Genus:
Borassus L.

Borassus aethiopum Mart.

This species is accepted, and its native range is Tropical & S. Africa, Comoros, NW. Madagascar.

[FTEA]

Palmae, John Dransfield. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1994

Morphology General Habit
Trunk ultimately reaching 20–30 m. tall, swollen at very base (85 cm. diameter), ± 40–50 cm. diameter at breast height, often with pronounced swelling to 80 cm. diameter about 10 m. above the base, at first covered with persistent leaf-bases, these eventually falling to leave a grey surface, marked with annular leaf scars.
Morphology Leaves
Leaves ± 40 in the crown at maturity; leaf base ± 90 cm. long, split longitudinally down the mid-line, eventually also splitting opposite the petiole; petiole to 3.25 m. long by 15 cm. wide above the base, and 3 cm. thick, tapering to 7.5 cm. wide and 3 cm. thick near the lamina insertion, rounded abaxially, flattened or concave adaxially, edged with shiny, black, irregularly erose, sharp protuberances to 1–2 cm. high; adaxial hastula only slightly asymmetrical, ± 1 cm. high; abaxial hastula inconspicuous, ± 3 mm. high; costa short, ± 10 cm. long, the blade hence slightly costapalmate; blade radius ± 180 cm. from hastula to apex, shorter in outer regions; segments 60–80 or more, not all held in the same plane, stiff and only drooping at the tips in age, in length equalling ± half the radius, 5 cm. or more wide, bifid apically for up to 15 cm., with numerous very fine longitudinal veins, distinct lateral veins, and minute distant pale brown scales.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Male inflorescence to ± 1.5 m. long with 3–6 partial inflorescences; peduncle ± 50 cm. long, ± 3 cm. in diameter at base; bracts tubular, to 45 cm. long by 7 cm. wide, coriaceous, finely striate, split to ± 17 cm., distally the first few bracts empty, the upper subtending branches terminating in (1–)3 rachillae; rachillae up to 35 cm. long by 3 cm. in diameter, brownish green, densely covered in ± 8 spirals of imbricate bracts, free portion of bracts about 10 mm. wide by 5 mm. high; cincinni bearing ± 9 flowers, emerging from the pit one at a time. Female inflorescence ± 1–1.5 m. long, bearing 2–3 empty bracts to 50 cm. long by 7 cm. wide, occasionally branched once or twice; flower bearing portion of axis ± 50–75 cm. long, ± 4–5 cm. in diameter; bracts densely crowded, 3 cm. high by 12 cm. wide, connate laterally and forming pits.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Male flowers subtended by 2 small bracteoles ± 3 mm. × 1 mm.; calyx to 7mm. long, tubular, with 3 very shallow to deep lobes; receptacle to 7.5 × 1 mm., bearing 3 small rounded somewhat cucullate corolla-lobes ± 2 mm. long; stamens 6; filaments very short bearing anthers ± 2 mm. × 0.5 mm.; pollen yellow. Female flowers solitary, borne with 2 bracteoles, each 2 cm. high by 3 cm. wide; sepals 3, imbricate, ± 1.5 × 2 cm.; petals 3, imbricate, ± 1 × 1.5 cm.; staminodal ring with 6 teeth to 4 mm. high; ovary ± 1 cm. in diameter, tipped with 3 stigmatic areas.
sex Male
Male flowers subtended by 2 small bracteoles ± 3 mm. × 1 mm.; calyx to 7mm. long, tubular, with 3 very shallow to deep lobes; receptacle to 7.5 × 1 mm., bearing 3 small rounded somewhat cucullate corolla-lobes ± 2 mm. long; stamens 6; filaments very short bearing anthers ± 2 mm. × 0.5 mm.; pollen yellow. Male inflorescence to ± 1.5 m. long with 3–6 partial inflorescences; peduncle ± 50 cm. long, ± 3 cm. in diameter at base; bracts tubular, to 45 cm. long by 7 cm. wide, coriaceous, finely striate, split to ± 17 cm., distally the first few bracts empty, the upper subtending branches terminating in (1–)3 rachillae; rachillae up to 35 cm. long by 3 cm. in diameter, brownish green, densely covered in ± 8 spirals of imbricate bracts, free portion of bracts about 10 mm. wide by 5 mm. high; cincinni bearing ± 9 flowers, emerging from the pit one at a time.
sex Female
Female flowers solitary, borne with 2 bracteoles, each 2 cm. high by 3 cm. wide; sepals 3, imbricate, ± 1.5 × 2 cm.; petals 3, imbricate, ± 1 × 1.5 cm.; staminodal ring with 6 teeth to 4 mm. high; ovary ± 1 cm. in diameter, tipped with 3 stigmatic areas. Female inflorescence ± 1–1.5 m. long, bearing 2–3 empty bracts to 50 cm. long by 7 cm. wide, occasionally branched once or twice; flower bearing portion of axis ± 50–75 cm. long, ± 4–5 cm. in diameter; bracts densely crowded, 3 cm. high by 12 cm. wide, connate laterally and forming pits.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Ripe fruit usually dull orangey brown, somewhat shiny, borne with the much enlarged calyx and corolla; sepals in fruit 6 cm. high by 10 cm. wide; petals in fruit 7–8 cm. high by 12 cm. wide, erose-margined; fruit broadly ovoid, usually flat-topped, shape depending on number of seeds developing and on close-packing in the infructescence, up to 12 cm. high by 14 cm. in diameter or more, obscurely 3-angled; mesocarp up to 1 cm. thick, yellow and fragrant when ripe, with numerous longitudinal fibres embedded in soft pulp; pyrenes up to 3, 10 × 10 × 5 cm., with endocarp ± 7 mm. thick with 2 radially aligned internal longitudinal flanges, the outer to 1 cm. high the inner to 5 mm., penetrating the seed.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds 1 in each pyrene, with hard bony white homogeneous endosperm, almost completely filling the pyrene-cavity except for a small central space; embryo apical, top-shaped, ± 5 mm. long by 4 mm. wide.
Figures
Fig.2.
Habitat
Distribution locally very patchy, perhaps much influenced by man and elephants (J. Paiva (pers. comm.) records that not only elephant and man, but also lions are fond of the intensely fragrant fruit), occurring along water courses and, in drier areas, where a high water-table exists locally; often occurring in magnificent dense stands; sea-level to 1200 m.
Distribution
K7 P T1 T3 T4 T5 T6 T7 T8 U1 U2 U3 U4 Z widespread throughout the less dry areas of tropical Africa but apparently avoiding the perhumid areas of W. Africa     Africa   coastal towns

[KBu]

Bayton, R. (2007). A Revision of Borassus L. (Arecaceae). Kew Bulletin, 62(4), 561-585. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/20443389

Conservation
Least concern. Borassus aethiopum is widespread and common in a number of African countries. While several populations are in decline (Sambou et al. 1992; 2-002), the palm remains common. Borassus sambiranensis is listed by the IUCN as endangered (EN A1 c) due to habitat loss/degradation and suppression of regeneration by fire. It is perhaps unfortunate that by placing this taxon in synonymy with the widespread B. aethiopum, the conservation status of the Madagascar populations will be masked.
Distribution
Found across sub-Saharan Africa as far south as northern South Africa. Absent from parts of southwest and central Africa, and the Horn of Africa. Present on a number of offshore islands including São Tomé and Bioko in the Gulf of Guinea, three of the Cape Verde Islands, and Pemba, Zanzibar and Mayotte in the Mozambique Channel. Present in the Sambirano region of northwest Madagascar, including the islands of Nosy Bé and Nosy Mitsiou, though it may be introduced there (Bayton et al. 2003).
Ecology
Riverine forest and savanna in low-lying areas, particularly on sandy or alluvial soils. Borassus aethiopum can form dense almost monospecific forest stands or is a component of more diverse riverine forest. However, it is as the main component of palm savannas for which it is best known. Borassus aethiopum is well adapted to fire and herbivory and prospers in areas with frequent burning and browsing. After the pyrenes are dispersed, the embryo is buried underground by the extending cotyledonary petiole (Barot & Gignoux 1999). The meristem is thus protected in the early years of life during a period known as the establishment phase. After several years surviving as a small cluster of leaves, the palm finally generates a stem and this grows rapidly. At this stage, the meristem is vulnerable to fire and herbivory, but is protected to some extent by the skirt of dead leaves that clothes the stem. The dead leaf blades are highly-flammable, but the woody petioles are more persistent and this may allow brush fires to pass quickly; the leaf blade is quickly consumed, but the petiole burns slowly, keeping the fire away from the meristem. As a result, the stem is covered with petioles, which may also serve as a deterrent to large herbivores as the petioles are armed with spines. The accumulated leaf sheaths and petioles are shed cleanly at maturity (Barot & Gignoux 1999). At this point, the meristem is protected from fire and herbivory by virtue of its height above the ground.
Morphology Leaves
Leaves 18 - 27 in the crown; petiole and sheath 130 - 220 cm long; petiole 3.2 - 9 cm wide, robust, with large (0.4 - 2.8 cm long), recurved black teeth on the margins yellow-orange in the distal portion, darkening to brown-black towards the trunk, though in immature plants, the petiole may be completely black; petiole spines extending along the margin of the first leaflet; costa 80- 170 cm long; adaxial hastula conspicuous, to 2.9 cm high, abaxial hastula rudimentary; lamina radius to 190 cm maximum, dense indumentum on the ribs of some immature leaves; leaflets 86 - 120, 4.7 - 11 cm wide, apices acute and entire or splitting longitudinally with age, shortest leaflet 45 - 92 cm long, leaf divided to 58 - 95 cm; commissural veins 8 - 15 per cm, leaf anatomy isolateral.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Staminate flowers 0.2 - 0.7 cm long, exserted individually from the pits; bracteoles 0.8 x 0.5 cm; calyx 0.4 x 0.2 cm and shallowly divided into three sepals, petal lobes 0.15 x 0.1 cm; stamens 6 with very short filaments, 0.02 x 0.04 cm, anthers 0.02 x 0.05 cm; pistillode minute Pistillate flowers 3 x 3 cm, bracteoles 2 cm diam., sepals 1.5 x 2 cm and petals 1 x 1.5 cm
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Pollen
Pollen monosulcate, elliptical, 49 - 71 μm long, aperture 37 - 71 μm long, polar axis 32 - 61 μm long; tectum perforate, sparsely covered with supratectal gemmae
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruits massive, 7- 17 x 7- 11 cm, ovoid, flattened at the apex, or with a depressed apex; fragrant, yellow to orange or red at maturity; produced inside persistent perianth segments; pyrenes 1 - 3, 6.4 - 10.9 cm x 5.4 - 8.0 cm x 4.2 - 5.7 cm, somewhat bilobed; some pyrenes have one or two external longitudinal furrows; internal flanges absent.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Pistillate inflorescences spicate; flower-bearing portion 36 - 160 cm long with 10 - 28 flowers arranged spirally Staminate inflorescences branched to two orders, upper subtending branches terminating in 1 - 3 rachillae; rachillae green-brown and catkin-like, 37- 50 cm long, 2.3 - 3.8 cm diameter, sometimes with a mamilliform apex; rachilla bracts form pits that contain a cincinnus of 8 - 14 staminate flowers.
Morphology Stem
Stem to 25m tall, almost always ventricose, to 80cm diameter
Note
Historically, the key question in Borassus taxonomy has been whether to recognise both the African B. aethiopum and the Asian B. flabellifer. Most recent accounts do recognise B. aethiopum (Beccari 1924; Dransfield 1986a; 1988; Tuley 1995). The molecular study of Kovoor & Hussein (1983) also noted differences between the two species. However, while B. aethiopum and B. flabellifer are at opposite ends of the size range for some characters, other Borassus species are intermediate and no truly determinate quantitative characters were identified. The Madagascar endemic B. sambiranensis is placed here in synonymy with B. aethiopum as the two are almost indistinguishable. Jumelle and Perrier de la Bâthie (1913) describe in detail the differences between the two Madagascar taxa and state that B. sambiranensis is most similar to B. aethiopum. Beccari (1912 - 14, 1914, 1924) recognised B. sambiranensis, though only the pyrenes were available for him to examine. Due to their large size and fleshy consistency, few whole Borassus fruits are preserved in European herbaria. New taxa were erected on the basis of differences between these fruits without taking into account the full range of natural variation. In an attempt to counter this problem, every fruit from three Kenyan specimens of B. aethiopum (159 fruits total) was measured in the field. The variation exhibited by those fruits already encompassed almost all the variation in fruit size for the whole genus. A neotype has been designated for B. aethiopum as the holotype is missing (Hepper 1976). The holotype was collected in Ghana near Accra (Thonning & Schumacher 1829). The neotype was also collected near Accra and includes both staminate and pistillate elements. Aethiopia' was a general term used by the ancient Greeks and Romans for Africa south of Libya and Egypt.
Type
Ghana, Thonning 258 (holotype lost, see Hepper, 1976: 154); Ghana, Weija, 24 April 1957 (Q & Cf), Tomlinson s.n. (neotype, chosen here, BH!).
Vernacular
Dimaka (Sakalava, Madagascar), Kuhe (Ashanti, Ghana), Muhama (Kibuyu, Congo Kinshasa), Mvumo (Kiswahili, Kenya & Tanzania). A list of West African vernacular names for B. aethiopum is provided by Burkill (1997). European names include African fan-palm, borassus-palm, rhun-palm, rônier (French) and palma-do-vinha (Portuguese).

[FWTA]

Palmae, T. A. Russell. Flora of West Tropical Africa 3:1. 1968

Morphology General Habit
The tallest of African palms, often 70 ft. high and sometimes as much as 100 ft.
Morphology Trunk
Trunk swollen above the middle
Ecology
In dry savanna.
Note
The palm is dioecious, the female conspicuous by its large orange fruits.

[PW]
Conservation
Least concern. Borassus aethiopum is widespread and common in a number of African countries. While several populations are in decline (Sambou et al. 1992; 2002), the palm remains common. Borassus sambiranensis is listed by the IUCN as endangered (EN A1c) due to habitat loss/degradation and suppression of regeneration by fire. It is perhaps unfortunate that by placing this taxon in synonymy with the widespread B. aethiopum, the conservation status of the Madagascar populations will be masked.
Vernacular
Dimaka (Sakalava, Madagascar), Kuhe (Ashanti, Ghana), Muhama (Kibuyu, Congo-Kinshasa), Mvumo (Kiswahili, Kenya & Tanzania). A list of West African vernacular names for B. aethiopum is provided by Burkill (1997). European names include African fan-palm, borassus-palm, rhun-palm, rônier (French) and palma-do-vinha (Portuguese).
Distribution
Found across sub-Saharan Africa as far south as northern South Africa. Absent from parts of southwest and central Africa, and the Horn of Africa. Present on a number of offshore islands including São Tomé and Bioko in the Gulf of Guinea, three of the Cape Verde Islands, and Pemba, Zanzibar and Mayotte in the Mozambique Channel. Present in the Sambirano region of northwest Madagascar, including the islands of Nosy Bé and Nosy Mitsiou, though it may be introduced there (Bayton et al. 2003).
Biology
Riverine forest and savanna in low-lying areas, particularly on sandy or alluvial soils. Borassus aethiopum can form dense almost monospecific forest stands or is a component of more diverse riverine forest. However, it is as the main component of palm savannas for which it is best known. Borassus aethiopum is well adapted to fire and herbivory and prospers in areas with frequent burning and browsing. After the pyrenes are dispersed, the embryo is buried underground by the extending cotyledonary petiole (Barot & Gignoux 1999). The meristem is thus protected in the early years of life during a period known as the establishment phase. After several years surviving as a small cluster of leaves, the palm finally generates a stem and this grows rapidly. At this stage, the meristem is vulnerable to fire and herbivory, but is protected to some extent by the skirt of dead leaves that clothes the stem. The dead leaf blades are highly-flammable, but the woody petioles are more persistent and this may allow brush fires to pass quickly; the leaf blade is quickly consumed, but the petiole burns slowly, keeping the fire away from the meristem. As a result, the stem is covered with petioles, which may also serve as a deterrent to large herbivores as the petioles are armed with spines. The accumulated leaf sheathes and petioles are shed cleanly at maturity (Barot & Gignoux 1999). At this point, the meristem is protected from fire and herbivory by virtue of its height above the ground.
General Description
Stem to 25m tall, almost always ventricose, to 80cm diameter. Leaves 18 – 27 in the crown; petiole and sheath 130 – 220 cm long; petiole 3.2 – 9 cm wide, robust, with large (0.4 – 2.8 cm long), recurved black teeth on the margins, yellow-orange in the distal portion, darkening to brown-black towards the trunk, though in immature plants, the petiole may be completely black; petiole spines extending along the margin of the first leaflet; costa 80 – 170 cm long; adaxial hastula conspicuous, to 2.9 cm high, abaxial hastula rudimentary; lamina radius to 190 cm maximum, dense indumentum on the ribs of some immature leaves; leaflets 86 – 120, 4.7 – 11 cm wide, apices acute and entire or splitting longitudinally with age, shortest leaflet 45 – 92 cm long, leaf divided to 58 – 95 cm; commissural veins 8 – 15 per cm, leaf anatomy isolateral. Staminate inflorescences branched to two orders, upper subtending branches terminating in 1 – 3 rachillae; rachillae green-brown and catkin-like, 37 – 50 cm long, 2.3 – 3.8 cm diameter, sometimes with a mamilliform apex; rachilla bracts form pits that contain a cincinnus of 8 – 14 staminate flowers. Pistillate inflorescences spicate; flower-bearing portion 36 – 160 cm long with 10 – 28 flowers arranged spirally. Staminate flowers 0.2 – 0.7 cm long, exserted individually from the pits; bracteoles 0.8 × 0.5 cm; calyx 0.4 × 0.2 cm and shallowly divided into three sepals, petal lobes 0.15 × 0.1 cm; stamens 6 with very short filaments, 0.02 × 0.04 cm, anthers 0.02 × 0.05 cm; pistillode minute. Pollen monosulcate, elliptical, 49 – 71 μm long, aperture 37 – 71 μm long, polar axis 32 – 61 μm long; tectum perforate, sparsely covered with supratectal gemmae. Pistillate flowers 3 × 3 cm, bracteoles 2 cm diam., sepals 1.5 × 2 cm and petals 1 × 1.5 cm. Fruits massive, 7 – 17 × 7 – 11 cm, ovoid, flattened at the apex, or with a depressed apex; fragrant, yellow to orange or red at maturity; produced inside persistent perianth segments; pyrenes 1 – 3, 6.4 – 10.9 cm × 5.4 – 8.0 cm × 4.2 – 5.7 cm, somewhat bilobed; some pyrenes have one or two external longitudinal furrows; internal flanges absent.

[KBu]
Use
In some parts of Africa, Borassus populations are 'managed' by local people, while in other areas the palm is of minimal significance. In many areas, Borassus aethiopum is restricted to game reserves and national parks where it is outside the reach of local people. The leaves are used for thatch and weaving, though species of Hyphaene are generally preferred. The palm is tapped for wine, though the process is different from that used in Asia as the apical bud is tapped rather than the inflorescences. The fruits, undeveloped endosperm and cotyledonary stalks are consumed. Burkill (1997) has reviewed the uses of Borassus aethiopum in West Africa.

[PW]
Use
In some parts of Africa, Borassus populations are ‘managed’ by local people, while in other areas the palm is of minimal significance. In many areas, Borassus aethiopum is restricted to game reserves and national parks where it is outside the reach of local people. The leaves are used for thatch and weaving, though species of Hyphaene are generally preferred. The palm is tapped for wine, though the process is different from that used in Asia as the apical bud is tapped rather than the inflorescences. The fruits, undeveloped endosperm and cotyledonary stalks are consumed. Burkill (1997) has reviewed the uses of Borassus aethiopum in West Africa.

Native to:

Benin, Burkina, Burundi, Cameroon, Central African Repu, Chad, Comoros, Congo, Ethiopia, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Gulf of Guinea Is., Ivory Coast, Kenya, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Mozambique, Niger, Nigeria, Northern Provinces, Senegal, Sudan, Tanzania, Togo, Uganda, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

Introduced into:

Trinidad-Tobago

Borassus aethiopum Mart. appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
Mar 31, 2004 Bayton, R.P. [60], Burkina Faso K000525107
Mar 31, 2004 Bayton, R.P. [61], Burkina Faso K000525106
Mar 31, 2004 Bayton, R.P. [59], Burkina Faso K000525110
Mar 31, 2004 Bayton, R.P. [62], Burkina Faso K000525108
Mar 31, 2004 Bayton, R.P. [63], Burkina Faso K000525111
Mar 31, 2004 Bayton, R.P. [58], Burkina Faso K000525109
Oct 21, 2002 Bayton, R.P. [33], Kenya K000525118
Oct 21, 2002 Bayton, R.P. [32], Kenya K000525119
Oct 15, 2002 Bayton, R.P. [16], Kenya K000525117
Oct 15, 2002 Bayton, R.P. [15], Kenya K000462251
Oct 15, 2002 Bayton, R.P. [14], Kenya K000525115
Oct 15, 2002 Bayton, R.P. [15], Kenya K000462250
Oct 10, 2002 Bayton, R.P. [1], Kenya K000525113
Oct 10, 2002 Bayton, R.P. [2], Kenya K000525116
Oct 10, 2002 Bayton, R.P. [1], Kenya K000525114
Dransfield [4812], Kenya K000667843
Wickens, G.E. [3704], Sudan 29047.392
Wickens, G.E. [3704], Sudan 29047.393
Friis, I. [7270], Ethiopia K000525112
Apr 16, 2003 Bayton, R.P. [55], Madagascar Borassus sambiranensis K000300224 neotype
Apr 16, 2003 Bayton, R.P. [53], Madagascar Borassus sambiranensis K000525120
Apr 16, 2003 Bayton, R.P. [57], Madagascar Borassus sambiranensis K000300220
Jan 1, 1995 Beentje, H.J. [4707], Madagascar Borassus sambiranensis K000300218
Jan 1, 1995 Beentje, H.J. [4708], Madagascar Borassus sambiranensis K000300219
Jan 1, 1995 Schatz, G.E. [2415], Madagascar Borassus sambiranensis K000300223
Madagascar Borassus sambiranensis 55692.000

First published in Hist. Nat. Palm. 3: 221 (1838)

Accepted by

  • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
  • Baksh-Comeau, Y., Maharaj, S.S., Adams, C.D., Harris, S.A., Filer, D.L. & Hawthorne, W.D. (2016). An annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Trinidad and Tobago with analysis of vegetation types and botanical 'hotspots' Phytotaxa 250: 1-431.
  • Bayton, R.P. (2007). A revision of Borassus L. (Arecaceae) Kew Bulletin 62: 561-586.
  • Boulvert, Y. (1977). Catalogue de la Flore de Centrafrique 3: 1-89. ORSTOM, Bangui.
  • Brunel, J.F., Hiepo, P. & Scholz, H. (eds.) (1984). Flore Analytique du Togo Phanérogames: 1-751. GTZ, Eschborn.
  • Catarino, L., Martins, E.S., Diniz, M.A. & Pinto-Basto, M.F. (2006). Check-list da flora vascular do parque natural das Lagos de Cufada (Guiné-Bissau) Garcia de Orta, Série de Botânica 17: 97-141.
  • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Figueiredo, E., Paiva, J., Stévart, T., Oliveira, F. & Smith, G.F. (2011). Annotated catalogue of the flowering plants of São Tomé and Príncipe Bothalia 41: 41-82.
  • Govaerts, R. & Dransfield, J. (2005). World Checklist of Palms: 1-223. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Govaerts, R. (1996). World Checklist of Seed Plants 2(1, 2): 1-492. MIM, Deurne.
  • Jones, M. (1991). A checklist of Gambian plants: 1-33. Michael Jones, The Gambia College.
  • Lisowski, S. (2009). Flore (Angiospermes) de la République de Guinée Scripta Botanica Belgica 41: 1-517.
  • Miller, A.G. & Morris, M. (2004). Ethnoflora of Soqotra Archipelago: 1-759. The Royal Botanic Garden, Edinburgh.
  • Sita, P. & Moutsambote, J.-M. (2005). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Congo, ed. sept. 2005: 1-158. ORSTOM, Centre de Brazzaville.
  • Timberlake, J.R. & Martins, E.S. (eds.) (2010). Flora Zambesiaca 13(2): 1-83. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Timberlake, J.R., Bayliss, J., Alves, T., Francisco, J., Harris, T., Nangoma, D. & de Sousa, C. (2009). Biodiversity and Conservation of Mchese Mountain, Malawi. Report produced under the Darwin Initiative Award 15/036: 1-71. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

Literature

Kew Bulletin

  • Aké Assi, L. & Guinko, S. (1996). Confusion de deux taxons spécifiques ou subspécifiques au sein du genre Borassus en Afrique de l'Ouest. In: L. J. G. van der Maesen, X. M. van der Burgt & J. M. van Medenbach de Rooy (eds), The biodiversity of African plants: proceedings XlVth AETFAT congress, pp. 773 - 779. Kluwer Academic, Wageningen, The Netherlands.
  • Arbonnier, M. (2002). Arbres, arbustes et lianes des zones sèches d'Afrique de l'Ouest, Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris, France.
  • Bayton, R. P. (2005). Borassus L. & the Borassoid Palms: systematics & evolution. Ph.D. Thesis, University of Reading, U.K.
  • Beccari, O. (1914). Studio sui Borassus e descrizione di un genere nuovo asiatico di Borasseae. Webbia 4: 293 - 385.
  • Beccari, O. (1924). Palme della Tribù Borasseae. (ed. U. Martelli). G. Passeri, Florence, Italy.
  • Bekele-Tesemma, A., Birnie, A. & Tengnäs, B. (1993). Useful trees and shrubs for Ethiopia. Regional Soil Conservation Unit & Swedish International Development Authority, Nairobi, Kenya.
  • Coates Palgrave, K. (2002). Trees of southern Africa, Ed. 3 (revised by M. Coates Palgrave). Struik Publishers, Cape Town, South Africa.
  • Dransfield, J. (1976). Palm sugar in East Madura. Principes 20: 83 - 90.
  • Hutchinson, J. & Dalziel, J. M. (1936). Flora of West Tropical Africa, Vol. 2. The Crown Agents for the Colonies, London, U.K.
  • Kunth, C. S. (1841). Enumeratio Plantarum, Vol. 3. J.G. Collae, Stuttgart & Tubingen, Germany.
  • Martius, C. F. P. von (1838). Historia Naturalis Palmarum, Vol. 3. T.O. Weigel, Leipzig, Germany.
  • Tuley, P. (1995). The Palms of Africa, Trendine Press, St. Ives, U.K.
  • — & — (2003). Neighbourhood analysis in the savanna palm Borassus aethiopum: interplay of intraspecific competition and soil patchiness. J. Veg. Sei. 14: 79 - 88.
  • —, Ouédraogo, A. & Guinko, S. (2006). The genus Borassus L. (Arecaceae) in West Africa, with a description of a new species from Burkina Faso. Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 150: 419 - 427.

Palmweb - Palms of the World Online

  • R.P. Bayton, A revision of Borassus L. (Arecaceae). 2007

Flora of West Tropical Africa

  • Beccari in Palme Borass. 8 (1924).
  • Beccari in Webbia 4: 325 (1914)
  • Münch. Gel. Anzeig. 46 (1839)
  • Münch. Gel. Anzeig. 639 (1838)
  • in Hist. Nat. Palm. 3: 220, tt. 108, 121, 162

Kew Backbone Distributions

  • Baksh-Comeau, Y., Maharaj, S.S., Adams, C.D., Harris, S.A., Filer, D.L. & Hawthorne, W.D. (2016). An annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Trinidad and Tobago with analysis of vegetation types and botanical 'hotspots' Phytotaxa 250: 1-431.
  • Bayton, R.P. (2007). A revision of Borassus L. (Arecaceae) Kew Bulletin 62: 561-586.
  • Brunel, J.F., Hiepo, P. & Scholz, H. (eds.) (1984). Flore Analytique du Togo Phanérogames: 1-751. GTZ, Eschborn.
  • Catarino, L., Martins, E.S., Diniz, M.A. & Pinto-Basto, M.F. (2006). Check-list da flora vascular do parque natural das Lagos de Cufada (Guiné-Bissau) Garcia de Orta, Série de Botânica 17: 97-141.
  • Figueiredo, E., Paiva, J., Stévart, T., Oliveira, F. & Smith, G.F. (2011). Annotated catalogue of the flowering plants of São Tomé and Príncipe Bothalia 41: 41-82.
  • Jones, M. (1991). A checklist of Gambian plants: 1-33. Michael Jones, The Gambia College.
  • Lisowski, S. (2009). Flore (Angiospermes) de la République de Guinée Scripta Botanica Belgica 41: 1-517.
  • Sita, P. & Moutsambote, J.-M. (2005). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Congo, ed. sept. 2005: 1-158. ORSTOM, Centre de Brazzaville.

Flora of Tropical East Africa

  • Becc. in Webbia 4: 325 (1914)
  • Becc., Palme Borass.: 6 (1924).
  • Dale & Greenway, Kenya Trees and Shrubs p. 11 (1961).
  • F. W. Andr., The Flowering Plants of the Sudan 3: 302 (1956).
  • J.P.M. Brenan, Check-lists of the Forest Trees and Shrubs of the British Empire no. 5, part II, Tanganyika Territory p. 397 (1949).
  • Mart., Hist. Nat. Palm. 3, ed. 1: 221 (1838)
  • Mart., Hist. Nat. Palm. 3, ed. 2: 220 (1845).
  • T.A. Russell in Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 3: 168 (1968).
  • W.J. Eggeling, Indigenous Trees of the Uganda Protectorate, ed. 2: 291, photo. 46 (1952).

  • Flora of Tropical East Africa

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  • Kew Backbone Distributions

    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2022. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
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  • Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone

    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2022. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
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  • Palmweb - Palms of the World Online

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