Ceroxylon quindiuense (H.Karst.) H.Wendl.

This species is accepted, and its native range is Colombia, N. Peru. It is has environmental uses and social uses, as animal food and a medicine and for fuel and food.

[UNAL]

Bernal, R., G. Galeano, A. Rodríguez, H. Sarmiento y M. Gutiérrez. 2017. Nombres Comunes de las Plantas de Colombia. http://www.biovirtual.unal.edu.co/nombrescomunes/

Vernacular
chonta, palma de cera, palma de ramo

[PW]
General Description
Stem (13-)20-45(-60) m tall, 25-40 cm diam., white, with prominent leaf scars, covered with a very thick layer of wax. Leaves 14-20, in a dense, hemispheric crown; sheath 70-120(-176) cm, covered with thick, light brown indumentum; petiole (29-)44-80 cm long, 8.5-10.0 cm wide at the apex, abaxially covered with white indumentum of deciduous scales with persistent, thick, waxy bases; rachis 185-350(-540) cm long, adaxially flattened in ½-? of its lenght, 2 mm hastula-like projection, glabrescent, abaxial surface covered with thick indumentum of white to cream, fibrous scales; pinnae 70-128 on each side, regularly arranged in one plane, completely pendulous, adaxial surface glossy, olive-green but appearing grayish from a distance, the midrib covered with persistent scale base scars, abaxial surface and midrib densely covered with persistent, linear, white to cream, padded scales, never revealing the surface beneath in age; the most basal filiform pinnae 34-56 × 0.3-0.4 mm, basal pinnae (10th from base) 49-130 × 1.1-2.0 cm, middle pinnae 70-154 × (3.2-)4.4-6.0 cm, apical pinnae 41-62 × 0.7-2.5 cm, free. Staminate inflorescences 1-2 at one time; peduncular bracts 6-7, with an additional smaller bract inserted at base of peduncle; rachis 102 cm long, with about 91 branches, each subtended by a small, membranaceous, acuminate bract, rachis and branches glabrescent, longest branches 42 cm long. Pistillate inflorescences 2-5 at one time; peduncle 150-280 cm long, 4 cm wide at apex, covered with scattered, brown, eroded, appressed scales; prophyll 35-70 cm long, 17 cm wide; peduncular bracts 5-7, prophyll and peduncle bracts covered with persistent, brown to ferrugineous scales; rachis 90-163 cm long, with 63-76 branches, each subtended by a 0.2-2.0 cm long, membranous bract, longest branches 68-80 cm long; rachis and rachillae glabrous. Staminate flowers: sepals 3(-4), broadly triangular, 1.0-1.2 mm long, connate for 0.4 mm (1/3-½ of total length), reaching or exceeding total length of corolla tube; petals 3(-5), elliptical, long-acuminate, 4-7 mm long, including an acumen of 1.0-1.5(-3.5) mm long, connate for 1 mm; stamens 9-12(-17), 3-6 antisepalous stamens, and 3-9(-11) antipetalous stamens, filaments 1.0-3.5(-4.5) mm long, inserted at basal central portion of anther, anthers 2.2 mm long, anther connective not projected. Pistillate flowers: sepals 3, broadly-triangular-acuminate, 1.5 mm long, connate for 1 mm (2/3 of total length), not reaching corolla tube, petals 3, elliptical-acuminate, 4.0-7.5 mm long, connate for up to 1 mm, acumen narrow, 2-3 mm long; staminodes 12, 1-2 antisepalous, 2-3 antipetalous, filaments 3 mm long, abortive anthers 1.2 mm long, pistil trifid, 2-3 mm diam. Fruits globose, orange-red when ripe, 1.6-2.0 cm diam., exocarp very minutely warted; fruting perianth with sepals 1-2 mm long, connate in 0.2-0.5 mm, lobes reaching or exceeding corolla tube. Seeds ca.1 cm diam.
Vernacular
Palma de cera, palma de ramo (Colombia).
Habitat
It grows in humid montane forest, usually at 2000-3000 m, rarely up to 3150 m. It usually forms large and dense populations, many of which remain on pastures and forest remnants, especially on very steep slopes.
Distribution
Disjunct, with populations in the Andes of Colombia, along the central and eastern Cordillera (near the border with Venezuela), scarcely on the western Cordillera, and elsewhere forming populations in the Andes of northern Peru.
Conservation
Ceroxylon quindiuense is known to have been a very abundant species in Colombia until the beginning of the last century, and even if some large populations persist in the Central Cordillera, it has been classified as Endangered (EN; Galeano & Bernal 2005). Most of the forests where this species grows have been turned into pastures, and while hundreds of adult palms are still left standing, the young seedlings do not grow. Besides that, the cutting of young leaves for Palm Sunday during many years, caused the death of many individuals, and a delay in normal growth of the palms. Additionally, in the last decade a new and unknown disease has been causing the death of many adult palms (Cardozo & Guzmán 1993). In Peru, although a formal evaluation has not been made, it is believed that the situation does not differ substantially from the Colombian one (Galeano et al. 2008).

[CPLC]

Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

Distribution
Nativa en Colombia; Alt. 1550 - 3100 m.; Andes.
Morphology General Habit
Árbol, palma solitaria
Conservation
En Peligro

[UPB]

The Useful Plants of Boyacá project

Distribution
Native from Colombia.
Conservation
Endangered.
Ecology
Alt. 1550 - 3100 m.
Morphology General Habit
Tree.

[UPFC]
Distribution
Biogeografic region: Andean. Elevation range: 1550–3100 m a.s.l. Native to Colombia. Colombian departments: Antioquia, Bogotá DC, Boyacá, Caldas, Caquetá, Cundinamarca, Meta, Norte de Santander, Putumayo, Quindío, Risaralda, Santander, Tolima, Valle del Cauca.
Conservation
IUCN Red List Assessment (2021): VU B1+2c. National Red List of Colombia (2021): EN A2ace.
Habit
Tree, Solitary palm.
Ecology
Habitat according IUCN Habitats Classification: forest and woodland, shrubland, native grassland, artificial - terrestrial.
Vernacular
Chonta, Palma de cera, Palma de ramo

[PW]
Use
Since 1985, C. quindiuense is the national tree of Colombia (Galeano & Bernal 2005). Until few years ago, the young leaves were cut in large quantities to be used on Palm Sunday during Easter. This practice had become widely commercial, threatening the species, but has been reduced severely in the last few years as a result of law enforcement and widespread campaign. The stems are cut and used for posts, houses and fencing, or split to cover indoor walls. In Colombia, the extraction of wax covering the stems was an economically important activity during the XIXth century, since it was used for manufacturing candles and matches, which were sold at local markets. In order to extract the wax, locals climbed up the stem, but most commonly they felled the palm. Indigenous peoples sold the wax in small cakes (Boussingault 1849). The death of hundreds of palms was caused by this practice (Galeano & Bernal 2005). Still today in Peru (Amazonas), adult individuals are felled and laid on black cloths, then pounded until the waxy litter covering the trunk gathers on the cloths as small flakes. These flakes are molten and combined with beeswax to impregnate on linens which are twisted to make torches for outdoor lighting. Also in Peru, the populations of this species are being widely harvested for housing and posts, and the stem ripped for covering indoor walls (Galeano et al. 2008). C. quindiuense is cultivated as ornamental in Colombia.

[UPB]
Use Animal Food
Eaten by animals (Carvajal et al. 2014).
Use Environmental Ornamentals
Live plant (in situ) - Grown in parks and avenues (Carvajal et al. 2014).
Use Fuel
Fuels (State of the World's Plants 2016).
Use Materials Waxes
Bark - The wax from its bark is used to make candles (Carvajal et al. 2014).
Use Materials
Used to make hats (Linares 1994).
Use Materials Unspecified Materials Chemicals
Materials (State of the World's Plants 2016).
Use Materials Wood
Stems - The stem is used to make poles for construction (Carvajal et al. 2014).
Use Social
Social uses (State of the World's Plants 2016).

[UPFC]
Use Animal Food
Used as animal food.
Use Environmental
Environmental uses.
Use Fuel
Used for fuels.
Use Food
Used for food.
Use Materials
Used as material.
Use Medicines
Medical uses.
Use Social
Social uses.

Native to:

Colombia, Peru

Spanish
Palma de ramo, palma del Quindío, palma de cera.

Ceroxylon quindiuense (H.Karst.) H.Wendl. appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status Has image?
Jun 12, 2008 Pennington, T.D. [17857], Peru K000462454 No
Jun 12, 2008 Pennington, T.D. [17688], Peru K000208964 No
Cultivated [150-7601160] K000114463 No

First published in Bonplandia (Hannover) 8: 70 (1860)

Accepted by

  • Govaerts, R. & Dransfield, J. (2005). World Checklist of Palms: 1-223. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Govaerts, R. (1999). World Checklist of Seed Plants 3(1, 2a & 2b): 1-1532. MIM, Deurne.
  • Idárraga-Piedrahita, A., Ortiz, R.D.C., Callejas Posada, R. & Merello, M. (eds.) (2011). Flora de Antioquia: Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares 2: 1-939. Universidad de Antioquia, Medellín.
  • Sanín, M.J. & Galeano, G. (2011). A revision of the Andean wax palms, Ceroxylon (Arecaceae) Phytotaxa 34: 1-64.

Literature

Palmweb - Palms of the World Online

  • Maria Jose Sanin & Gloria Geleano in Phytotaxa 34 (2011)

Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia

  • Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

Useful Plants of Boyacá Project

  • Carvajal, L., Ariza, W., Caro, L., Valero, N. (2014). Especies forestales representativas del Sur Oriente de Boyacá. Universidad Distrital Francisco José de Caldas, Colombia
  • Linares, E. (1994). Inventario preliminar de las plantas utilizadas para elaborar artesanías en Colombia. Vniversitas Scientarium. Vol 2: 1-38
  • Palmweb: Palms of the World Online, in The State of the World’s Plants Report–2016. (2016). Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew https://stateoftheworldsplants.org/2016/

Kew Backbone Distributions

  • Sanín, M.J. & Galeano, G. (2011). A revision of the Andean wax palms, Ceroxylon (Arecaceae) Phytotaxa 34: 1-64.

Useful Plants and Fungi of Colombia

  • Bernal R. y Galeano G. (eds.). (2013). Cosechar sin destruir - Aprovechamiento sostenible de palmas colombianas. Facultad de Ciencias, Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia. Bogotá. 244 p.
  • Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R., & Celis, M. (eds.). (2020). Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia. v1.1. Universidad Nacional de Colombia. Dataset/Checklist. https://doi.org/10.15472/7avdhn
  • Diazgranados et al. (2021). Catalogue of plants of Colombia. Useful Plants and Fungi of Colombia project. In prep.
  • Diazgranados, M., Allkin, B., Black N., Cámara-Leret, R., Canteiro C., Carretero J., Eastwood R., Hargreaves S., Hudson A., Milliken W., Nesbitt, M., Ondo, I., Patmore, K., Pironon, S., Turner, R., Ulian, T. (2020). World Checklist of Useful Plant Species. Produced by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Knowledge Network for Biocomplexity.
  • FPI (2021). Food Plants International. https://fms.cmsvr.com/fmi/webd/Food_Plants_World?homeurl=https://foodplantsinternational.com/plants/
  • GBIF.org (2021). GBIF species matching tool. https://www.gbif.org/tools/species-lookup
  • IUCN (2021). The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2021-2. https://www.iucnredlist.org.
  • Instituto de Investigación de Recursos Biológicos Alexander von Humboldt (2019). Lista de especies vedadas por la resolución 213 de 1977. 8256 especies. http://i2d.humboldt.org.co/ceiba/resource.do?r=le_plantaspriorizadas_2019
  • Palmweb (2021). Palmweb: Palms of the World Online. http://palmweb.org/node/2

  • Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia

    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • Colombian resources for Plants made Accessible

    ColPlantA 2021. Published on the Internet at http://colplanta.org
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

  • Herbarium Catalogue Specimens

  • Kew Backbone Distributions

    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2022. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

  • Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone

    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2022. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

  • Palmweb - Palms of the World Online

    Palmweb 2011. Palmweb: Palms of the World Online. Published on the internet http://www.palmweb.org. Accessed on 21/04/2013
    Content licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • Universidad Nacional de Colombia

    ColPlantA database
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • Useful Plants and Fungi of Colombia

    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • Useful Plants of Boyacá Project

    ColPlantA database
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/