Genus:
Cocos L.

Cocos nucifera L.

This species is accepted, and its native range is Central Malesia to SW. Pacific. It is used as animal food, a poison, a medicine and invertebrate food, has environmental uses and social uses and for fuel and food.

[FWTA]

Palmae, T. A. Russell. Flora of West Tropical Africa 3:1. 1968

Vernacular
The Coconut
Diagnostic
Distinguished by its smooth, rather slender trunk which is seldom straight, its crown of pinnate leaves, and its well-known fruit

[UPFC]
Distribution
Biogeografic region: Amazonia, Andean, Guiana Shield, Caribbean, Orinoquia, Pacific. Elevation range: 0–1500 m a.s.l. Cultivated in Colombia. Naturalised in Colombia. Colombian departments: Amazonas, Antioquia, Arauca, Atlántico, Bolívar, Boyacá, Caldas, Caquetá, Casanare, Cauca, Cesar, Chocó, Córdoba, Cundinamarca, Guainía, Guaviare, Huila, La Guajira, Magdalena, Meta, Nariño, Norte de Santander, Putumayo, Quindío, Risaralda, San Andrés y Providencia, Santander, Sucre, Tolima, Valle del Cauca, Vaupés, Vichada.
Habit
Tree, Solitary palm.
Ecology
Habitat according IUCN Habitats Classification: forest and woodland, savanna, shrubland, wetlands (inland), artificial - terrestrial.
Vernacular
Coco, Cocotero, Palm de coco

[CPLC]

Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

Distribution
Nativa y cultivada en Colombia; Alt. 0 - 1500 m.; Amazonia, Andes, Guayana y Serranía de La Macarena, Islas Caribeñas, Llanura del Caribe, Orinoquia, Pacífico, Valle del Cauca, Valle del Magdalena.
Morphology General Habit
Árbol, palma solitaria
Conservation
No Evaluada

[UPB]

The Useful Plants of Boyacá project

Ecology
Alt. 0 - 1500 m.
Conservation
Not Evaluated.
Distribution
Native and cultivated in Colombia.
Morphology General Habit
Tree.

[FSOM]

M. Thulin et al. Flora of Somalia, Vol. 1-4 [updated 2008] https://plants.jstor.org/collection/FLOS

Morphology General Habit
Palm of varying size, trunk usually somewhat swollen at the base
Morphology Leaves
Leaves up to 4–5 m long; petiole up to 2 m long; leaflets up to 100 x 2 cm, bright green above, somewhat paler beneath
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescences with male flowers in upper part
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruit obovoid, obscurely trigonous, up to 25 x 20 cm, filled by the seed; embryo next to the functional pore.
Distribution
Cultivated near the coast in S2 and S3 of unknown origin, possibly western Pacific
Ecology
Widely cultivated in the lowland tropics.
Vernacular
Qumbe (Somali).

[PW]
General Description
Canopy palm. Stem solitary, erect, 25-40 cm in diameter. Leaves numerous, 3-6 m long; pinnae to 100 on each side, regularly inserted in one plane, straight, the central ones to 1 m long and 5 cm wide. Inflorescences 60-100 m long, once branched, overhung by a large, boat shaped, persistent peduncular bract; the basal part of each inflorescence branch with a few large female flowers, these yellow or greenish, 3-5 cm long; the distal part of the branches with numerous cream coloured male flowers, these 5-8 mm long. Fruits rounded to triangular, green or yellow, 20-30 cm long.
Distribution
Planted in lowland areas, particularly along the coast. Found in all provinces that contain areas below 1000 m elevation. _Belize, Benin, Bismarck Archipelago, Borneo, Caroline Is., Central American Pacific Is., Chile North, Costa Rica, Fiji, Gabon, Gilbert Is., Hawaii, India, Jawa, Leeward Is., Line Is., Madagascar, Malaya, Maldives, Maluku, Marcus I., Marianas, Marquesas, Marshall Is., Mauritius, Nauru, New Guinea, Nicaragua, Niue, Ogasawara-shoto, Philippines, Phoenix Is., Puerto Rico, Queensland, Réunion, Samoa, Seychelles, Society Is., Solomon Is., Sri Lanka, Thailand, Togo, Tokelau-Manihiki, Trinidad-Tobago, Tuamotu, Tubuai Is., Tuvalu, Vanuatu, Wallis-Futuna Is.

[UNAL]

Bernal, R., G. Galeano, A. Rodríguez, H. Sarmiento y M. Gutiérrez. 2017. Nombres Comunes de las Plantas de Colombia. http://www.biovirtual.unal.edu.co/nombrescomunes/

Vernacular
coca, coco, coco caballero, cocotera, cocotero, coquera, coquero, mata de coco, palma cocotera, palma de coco, palo de coco, típico

[FTEA]

Palmae, John Dransfield. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1994

Morphology General Habit
Palms varying from ‘dwarfs’ with trunks to 2 m. only when first flowering to tall forms with trunks to 30 m. or more.
Morphology Trunk
Trunk usually somewhat swollen at the base, to 80 cm. in diameter, usually about 40 cm. d.b.h., with conspicuous leaf-scars ± 10–20 cm. distant and commonly with pronounced vertical cracking of the grey surface, especially at the base.
Morphology Leaves
Leaf up to 4–5 m. long; petiole to 2 m. long by 15 cm. wide at the base, adaxially channelled, grey, scurfy hairy when young, bright pale green or golden yellow, or orangey in colour; leaflets single-fold, the longest to 1 m. long, to 2 cm. wide, bright shiny green above, somewhat paler below, main vein usually prominent, pale green or golden yellow.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescence interfoliar, to 1.5 m., usually less, bearing a prophyll ± 50 cm. long by ± 12 cm. wide, usually remaining between the leaf-sheaths; peduncular bract conspicuous, rather long persistent, narrow, longitudinally striate, woody, brown, ± 1 m. long by 15 cm. wide; peduncle to 40 cm. long; rachillae ± 30 in all, cream-coloured, spreading, the longest at the base, ± 35 cm. long, the shortest the most distal, each with 1–few basal triads and paired or solitary ♂ flowers distally, cream at anthesis.
sex Male
Male flowers somewhat asymmetric; sepals 3, imbricate, acute, 2 mm. high and 3.5 mm. wide; petals 3, valvate, acute, rather flat, fleshy, ± 13 mm. long by 4 mm. wide; stamens 6, with erect filaments and narrow elongate anthers to 8 mm. long, ± bifid apically; pistillode trifid.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Female flower massive, much larger than the ♂, to 3 cm. in diameter; sepals 3, rounded, imbricate, ± 1.5 cm. wide; petals 3, rounded, ± 2.5 m. wide; ovary rounded, to 2.5 cm. in diameter. Male flowers somewhat asymmetric; sepals 3, imbricate, acute, 2 mm. high and 3.5 mm. wide; petals 3, valvate, acute, rather flat, fleshy, ± 13 mm. long by 4 mm. wide; stamens 6, with erect filaments and narrow elongate anthers to 8 mm. long, ± bifid apically; pistillode trifid.
sex Female
Female flower massive, much larger than the ♂, to 3 cm. in diameter; sepals 3, rounded, imbricate, ± 1.5 cm. wide; petals 3, rounded, ± 2.5 m. wide; ovary rounded, to 2.5 cm. in diameter.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruit usually only 1 on each rachilla developing to maturity, massive, with basal persistent calyx and corolla at maturity increasing to 5 cm. long and 7 cm. wide, the whole fruit obovoid, obscurely trigonous, extremely variable; in shape and size, to 25 cm. long by 20 cm. wide or more, usually with only 1 of the 3 carpels developing; mesocarp massive, fibrous; endocarp to 5 mm. thick, extremely hard and woody, with 3 basal ‘eyes’, usually only one functional.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seed filling the large endocarp cavity, ± 10–15 cm. in diameter; endosperm to 2 cm. thick, lining the endocarp; embryo top-shaped, next to the functional ‘eye’.
Habitat
Widespread in the coastal lowlands, performing best in more humid areas; also found inland as scattered individuals, rarely above 1000 m. altitude and then not fruiting
Distribution
K7 T3 widespread throughout the lowland tropics as a cultivated plant, rarely naturalized       cult.   coastal towns, Amani

[UPFC]
Use Animal Food
Used as animal food.
Use Environmental
Environmental uses.
Use Fuel
Used for fuels.
Use Gene Sources
Used as gene sources.
Use Food
Used for food.
Use Invertebrate Food
Used as invertebrate food.
Use Materials
Used as material.
Use Medicines
Medical uses.
Use Poisons
Poisons.
Use Social
Social uses.

[UPB]
Use Environmental Ornamentals
Infructescences - Fruits used to make glasses, vases, ashtrays, bracelets, belts, ornaments, busts, pencil holders, necklaces and toys (Linares 1994).
Use Food
Food (Pérez Arbeláez 1996).
Use Gene Sources
Crop wild relatives which may possess beneficial traits of value in breeding programmes (State of the World's Plants 2016).
Use Materials Fibres
Leaves - Used for basketry and to make hats (Linares 1994, Linares et al. 2008).
Use Materials Other Materials
Leaves - The leaves are used to make hats (Linares 1994).
Use Materials Unspecified Materials Chemicals
Materials (State of the World's Plants 2016).
Use Medicines Unspecified Medicinal Disorders
Medicinal (Instituto Humboldt 2014).

[FSOM]
Use
Cultivated for its fruit

Native to:

Bismarck Archipelago, Maluku, New Guinea, Philippines, Queensland, Samoa, Santa Cruz Is., Solomon Is., Tonga, Vanuatu

Introduced into:

Andaman Is., Angola, Ascension, Bahamas, Bangladesh, Belize, Benin, Bolivia, Borneo, Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Brazil Southeast, Cambodia, Cameroon, Caroline Is., Cayman Is., Central African Repu, Central American Pac, Chagos Archipelago, Chile North, China South-Central, China Southeast, Christmas I., Cocos (Keeling) Is., Colombia, Comoros, Cook Is., Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Easter Is., El Salvador, Fiji, Florida, Gabon, Gambia, Georgia, Ghana, Gilbert Is., Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Gulf of Guinea Is., Hainan, Haiti, Hawaii, Honduras, India, Ivory Coast, Jamaica, Jawa, Kenya, Laccadive Is., Leeward Is., Lesser Sunda Is., Liberia, Line Is., Madagascar, Malaya, Maldives, Marcus I., Marianas, Marquesas, Marshall Is., Mauritius, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Mozambique, Mozambique Channel I, Myanmar, Nauru, New Caledonia, Nicaragua, Nicobar Is., Nigeria, Niue, North Carolina, Ogasawara-shoto, Phoenix Is., Puerto Rico, Réunion, Senegal, Seychelles, Society Is., South Carolina, South China Sea, Southwest Caribbean, Sri Lanka, Sulawesi, Sumatera, Taiwan, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Tokelau-Manihiki, Trinidad-Tobago, Tuamotu, Tubuai Is., Tuvalu, Venezuela, Venezuelan Antilles, Vietnam, Wallis-Futuna Is., Windward Is., Zaïre

English
Coconut
Spanish
Coco, palma de coco, cocotero.

Cocos nucifera L. appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status Has image?
Apr 1, 2006 Baker, W.J. [1969-4480] K000462559 No
Black [s.n.], United Kingdom K000667472 No
Renvoize, S.A. [1367], Seychelles 6049.026 No
Renvoize, S.A. [1254], Seychelles 7329.000 No
Woodcock, C. [s.n.] K000462795 No
Kemp, J. [s.n.] K000526410 No
Renvoize, S.A. [1274], Seychelles K000462263 No
McKinnon [s.n.] K000526409 No
Morris, B.W. [s.n.] K000462660 No
Renvoize, S.A. [1367], Seychelles K000462264 No
70000.227 No
Baker, W. 70000.236 No

First published in Sp. Pl.: 1188 (1753)

Accepted by

  • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2005). Monocotyledons and Gymnosperms of Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 52: 1-415.
  • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
  • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
  • Berendsohn, W.G., Gruber, A.K. & Monterrosa Salomón, J. (2012). Nova Silva Cusatlantica. Árboles natinos e introducidos de El Salvador. Parte 2: Angiospermae - Familias M a P y Pteridophyta Englera 29-2: 1-300.
  • Boulvert, Y. (1977). Catalogue de la Flore de Centrafrique 3: 1-89. ORSTOM, Bangui.
  • Brunel, J.F., Hiepo, P. & Scholz, H. (eds.) (1984). Flore Analytique du Togo Phanérogames: 1-751. GTZ, Eschborn.
  • Catarino, L., Martins, E.S., Diniz, M.A. & Pinto-Basto, M.F. (2006). Check-list da flora vascular do parque natural das Lagos de Cufada (Guiné-Bissau) Garcia de Orta, Série de Botânica 17: 97-141.
  • Cirilo, N. & Proctor, G.R. (1994). Vascular plants of the Caribbean Swan islands of Honduras Brenesia 41-42: 73-80.
  • Dowe, J.L. (2010). Australian palms: biogeography, ecology and systematics: 1-290. CSIRO Publishing.
  • Dy Phon, P. (2000). Dictionnaire des plantes utilisées au Cambodge: 1-915. Chez l'auteur, Phnom Penh, Cambodia.
  • Fairhurst, W. (2004). Flowering Plants of Ascension island: 1-300. Higham Press, Shirland, Alfreton, England.
  • Garcia-Mendoza, A.J. & Meave, J.A. (eds.) (2012). Diversidad florística de Oaxaca: de musgos a angiospermas (colecciones y listas de especies), ed. 2: 1-351. Instituto de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México.
  • George, A.S., Orchard, A.E. & Hewson, H.J. (eds.) (1993). Oceanic islands 2 Flora of Australia 50: 1-606. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
  • Girmansyah, D. & al. (eds.) (2013). Flora of Bali an annotated checklist: 1-158. Herbarium Bogorensis, Indonesia.
  • Govaerts, R. & Dransfield, J. (2005). World Checklist of Palms: 1-223. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Govaerts, R. (1999). World Checklist of Seed Plants 3(1, 2a & 2b): 1-1532. MIM, Deurne.
  • Hammel, B.E. & al. (2003). Manual de Plantas de Costa Rica 2: 1-694. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
  • Henderson, A. (2009). Palms of Southern Asia: 1-197. Princeton university press, Princeton and Oxford.
  • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
  • Idárraga-Piedrahita, A., Ortiz, R.D.C., Callejas Posada, R. & Merello, M. (eds.) (2011). Flora de Antioquia: Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares 2: 1-939. Universidad de Antioquia, Medellín.
  • Jones, M. (1991). A checklist of Gambian plants: 1-33. Michael Jones, The Gambia College.
  • Jørgensen, P.M., Nee, M.H. & Beck., S.G. (eds.) (2013). Catálogo de las plantas vasculares de Bolivia Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 127: 1-1741. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • Lisowski, S. (2009). Flore (Angiospermes) de la République de Guinée Scripta Botanica Belgica 41: 1-517.
  • Lorenzi, H., Noblick, L.R., Kahn, F. & Ferreira, E. (2010). Brazilian Flora Arecaceae (Palms): 1-268. Instituto Plantarum de Estudos da Flora LTDA, São Paulo, Brazil.
  • MacKee, H.S. (1994). Catalogue des plantes introduites et cultivées en Nouvelle-Calédonie, ed. 2: 1-164. Museum national d'histoire naturelle, Paris.
  • Mostaph, M.K. & Uddin, S.B. (2013). Dictionary of plant names of Bangladesh, Vasc. Pl.: 1-434. Janokalyan Prokashani, Chittagong, Bangladesh.
  • Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008). Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas: 1-1576. SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.
  • Pandey, R.P. & Dilwakar, P.G. (2008). An integrated check-list flora of Andaman and Nicobar islands, India Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 32: 403-500.
  • Powling, A. (2009). The palms of Buton, Indonesia, an island in Wallacea Palms; Journal of the International Palm Society 53: 84-01.
  • Sosef, M.S.M. & al. (2006). Check-list des plantes vasculaires du Gabon Scripta Botanica Belgica 35: 1-438.
  • Stevens, W.D., Ulloa U., C., Pool, A. & Montiel, O.M. (2001). Flora de Nicaragua Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 85: i-xlii, 1-2666. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • Sykes, W.R. (2016). Flora of the Cook Islands: 1-973. National Tropical Botanical Garden, Hawaii.
  • Takeuchi, W. (2005). Floristic notes from a holocene successional environment in Papuasia Harvard Papers in Botany 10: 95-116.
  • Timberlake, J.R. & Martins, E.S. (eds.) (2010). Flora Zambesiaca 13(2): 1-83. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Velayos, M., Barberá, P., Cabezas, F.J., de la Estrella, M., Fero, M. & Aedo, C. (2014). Checklist of the vascular plants of Annobón (Equatorial Guinea) Phytotaxa 171: 1-78.
  • Watling, D. (2005). Palms of the Fiji Islands: 1-191. Environmental Consultants (Fiji) Ltd., Suva.
  • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (2010). Flora of China 23: 1-515. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
  • Zizka, G. (1991). Flowering plants of Easter island Palmarum Hortus Francofurtensis 3: 1-108.

Literature

Palmweb - Palms of the World Online

  • Borchsenius F., Borgtoft-Pedersen H. and Baslev H. 1998. Manual to the Palms of Ecuador. AAU Reports 37. Department of Systematic Botany, University of Aarhus, Denmark in collaboration with Pontificia Universidad Catalica del Ecuador
  • Govaerts, R. & Dransfield, J., World Checklist of Palms

Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia

  • Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

Flora of West Tropical Africa

  • F.T.A. 8: 126.
  • Sp. Pl. 1188 (1753)

Useful Plants of Boyacá Project

  • Crop wild relative Inventory https://www.cwrdiversity.org/checklist/ in The State of the World’s Plants Report–2016. (2016). Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew https://stateoftheworldsplants.org/2016/
  • Instituto de Investigación de Recursos Biológicos Alexander von Humbodlt (2014). Plantas alimenticias y medicinales nativas de Colombia. 2567 registros, aportados por: Castellanos, C. (Contacto del recurso), Valderrama, N. (Creador del recurso, Autor), Castro, C. (Proveedor de metadatos), Bernal, Y. (Autor), García, N. (Autor). Versión 11.0. http://i2d.humboldt.org.co/ceiba/resource.do?r=ls_colombia_magnoliophyta_2014
  • Linares, E. (1994). Inventario preliminar de las plantas utilizadas para elaborar artesanías en Colombia. Vniversitas Scientarium. Vol 2: 1-38
  • Linares, E.L., Galeano, G., García, N. & Figueroa, Y. (2008). Fibras vegetales utilizadas en artesanías en Colombia. Artesanías de Colombia S.A. , Instituto de Ciencias Naturales-Universidad Nacional de Colombia.

Kew Backbone Distributions

  • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2005). Monocotyledons and Gymnosperms of Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 52: 1-415.
  • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
  • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
  • Ananda Rao, T. & Ellis, J.L. (1995). Flora of Lakshadweep islands off the Malabar coast, peninsular India, with emphasis on phytogeographical distribution of plants Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 19: 235-250.
  • Barthelat, F. (2019). La flore illustrée de Mayotte: 1-687. Biotope éditions.
  • Berendsohn, W.G., Gruber, A.K. & Monterrosa Salomón, J. (2012). Nova Silva Cusatlantica. Árboles natinos e introducidos de El Salvador. Parte 2: Angiospermae - Familias M a P y Pteridophyta Englera 29-2: 1-300.
  • Berhaut, J. (1988). Flore illustrée du Sénégal 9: 1-522. Gouvernement du Sénégal, Ministère du développement rural direction des eaux et forêta, Dakar.
  • Boulvert, Y. (1977). Catalogue de la Flore de Centrafrique 3: 1-89. ORSTOM, Bangui.
  • Brunel, J.F., Hiepo, P. & Scholz, H. (eds.) (1984). Flore Analytique du Togo Phanérogames: 1-751. GTZ, Eschborn.
  • Catarino, L., Martins, E.S., Diniz, M.A. & Pinto-Basto, M.F. (2006). Check-list da flora vascular do parque natural das Lagos de Cufada (Guiné-Bissau) Garcia de Orta, Série de Botânica 17: 97-141.
  • Cirilo, N. & Proctor, G.R. (1994). Vascular plants of the Caribbean Swan islands of Honduras Brenesia 41-42: 73-80.
  • Dowe, J.L. (2010). Australian palms: biogeography, ecology and systematics: 1-290. CSIRO Publishing.
  • Dy Phon, P. (2000). Dictionnaire des plantes utilisées au Cambodge: 1-915. Chez l'auteur, Phnom Penh, Cambodia.
  • Fairhurst, W. (2004). Flowering Plants of Ascension island: 1-300. Higham Press, Shirland, Alfreton, England.
  • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Figueiredo, E., Paiva, J., Stévart, T., Oliveira, F. & Smith, G.F. (2011). Annotated catalogue of the flowering plants of São Tomé and Príncipe Bothalia 41: 41-82.
  • Fosberg, F.R. (1975). Vascular plants of Aitutaki Atoll Research Bulletin 190: 73-84.
  • Garcia-Mendoza, A.J. & Meave, J.A. (eds.) (2012). Diversidad florística de Oaxaca: de musgos a angiospermas (colecciones y listas de especies), ed. 2: 1-351. Instituto de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México.
  • Girmansyah, D. & al. (eds.) (2013). Flora of Bali an annotated checklist: 1-158. Herbarium Bogorensis, Indonesia.
  • Grau, J. (2006). Palms of Chile: 1-203. Ediciones OIKOS Ltda., Santiago de Chile.
  • Hammel, B.E. & al. (2003). Manual de Plantas de Costa Rica 2: 1-694. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
  • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
  • Jones, M. (1991). A checklist of Gambian plants: 1-33. Michael Jones, The Gambia College.
  • Jørgensen, P.M., Nee, M.H. & Beck., S.G. (eds.) (2013). Catálogo de las plantas vasculares de Bolivia Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 127: 1-1741. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • Lisowski, S. (2009). Flore (Angiospermes) de la République de Guinée Scripta Botanica Belgica 41: 1-517.
  • Lorenzi, H., Noblick, L.R., Kahn, F. & Ferreira, E. (2010). Brazilian Flora Arecaceae (Palms): 1-268. Instituto Plantarum de Estudos da Flora LTDA, São Paulo, Brazil.
  • MacKee, H.S. (1994). Catalogue des plantes introduites et cultivées en Nouvelle-Calédonie, ed. 2: 1-164. Museum national d'histoire naturelle, Paris.
  • Mostaph, M.K. & Uddin, S.B. (2013). Dictionary of plant names of Bangladesh, Vasc. Pl.: 1-434. Janokalyan Prokashani, Chittagong, Bangladesh.
  • Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008). Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas: 1-1576. SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.
  • Pandey, R.P. & Dilwakar, P.G. (2008). An integrated check-list flora of Andaman and Nicobar islands, India Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 32: 403-500.
  • Powling, A. (2009). The palms of Buton, Indonesia, an island in Wallacea Palms; Journal of the International Palm Society 53: 84-01.
  • Sheppard, C.R.C. & Seaward, M.R.D. (eds.) (1999). Ecology of the Chagos archipelago: 1-350. Westbury Academic & Scientific Publishing, Otley.
  • Sosef, M.S.M. & al. (2006). Check-list des plantes vasculaires du Gabon Scripta Botanica Belgica 35: 1-438.
  • Stevens, W.D., Ulloa U., C., Pool, A. & Montiel, O.M. (2001). Flora de Nicaragua Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 85: i-xlii, 1-2666. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • Sykes, W.R. (2016). Flora of the Cook Islands: 1-973. National Tropical Botanical Garden, Hawaii.
  • Takeuchi, W. (2005). Floristic notes from a holocene successional environment in Papuasia Harvard Papers in Botany 10: 95-116.
  • Timberlake, J.R. & Martins, E.S. (eds.) (2010). Flora Zambesiaca 13(2): 1-83. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Watling, D. (2005). Palms of the Fiji Islands: 1-191. Environmental Consultants (Fiji) Ltd., Suva.
  • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (2010). Flora of China 23: 1-515. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
  • Yuncker, T.G. (1959). Plants of Tonga Bernice P. Bishop Museum Bulletin 220: 1-283.
  • Zizka, G. (1991). Flowering plants of Easter island Palmarum Hortus Francofurtensis 3: 1-108.

Flora of Somalia

  • Flora Somalia, Vol 4, (1995) Author: by M. Thulin [updated by M. Thulin 2008]
  • Harries in Bot. Rev. 44: 265–319 (1978).

Useful Plants and Fungi of Colombia

  • Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R., & Celis, M. (eds.). (2020). Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia. v1.1. Universidad Nacional de Colombia. Dataset/Checklist. https://doi.org/10.15472/7avdhn
  • Burkill HM. (1995). The useful plants of west tropical Africa, Vols. 1-3. The useful plants of west tropical Africa, Vols 1-3.
  • Cámara-Leret, R., & Dennehy, Z. (2019). Information gaps in indigenous and local knowledge for science-policy assessments. Nature Sustainability 2:736-741.
  • Dempewolf, H., Eastwood, R. J., Guarino, L., Khoury, C. K., Müller, J. V. & Toll, J. (2014). Adapting agriculture to climate change: a global initiative to collect, conserve, and use crop wild relatives. Agroecology and Sustainable Food Systems, 38, 369-377.
  • Diazgranados et al. (2021). Catalogue of plants of Colombia. Useful Plants and Fungi of Colombia project. In prep.
  • Diazgranados, M., Allkin, B., Black N., Cámara-Leret, R., Canteiro C., Carretero J., Eastwood R., Hargreaves S., Hudson A., Milliken W., Nesbitt, M., Ondo, I., Patmore, K., Pironon, S., Turner, R., Ulian, T. (2020). World Checklist of Useful Plant Species. Produced by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Knowledge Network for Biocomplexity.
  • FPI (2021). Food Plants International. https://fms.cmsvr.com/fmi/webd/Food_Plants_World?homeurl=https://foodplantsinternational.com/plants/
  • GBIF.org (2021). GBIF species matching tool. https://www.gbif.org/tools/species-lookup
  • GRIN (2021). Germplasm Resources Information Network from the United States Department of Agriculture. https://www.ars-grin.gov/
  • García Castro, N. J. (2011). Plantas nativas empleadas en alimentación en Colombia. Instituo de Investigaciones Biológicas Alexander von Humboldt. http://repository.humboldt.org.co/handle/20.500.11761/31275
  • Instituto de Investigación de Recursos Biológicos Alexander von Humbodlt (2014). Plantas alimenticias y medicinales nativas de Colombia. 2567 registros, aportados por: Castellanos, C. (Contacto del recurso), Valderrama, N. (Creador del recurso, Autor), Bernal, Y. (Autor), García, N. (Autor). http://i2d.humboldt.org.co/ceiba/resource.do?r=ls_colombia_magnoliophyta_2014
  • Instituto de Investigación de Recursos Biológicos Alexander von Humboldt. (2014). Plantas alimenticias y medicinales nativas de Colombia. 2567 registros, aportados por: Castellanos, C. (Contacto del recurso), Valderrama, N. (Creador del recurso, Autor), Bernal, Y. (Autor), García, N. (Autor). http://i2d.humboldt.org.co/ceiba/resource.do?r=ls_colombia_magnoliophyta_2014
  • Medicinal Plant Names Services (MPNS) v.10 (2021); http://mpns.kew.org/
  • PROTA (2021). Plants Resources of Tropical Africa. https://prota4u.org/database/
  • Palmweb (2021). Palmweb: Palms of the World Online. http://palmweb.org/node/2
  • Plants for malaria, plants for fever: Medicinal species in Latin America, a bibliographic survey: Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • RBG, Kew (2021). Kew Economic Botany Collection. https://ecbot.science.kew.org/
  • Ulian, T., Sacandé, M., Hudson, A., & Mattana, E. (2017). Conservation of indigenous plants to support community livelihoods: the MGU–Useful Plants Project. Journal of Environmental Planning and Management 60:668-683.
  • Willis, K.J. (ed.) (2017). State of the World’s Plants 2017. Report. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

Flora of Tropical East Africa

  • A. Engler & O. Drude, Die Vegetation Der Erde, IX, Pflanzenwelt Afrikas 2: 234 (1908).
  • C.H. Wright in Flora of Tropical Africa 8: 126 (1901).
  • Child, Coconuts (1964).
  • Harries in Bot. Rev. 44: 265–319 (1978).
  • J.P.M. Brenan, Check-lists of the Forest Trees and Shrubs of the British Empire no. 5, part II, Tanganyika Territory p. 398 (1949).
  • Kirk in Journal of the Linnean Society of London, Botany 9: 230 (1866).
  • L., Sp. Pl.: 1188 (1753).
  • R. O. Williams, Useful and Ornamental Plants in Zanzibar and Pemba p. 201 (1949).
  • T.A. Russell in Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 3: 161 (1968).
  • Warb. in Die Pflanzenwelt Ost-Afrikas und der Nachbargebiete, Theile C: 131 (1895).

  • Art and Illustrations in Digifolia

    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew

  • Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia

    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • Colombian resources for Plants made Accessible

    ColPlantA 2021. Published on the Internet at http://colplanta.org
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

  • Flora of Somalia

    Flora of Somalia
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • Flora of Tropical East Africa

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • Flora of West Tropical Africa

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • Herbarium Catalogue Specimens

  • Kew Backbone Distributions

    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2022. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

  • Kew Living Collection Database

    Common Names from Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew Living Collection https://www.kew.org/

  • Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone

    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2022. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

  • Kew Science Photographs

    Copyright applied to individual images

  • Palmweb - Palms of the World Online

    Palmweb 2011. Palmweb: Palms of the World Online. Published on the internet http://www.palmweb.org. Accessed on 21/04/2013
    Content licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • Universidad Nacional de Colombia

    ColPlantA database
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • Useful Plants and Fungi of Colombia

    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • Useful Plants of Boyacá Project

    ColPlantA database
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    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/