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This species is accepted, and its native range is Indian Subcontinent to Nansei-shoto and Philippines.
Zeuxine nervosa (Wall. ex Lindl.) Benth. ex Trimen

[KBu]

Bhattacharjee, A. & Chowdhery, H.J. 2012. Kew Bulletin 67: 97. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12225-012-9349-5

Distribution
India (West Bengal, Sikkim, Assam, Arunachal Pradesh, Nagaland, Manipur, Orissa, Andaman & Nicobar Islands), China, Nepal, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Thailand, Laos, Cambodia, Vietnam, Taiwan, Philippines, Japan and New Guinea.
Ecology
Zeuxine nervosa is usually found in semi-evergreen montane to tropical rain forests on humus-rich soil under shade or sometimes in sandy moist soil between 20 and 1900 m.
Morphology General Habit
Terrestrial herbs, 12 – 64 cm tall
Morphology Leaves
Leaves 4 – 10, 2 – 14 cm long, scattered along the stem, sometimes crowded near apex, glabrous; petiole 0.5 – 4 cm long, sheathing at base; lamina 1.5 – 10 × 1 – 4.4 cm, ovate to ovate-lanceolate to lanceolate to elliptic, sometimes oblique, obtuse at base, acute to acuminate at apex, uniformly green or sometimes with silvery grey to grey-white band along mid-vein, 3-veined
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers 1 – 1.5 cm long, white-green, resupinate
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens Anthers
Anther 2 – 2.5 × 1.3 – 1.6 mm, pale pinkish yellow; pollinarium 2.8 – 3.4 mm long; pollinia 2, 1 – 1.3 × 0.5 – 0.8 mm, obovate to obclavate, sectile, pale white; caudicles c. 0.5 mm long, narrowly oblong, yellowish white; tegula 2.2 – 2.6 mm long, sub-deltoid, bifurcated at base, constricted near middle, semi-transparent; viscidium 1.3 – 1.6 × 0.4 – 0.8 mm, oblong to oblong-lanceolate to sub-deltoid
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Sepals free, green to yellowish green, pubescent to glandular pubescent, 3-veined; dorsal sepal 4 – 7 × 3 – 4.2 mm, broadly ovate, sub-acute to obtuse at apex; lateral sepals 3.8 – 7 × 1.6 – 3.2 mm, oblong-lanceolate to ovate-oblong, spreading, margin slightly inflexed, obtuse at apex
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Column
Column c. 4 mm long, white, with 2 wings; wings c. 0.7 × 0.7 mm, large, deltoid to oblong with obliquely truncate apices, converging towards centre; rostellum 2 – 3 mm long, white, projecting, bifid at apex, arms sub-acute to acute at apex
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Petals 5 – 8 × 2 – 3 mm (at widest portion), obliquely oblong-ovate to sub-orbicular to sub-rectangular, white with greenish tinge, glabrous, often connate near apex, abruptly apiculate at one side at apex, with one complete and two incomplete veins
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Ovary
Ovary 0.7 – 1.4 × 0.1 – 0.36 cm, oblong-fusiform, twisted, green, pubescent to glandular pubescent.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Stigma
Stigma lobes 2, oblong, dull white
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Labellum
Labellum 0.8 – 1.1 cm long; hypochile saccate, 2.8 – 3.2 × 3 – 3.5 mm, white to pale yellow with greenish tinge, with 2 – 3 filiform appendages within in either side; mesochile 2.5 – 4 × 2 – 2.5 mm, oblong, margin incurved, white with greenish tinge near base of epichile; epichile 2-lobed, each lobe 3 – 4 × 3 – 4 mm in diam., sub-orbicular to sub-squarish, white, occasionally with yellowish tinge
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescence racemose, terminal, laxly two to many flowered, greenish brown, pubescent to glandular pubescent; peduncle 6 – 40 cm long, with 2 – 4 sheathing bracts; sheathing bracts 0.9 – 2 cm long, pinkish white to greenish pink, clasping, acuminate at apex, pubescent to glandular pubescent, 3-veined; rachis 1 – 14 cm long
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Bracts
Floral bracts 0.5 – 1.5 × 0.25 – 0.4 cm, shorter or sub-equal or exceeding the ovary, ovate-lanceolate, light pink, acuminate at apex, 3-veined
Morphology Roots
Roots 1 – 9 cm long, pale brown, fleshy, with minute root hairs
Morphology Stem
Stem 4 – 23 cm long, 3 – 4 mm thick, brownish green, decumbent at base, erect above, unbranched, glabrous, with few membranous sheaths formed by withered leaf-bases
Note

While describing Zeuxineassamica, Barua & Barua (1997) discriminated it from Z. nervosa in having ‘elliptic to elliptic-ovate and broadly acute glossy green leaves (never with silver grey median lines), floral bracts smaller than ovary, limb of the labellum suborbicular or nearly so with 2 nerves at base and widely protruding between lateral sepals, sepals acute, mesochile of labellum laterally winged, calli of sac, 2 on either side, one simple and other with longitudinal median groove and caudicular appendage of pollinia is abruptly narrowed towards the gland’. In the present study based on fresh, pickled, herbarium material and type specimens it has been found that all the above-mentioned characters overlap with the highly variable Z. nervosa. The leaves of Z. nervosa are often uniformly green but sometimes with a silvery grey to grey-white band along the mid-vein and its shape varies from ovate to ovate-lanceolate to lanceolate to elliptic. The floral bracts of Z. nervosa may either be shorter or sub-equal or sometimes exceeding the ovary whereas the apex of sepals are sub-acute to obtuse. Further, we found some discrepancies between the protologue and the types of Z. assamica. In the protologue of Z. assamica the inflorescence is described as 1 – 4 (7)-flowered, but we found 9 flowers (Fig. 2A) in the holotype of the same. The number of appendages or calli inside the hypochile is also variable in Z. nervosa. We observed 2 or 3 filiform appendages (may be interpreted as 2 or 3-fid single appendage) inside in either side of the hypochile. The hairs of the peduncle, rachis and ovary are either glandular or non-glandular type (Fig. 2 L, M). Thus, the above observations clearly indicate that Z. assamica does not deserve the status of an independent species and therefore should be treated as a synonym of Z. nervosa.

Zeuxine nervosa has close similarity with Z. glandulosa, but the size and colour of leaves and the shape of epichile-lobes are distinctly different in these two species. The leaf-laminas of Z. nervosa are 1.5 – 10 × 1 – 4.4 cm and uniformly green or sometimes with a silvery grey to grey-white band along the mid-vein (vs 1.5 – 4.4 × 0.5 – 1.8 cm and blackish purple to dark brownish green in Z. glandulosa) and the epichile-lobes are sub-orbicular to sub-squarish (vs obliquely oblong-deltoid in Z. glandulosa). Z. nervosa (Figs 1, 2) shows high morphological variation but can be distinguished from the other Indian species of Zeuxine (except Z. glandulosa) in having 2 – 3 filiform calli in each side of hypochile, a column with 2 characteristically lateral wings and tegula of pollinarium with distinctly bifurcated bases. In addition, the green hairy ovary and broad sub-orbicular to sub-squarish lobes of the epichile can help to distinguish Z. nervosa from other Indian species of Zeuxine with the naked eye.

Maina et al. (2001) when describing Zeuxine dhanikariana from South Andaman compared it with Z. seidenfadenii Deva & H. B. Naithani and Z. grandisSeidenf., overlooking Z. nervosa which is also known to occur in Andaman and Nicobar Islands. We found that all the characters described by Maina et al. (2001) for Z. dhanikariana exactly match Z. nervosa. The type specimens of Z. dhanikariana could not be traced either in CAL (for holotype) or PBL (for isotypes) as claimed by the authors of the species. However, after critical examination of the protologue of Z. dhanikariana (including the illustration provided by Maina et al. 2001: 21 – 23) it is clear that only in having ‘3 uncinate appendages in each side at the base of lip, smaller flowers (up to 10 mm across) and lax inflorescences’ (described as diagnostic characters of Z. dhanikariana), Z. dhanikariana is not different from Z. nervosa and therefore to be synonymised with the latter.

The specific epithet is derived from the Latin nervosus, in reference to the distinct nerves of the leaf-lamina.
Phenology
November to June.
Vegetative Multiplication Rhizomes
Rhizome 4 – 40 cm long, 3 – 4 mm thick, pale green, creeping, terete, rooting at nodes

Native to:

Andaman Is., Assam, Bangladesh, Cambodia, China South-Central, East Himalaya, India, Laos, Myanmar, Nansei-shoto, Nepal, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam

Zeuxine nervosa (Wall. ex Lindl.) Benth. ex Trimen appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
May 9, 2008 Cumberlege [1074], Thailand 27470.000
May 9, 2008 Kerr, A.F.G. [294], Thailand K000596034 Unknown type material
May 9, 2008 Kerr, A.F.G. [0781A], Thailand K000596038
May 9, 2008 Kerr, A.F.G. [0781A], Thailand K000596037
Mar 1, 1978 Kerr, A.F.G. [0196], Thailand K000596036
Aug 1, 1977 Schmurer [644], Taiwan K000942800
Jun 1, 1968 Kerr, A.F.G. [s.n.], Thailand K000596035
Menzies, D. [49], Thailand 47325.000
Hooker, J.D. [334], Sri Lanka K000079518 Unknown type material
Buchanan-Hamilton, F. [s.n.], Pakistan K000079517 Unknown type material
Schuiteman, A. [s.n.], Cambodia 76897.000

First published in J. Ceylon Branch Roy. Asiat. Soc. 9: 90 (1885)

Accepted by

  • Averyanov, L. (2008). The orchids of Vietnam illustrated survey part 1 Subfamilies Apostasioideae, Cyprioedioideae and Spiranthoideae Turczaninowia 11(1): 5-168.
  • Bhattacharjee, A. & Chowdhery, H.J. (2012). On the status of two Indian species of Zeuxine (Orchidaceae) Kew Bulletin 67: 97-102.
  • Deb, C.R. & Imchen, T. (2008). Orchid Diversity of Nagaland: 1-288. SciChem Publishing House, Udaipur, India.
  • Govaerts, R. (2003). World Checklist of Monocotyledons Database in ACCESS: 1-71827. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Iwatsuki, K., Boufford, D.E. & Ohba, H. (2016). Flora of Japan IVb: 1-335. Kodansha Ltd., Tokyo.
  • Khanam, M. & al. (2001). Our present knowledge on the Terrestrial Orchidaceae Bangladesh Journal of Plant Taxonomy 8(2): 35-49.
  • Kurzweil, H. & Ormerod, P. (2018). Precursory studies on the orchid flora of Myanmar with one new species and thirty eight new distribution records Rheedea 28: 1-15.
  • Lucksom, S.Z. (2007). The orchids of Sikkim and North East Himalaya: 1-984. S.Z.Lucksom, India.
  • Misra, S. (2004). Orchids of Orissa: 1-774. Bishen Singh Mahendra Pal Singh, Dehra Dun.
  • Pandey, R.P. & Dilwakar, P.G. (2008). An integrated check-list flora of Andaman and Nicobar islands, India Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 32: 403-500.
  • Pedersen, H.Æ., Kurzwell, H., Suddee, S. & Cribb, P.J. (2011). Flora of Thailand 12(1): 1-302. The Forest Herbarium, National Park, Wildlife and Plant Conservation Department, Bangkok.
  • Sittisujjatham, S. (2006). Wild Orchid of Thailand 1: 1-495. Amarin.
  • Wu, Z. & Hong, D. (eds.) (2009). Flora of China 25: 1-570. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.

Literature

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Kew Backbone Distributions

  • Iwatsuki, K., Boufford, D.E. & Ohba, H. (2016). Flora of Japan IVb: 1-335. Kodansha Ltd., Tokyo.
  • Khanam, M. & al. (2001). Our present knowledge on the Terrestrial Orchidaceae Bangladesh Journal of Plant Taxonomy 8(2): 35-49.
  • Kurzweil, H. & Ormerod, P. (2018). Precursory studies on the orchid flora of Myanmar with one new species and thirty eight new distribution records Rheedea 28: 1-15.
  • Misra, S. (2004). Orchids of Orissa: 1-774. Bishen Singh Mahendra Pal Singh, Dehra Dun.
  • Wu, Z. & Hong, D. (eds.) (2009). Flora of China 25: 1-570. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.

Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

Kew Backbone Distributions
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Kew Bulletin
Kew Bulletin
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Kew Science Photographs
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