Phymatidium tillandsioides 37857.000
Brazil Phymatidium tillandsioides 57854.000
Phymatidium tillandsioides 8437.000
Chase, M.W. [O-1276 K] Phymatidium tillandsioides K000886660
Chase, M.W. [86041] Phymatidium tillandsioides 76310.000

First published in Gen. Sp. Orchid. Pl.: 210 (1833)

Accepted by

  • Govaerts, R. (2003). World Checklist of Monocotyledons Database in ACCESS: 1-71827. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Royer, C.A., Toscano de Brito, A.L.V. & de Camargo Smidt, E. (2014). O gênero Phymatidium (Orchidaceae: Oncidiinae) no estado do Paraná Rodriguésia; Revista do Instituto de Biologia Vegetal, Jardim Botânico e Estaçao Biologica do Itatiaya 65: 251-260.
  • Toscano de Brito, A.L.V. (2007). A taxonomic revision of the genus Phymatidium (Orchidaceae: Oncidiinae) Kew Bulletin 62: 529-560.

Literature

Kew Bulletin

  • Cogniaux, A. (1904 - 1906). Orchidaceae. In: C. F. P. Martius, A. G. Eichler & I. Urban, Flora Brasiliensis, Vol. 3, Part 6. Munich & Leipzig.
  • Lindley, J. (1830 - 1840). The Genera and Species of Orchidaceous Plants. Ridgways, London.
  • Pabst, G. F. J. & Dungs, F. (1977). Orchidaceae Brasilienses, Vol. 2. Brucke-Verlag Kurt Schmersow, Hildesheim.

Kew Backbone Distributions

  • Royer, C.A., Toscano de Brito, A.L.V. & de Camargo Smidt, E. (2014). O gênero Phymatidium (Orchidaceae: Oncidiinae) no estado do Paraná Rodriguésia; Revista do Instituto de Biologia Vegetal, Jardim Botânico e Estaçao Biologica do Itatiaya 65: 251-260.

Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

Kew Backbone Distributions
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Kew Bulletin
Kew Bulletin
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Kew Science Photographs
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/