Genus:
Elaeis Jacq.

Elaeis guineensis Jacq.

This species is accepted, and its native range is Tropical Africa. It is used as animal food, a poison and a medicine, has environmental uses and social uses and for fuel and food.

[UNAL]

Bernal, R., G. Galeano, A. Rodríguez, H. Sarmiento y M. Gutiérrez. 2017. Nombres Comunes de las Plantas de Colombia. http://www.biovirtual.unal.edu.co/nombrescomunes/

Vernacular
palma africana, palma africana de aceite, palma de aceite

[CPLC]

Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

Distribution
Cultivada en Colombia; Alt. 100 - 1500 m.
Morphology General Habit
Árbol, palma solitaria

[UPFC]
Distribution
Elevation range: 100–1500 m a.s.l. Cultivated in Colombia. Colombian departments: Amazonas, Antioquia, Bolívar, Caquetá, Casanare, Cesar, Chocó, Córdoba, Cundinamarca, Magdalena, Meta, Nariño, Norte de Santander, Putumayo, Quindío, Risaralda, Santander, Sucre, Tolima, Valle del Cauca.
Habit
Tree, Solitary palm.
Conservation
IUCN Red List Assessment (2021): LC.
Ecology
Habitat according IUCN Habitats Classification: forest and woodland, savanna, shrubland, native grassland, artificial - terrestrial.

[FWTA]

Palmae, T. A. Russell. Flora of West Tropical Africa 3:1. 1968

Vernacular
The African Oil Palm
Diagnostic
Easily recognizable by its arching, dark-green leaves and straight trunk clothed when young with petiole-bases
Ecology
Is cultivated and occurs spontaneously in much of the forest zone from Senegal to Cameroun, being particularly abundant near habitations, in land which has been tilled, and in river valleys.
Note
Several forms, differing in structure and colour of the fruit, are described in Kew Bull. 1909: 33 and 1914: 285, and in Holland 4: 734.

[FTEA]

Palmae, John Dransfield. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1994

Morphology General Habit
Robust tree palm, in cultivated specimens often flowering while still trunkless.
Morphology Trunk
Trunk to 30 m. tall, usually much less, 30–50 cm. diameter, rarely broader, covered by remains of leaf-bases when young, eventually becoming bare, but in high rainfall areas frequently obscured by epiphytes.
Morphology Leaves
Crown massive, consisting of 40–50 expanded leaves in a 8/13 phyllotaxis. Leaves to 7.5 m. long in well-grown adults; leaf-base long-persistent, with coarse brown fibres and upward pointing fibre-spines to 35 × 5 mm., ± 10 mm. distant, confined to the sheath-margins; petiole to 1.25 m. long, to 20 cm. wide at the base, distally armed with bulbous-based spines to 4 cm. long by 1 cm. wide at the base, 1–5 cm. distant, representing pulvini and midribs of the basal-most leaflets; rachis semicircular in cross-section proximally, tapering above, with 2 lateral grooves or faces; leaflets eventually 100–150 on each side, inserted rather irregularly in 2 planes, the whole leaf hence plumose, to 120 cm. long, 8 cm. wide (in var. idolatrica A. Chev., a rare mutant, the lamina remaining ± entire, not splitting into leaflets).
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescences either male or female, or rarely bearing both male and female, or even more rarely with hermaphrodite flowers, individual palms passing through alternating phases of male and female inflorescence production. Peduncle of male inflorescence 15–20 cm. long, 5 cm. or more in diameter, densely hairy; rachillae crowded, ± 50 in number, 10–20 cm. long, 1–2 cm. wide, with a bare spine-like tip to 1 cm. long; bracts to 3 × 1.5 mm. Female inflorescence more massive than the male; rachillae much shorter, the spine-like tip to 2 cm. long.
sex Male
Peduncle of male inflorescence 15–20 cm. long, 5 cm. or more in diameter, densely hairy; rachillae crowded, ± 50 in number, 10–20 cm. long, 1–2 cm. wide, with a bare spine-like tip to 1 cm. long; bracts to 3 × 1.5 mm. Male flower with 3 chaffy cucullate sepals to 2 × 1.5 mm., and 3 chaffy acute petals to 2 × 1.5 mm.; androecial tube to 2.5 mm. long at anthesis; anthers reflexed, to 1.5 mm. long.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Female flower accompanied by 2 usually abortive male flowers and 2 bracteoles; sepals ±10× 4 mm. with rounded tips; petals similar to sepals; staminodal ring to 1 mm. high, 6-toothed; ovary ± 5 mm. in diameter; styles and stigmas to 10 mm. long. Male flower with 3 chaffy cucullate sepals to 2 × 1.5 mm., and 3 chaffy acute petals to 2 × 1.5 mm.; androecial tube to 2.5 mm. long at anthesis; anthers reflexed, to 1.5 mm. long.
sex Female
Female flower accompanied by 2 usually abortive male flowers and 2 bracteoles; sepals ±10× 4 mm. with rounded tips; petals similar to sepals; staminodal ring to 1 mm. high, 6-toothed; ovary ± 5 mm. in diameter; styles and stigmas to 10 mm. long. Female inflorescence more massive than the male; rachillae much shorter, the spine-like tip to 2 cm. long.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruit partially enclosed in the enlarged calyx and corolla, tipped by stylar remains, very variable in size, ± 3–5.5 × 2–3 cm., somewhat asymmetrical, usually bright orange with dark red, almost black pigmentation in the exposed upper parts; mesocarp ± 5–10 mm. thick, yellowish, oil-rich; endocarp blackish brown, 2–5 mm. thick.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seed usually 1 only, 2–3 × 1–1.5 cm. with a thin integument; endosperm homogeneous with a narrow central cavity, oil-rich.
Figures
Figs. 10 and 11.
Habitat
In E. Africa, confined to gallery forest in high rainfall areas; sea-level to ± 1500 m.
Distribution
moister areas of tropical Africa and E. Madagascarnow widespread throughout the tropics as an oil-producing crop      Africa   coastal towns, upland towns, Amani K7 P T2 T3 T6 U2 Z

[PW]
Distribution
Native to W Africa, but planted throughout the tropics for its oil-rich fruits which are a major source of plant oil on a world scale (Hartley, 1977). In Ecuador it is grown in large plantations below 500 m elevation, particularly in the Santo Domingo-Quinind� area.
General Description
Canopy palm. Stem solitary, erect, to 10 m tall, ca. 30-50 cm in diameter. Leaves to 5 m long; pinnae 100 or more on each side, inserted in groups and spreading in different planes. Fruits glossy red to black.

[UPFC]
Use Animal Food
Used as animal food.
Use Environmental
Environmental uses.
Use Fuel
Used for fuels.
Use Gene Sources
Used as gene sources.
Use Food
Used for food.
Use Materials
Used as material.
Use Medicines
Medical uses.
Use Poisons
Poisons.
Use Social
Social uses.

Native to:

Angola, Benin, Cameroon, Central African Repu, Chad, Congo, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Gulf of Guinea Is., Ivory Coast, Kenya, Liberia, Malawi, Mozambique, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Sudan, Tanzania, Togo, Uganda, Zaïre

Introduced into:

Andaman Is., Bangladesh, Bismarck Archipelago, Bolivia, Burkina, Burundi, Caroline Is., Comoros, Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Ethiopia, Fiji, Haiti, Madagascar, Malaya, Nicaragua, Nicobar Is., Puerto Rico, Rwanda, Society Is., Sri Lanka, Sumatera, Trinidad-Tobago

Elaeis guineensis Jacq. appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status Has image?
Mar 31, 2004 Bayton, R.P. [71], Burkina Faso K000521705 No
Oct 18, 2002 Bayton, R.P. [20], Kenya K000521706 No
Jan 1, 1953 Drummond, R.B. [3341], Tanzania K000731678 No
Ceciliano dos Prazeres Bom Jesus [s.n.], Sao Tome and Principe 64781.000 No
Kirk [s.n.], Tanzania K000521707 No
Chase [DNA Bank30864] K000526299 No
Cultivated [1981-216] K000521708 No
Perdue, R.E. [8487], Tanzania K000731677 No
Greenway, P.J. [12080], Tanzania K000731676 No
Ceciliano [s.n.], Sao Tome and Principe K000209343 No

First published in Select. Stirp. Amer. Hist.: 280 (1763)

Accepted by

  • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
  • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
  • Baksh-Comeau, Y., Maharaj, S.S., Adams, C.D., Harris, S.A., Filer, D.L. & Hawthorne, W.D. (2016). An annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Trinidad and Tobago with analysis of vegetation types and botanical 'hotspots' Phytotaxa 250: 1-431.
  • Berendsohn, W.G., Gruber, A.K. & Monterrosa Salomón, J. (2012). Nova Silva Cusatlantica. Árboles natinos e introducidos de El Salvador. Parte 2: Angiospermae - Familias M a P y Pteridophyta Englera 29-2: 1-300.
  • Boulvert, Y. (1977). Catalogue de la Flore de Centrafrique 3: 1-89. ORSTOM, Bangui.
  • Brunel, J.F., Hiepo, P. & Scholz, H. (eds.) (1984). Flore Analytique du Togo Phanérogames: 1-751. GTZ, Eschborn.
  • Catarino, L., Martins, E.S., Diniz, M.A. & Pinto-Basto, M.F. (2006). Check-list da flora vascular do parque natural das Lagos de Cufada (Guiné-Bissau) Garcia de Orta, Série de Botânica 17: 97-141.
  • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Figueiredo, E., Paiva, J., Stévart, T., Oliveira, F. & Smith, G.F. (2011). Annotated catalogue of the flowering plants of São Tomé and Príncipe Bothalia 41: 41-82.
  • Govaerts, R. & Dransfield, J. (2005). World Checklist of Palms: 1-223. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Hammel, B.E. & al. (2003). Manual de Plantas de Costa Rica 2: 1-694. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
  • Jones, M. (1991). A checklist of Gambian plants: 1-33. Michael Jones, The Gambia College.
  • Jørgensen, P.M., Nee, M.H. & Beck., S.G. (eds.) (2013). Catálogo de las plantas vasculares de Bolivia Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 127: 1-1741. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • Lejoy, J., Ndjele, M.-B. & Geerinck, D. (2010). Catalogue-flore des plantes vasculaires des districts de Kisangani et de la Tshopo (RD Congo) Taxonomania. Revue de Taxonomie et de Nomenclature Botaniques 30: 1-307.
  • Meyer, J.-Y., Lavergne, C. & Hodel, D.R. (2008). Time bombs in gardens: invasive ornamental palms in tropical islands, with emphasis on French Polynesia (Pacific Ocean) and the Mascarenes (Indian Ocean) Palms; Journal of the International Palm Society 52: 23-35.
  • Mostaph, M.K. & Uddin, S.B. (2013). Dictionary of plant names of Bangladesh, Vasc. Pl.: 1-434. Janokalyan Prokashani, Chittagong, Bangladesh.
  • Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008). Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas: 1-1576. SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.
  • Stevens, W.D., Ulloa U., C., Pool, A. & Montiel, O.M. (2001). Flora de Nicaragua Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 85: i-xlii, 1-2666. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • Takeuchi, W. (2005). Floristic notes from a holocene successional environment in Papuasia Harvard Papers in Botany 10: 95-116.
  • Timberlake, J.R. & Martins, E.S. (eds.) (2010). Flora Zambesiaca 13(2): 1-83. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Velayos, M., Barberá, P., Cabezas, F.J., de la Estrella, M., Fero, M. & Aedo, C. (2014). Checklist of the vascular plants of Annobón (Equatorial Guinea) Phytotaxa 171: 1-78.

Literature

Palmweb - Palms of the World Online

  • Borchsenius F., Borgtoft-Pedersen H. and Baslev H. 1998. Manual to the Palms of Ecuador. AAU Reports 37. Department of Systematic Botany, University of Aarhus, Denmark in collaboration with Pontificia Universidad Catalica del Ecuador

Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia

  • Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

Flora of West Tropical Africa

  • F.T.A. 8: 125.
  • Select. Stirp. Am. Hist. 280, t. 172 (1763)

Kew Backbone Distributions

  • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
  • Baksh-Comeau, Y., Maharaj, S.S., Adams, C.D., Harris, S.A., Filer, D.L. & Hawthorne, W.D. (2016). An annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Trinidad and Tobago with analysis of vegetation types and botanical 'hotspots' Phytotaxa 250: 1-431.
  • Berendsohn, W.G., Gruber, A.K. & Monterrosa Salomón, J. (2012). Nova Silva Cusatlantica. Árboles natinos e introducidos de El Salvador. Parte 2: Angiospermae - Familias M a P y Pteridophyta Englera 29-2: 1-300.
  • Catarino, L., Martins, E.S., Diniz, M.A. & Pinto-Basto, M.F. (2006). Check-list da flora vascular do parque natural das Lagos de Cufada (Guiné-Bissau) Garcia de Orta, Série de Botânica 17: 97-141.
  • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Figueiredo, E., Paiva, J., Stévart, T., Oliveira, F. & Smith, G.F. (2011). Annotated catalogue of the flowering plants of São Tomé and Príncipe Bothalia 41: 41-82.
  • Jones, M. (1991). A checklist of Gambian plants: 1-33. Michael Jones, The Gambia College.
  • Jørgensen, P.M., Nee, M.H. & Beck., S.G. (eds.) (2013). Catálogo de las plantas vasculares de Bolivia Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 127: 1-1741. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • Meyer, J.-Y., Lavergne, C. & Hodel, D.R. (2008). Time bombs in gardens: invasive ornamental palms in tropical islands, with emphasis on French Polynesia (Pacific Ocean) and the Mascarenes (Indian Ocean) Palms; Journal of the International Palm Society 52: 23-35.
  • Mostaph, M.K. & Uddin, S.B. (2013). Dictionary of plant names of Bangladesh, Vasc. Pl.: 1-434. Janokalyan Prokashani, Chittagong, Bangladesh.
  • Pandey, R.P. & Dilwakar, P.G. (2008). An integrated check-list flora of Andaman and Nicobar islands, India Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 32: 403-500.
  • Stevens, W.D., Ulloa U., C., Pool, A. & Montiel, O.M. (2001). Flora de Nicaragua Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 85: i-xlii, 1-2666. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • Takeuchi, W. (2005). Floristic notes from a holocene successional environment in Papuasia Harvard Papers in Botany 10: 95-116.
  • Timberlake, J.R. & Martins, E.S. (eds.) (2010). Flora Zambesiaca 13(2): 1-83. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

Flora of Tropical East Africa

  • A. Chev. in Veg. Ut. Afr. Trop. Fr.: 7 (1910).
  • A. Engler & O. Drude, Die Vegetation Der Erde, IX, Pflanzenwelt Afrikas 2: 234 (1908).
  • C.H. Wright in Flora of Tropical Africa 8: 125 (1901).
  • Dale & Greenway, Kenya Trees and Shrubs p. 11 (1961).
  • Hamilton, Uganda For. Trees: 76 (1981).
  • J.P.M. Brenan, Check-lists of the Forest Trees and Shrubs of the British Empire no. 5, part II, Tanganyika Territory p. 398 (1949).
  • Jacq., Select. Stirp. Amer. Hist.: 280, t. 172 (1763).
  • Kirk in Journal of the Linnean Society of London, Botany 9: 231 (1866).
  • R. O. Williams, Useful and Ornamental Plants in Zanzibar and Pemba p. 241 (1949).
  • T.A. Russell in Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 3: 161 (1968).
  • Troupin, Fl. Pl. Lign. Rwanda: 70 (1982).
  • W.J. Eggeling, Indigenous Trees of the Uganda Protectorate, ed. 2: 292 (1952).
  • Warb. in Die Pflanzenwelt Ost-Afrikas und der Nachbargebiete, Theile C: 131 (1895).

Useful Plants and Fungi of Colombia

  • Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R., & Celis, M. (eds.). (2020). Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia. v1.1. Universidad Nacional de Colombia. Dataset/Checklist. https://doi.org/10.15472/7avdhn
  • Burkill HM. (1995). The useful plants of west tropical Africa, Vols. 1-3. The useful plants of west tropical Africa, Vols 1-3.
  • Cámara-Leret, R., & Dennehy, Z. (2019). Information gaps in indigenous and local knowledge for science-policy assessments. Nature Sustainability 2:736-741.
  • Dempewolf, H., Eastwood, R. J., Guarino, L., Khoury, C. K., Müller, J. V. & Toll, J. (2014). Adapting agriculture to climate change: a global initiative to collect, conserve, and use crop wild relatives. Agroecology and Sustainable Food Systems, 38, 369-377.
  • Diazgranados et al. (2021). Catalogue of plants of Colombia. Useful Plants and Fungi of Colombia project. In prep.
  • Diazgranados, M., Allkin, B., Black N., Cámara-Leret, R., Canteiro C., Carretero J., Eastwood R., Hargreaves S., Hudson A., Milliken W., Nesbitt, M., Ondo, I., Patmore, K., Pironon, S., Turner, R., Ulian, T. (2020). World Checklist of Useful Plant Species. Produced by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Knowledge Network for Biocomplexity.
  • FPI (2021). Food Plants International. https://fms.cmsvr.com/fmi/webd/Food_Plants_World?homeurl=https://foodplantsinternational.com/plants/
  • GBIF.org (2021). GBIF species matching tool. https://www.gbif.org/tools/species-lookup
  • GRIN (2021). Germplasm Resources Information Network from the United States Department of Agriculture. https://www.ars-grin.gov/
  • IUCN (2021). The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2021-2. https://www.iucnredlist.org.
  • Instituto de Investigación de Recursos Biológicos Alexander von Humbodlt (2014). Plantas alimenticias y medicinales nativas de Colombia. 2567 registros, aportados por: Castellanos, C. (Contacto del recurso), Valderrama, N. (Creador del recurso, Autor), Bernal, Y. (Autor), García, N. (Autor). http://i2d.humboldt.org.co/ceiba/resource.do?r=ls_colombia_magnoliophyta_2014
  • Medicinal Plant Names Services (MPNS) v.10 (2021); http://mpns.kew.org/
  • PROTA (2021). Plants Resources of Tropical Africa. https://prota4u.org/database/
  • Palmweb (2021). Palmweb: Palms of the World Online. http://palmweb.org/node/2
  • RBG, Kew (2021). Kew Economic Botany Collection. https://ecbot.science.kew.org/
  • Ulian, T., Sacandé, M., Hudson, A., & Mattana, E. (2017). Conservation of indigenous plants to support community livelihoods: the MGU–Useful Plants Project. Journal of Environmental Planning and Management 60:668-683.
  • Willis, K.J. (ed.) (2017). State of the World’s Plants 2017. Report. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

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    ColPlantA 2021. Published on the Internet at http://colplanta.org
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  • Flora of Tropical East Africa

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  • Flora of West Tropical Africa

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  • Kew Backbone Distributions

    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2022. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

  • Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone

    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2022. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

  • Kew Science Photographs

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  • Palmweb - Palms of the World Online

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    ColPlantA database
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  • Useful Plants and Fungi of Colombia

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