Elaeis guineensis Jacq.

First published in Select. Stirp. Amer. Hist.: 280 (1763)
This species is accepted
The native range of this species is Tropical Africa. It is a tree and grows primarily in the wet tropical biome. It is has environmental uses and social uses, as animal food, a poison and a medicine and for fuel and food.

Descriptions

Bernal, R., G. Galeano, A. Rodríguez, H. Sarmiento y M. Gutiérrez. 2017. Nombres Comunes de las Plantas de Colombia. http://www.biovirtual.unal.edu.co/nombrescomunes/

Vernacular
palma africana, palma africana de aceite, palma de aceite
[UNAL]

IUCN Red List of Threatened Species https://www.iucnredlist.org/species/13416970/13416973

Conservation
LC - least concern
[IUCN]

Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

Distribution
Cultivada en Colombia; Alt. 100 - 1500 m.
Morphology General Habit
Árbol, palma solitaria
[CPLC]

Distribution
Elevation range: 100–1500 m a.s.l. Cultivated in Colombia. Colombian departments: Amazonas, Antioquia, Bolívar, Caquetá, Casanare, Cesar, Chocó, Córdoba, Cundinamarca, Magdalena, Meta, Nariño, Norte de Santander, Putumayo, Quindío, Risaralda, Santander, Sucre, Tolima, Valle del Cauca.
Habit
Tree, Solitary palm.
Conservation
IUCN Red List Assessment (2021): LC.
Ecology
Habitat according IUCN Habitats Classification: forest and woodland, savanna, shrubland, native grassland, artificial - terrestrial.
[UPFC]

Palmae, T. A. Russell. Flora of West Tropical Africa 3:1. 1968

Vernacular
The African Oil Palm
Diagnostic
Easily recognizable by its arching, dark-green leaves and straight trunk clothed when young with petiole-bases
Ecology
Is cultivated and occurs spontaneously in much of the forest zone from Senegal to Cameroun, being particularly abundant near habitations, in land which has been tilled, and in river valleys.
Note
Several forms, differing in structure and colour of the fruit, are described in Kew Bull. 1909: 33 and 1914: 285, and in Holland 4: 734.
[FWTA]

Palmae, John Dransfield. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1994

Morphology General Habit
Robust tree palm, in cultivated specimens often flowering while still trunkless.
Morphology Trunk
Trunk to 30 m. tall, usually much less, 30–50 cm. diameter, rarely broader, covered by remains of leaf-bases when young, eventually becoming bare, but in high rainfall areas frequently obscured by epiphytes.
Morphology Leaves
Crown massive, consisting of 40–50 expanded leaves in a 8/13 phyllotaxis. Leaves to 7.5 m. long in well-grown adults; leaf-base long-persistent, with coarse brown fibres and upward pointing fibre-spines to 35 × 5 mm., ± 10 mm. distant, confined to the sheath-margins; petiole to 1.25 m. long, to 20 cm. wide at the base, distally armed with bulbous-based spines to 4 cm. long by 1 cm. wide at the base, 1–5 cm. distant, representing pulvini and midribs of the basal-most leaflets; rachis semicircular in cross-section proximally, tapering above, with 2 lateral grooves or faces; leaflets eventually 100–150 on each side, inserted rather irregularly in 2 planes, the whole leaf hence plumose, to 120 cm. long, 8 cm. wide (in var. idolatrica A. Chev., a rare mutant, the lamina remaining ± entire, not splitting into leaflets).
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescences either male or female, or rarely bearing both male and female, or even more rarely with hermaphrodite flowers, individual palms passing through alternating phases of male and female inflorescence production. Peduncle of male inflorescence 15–20 cm. long, 5 cm. or more in diameter, densely hairy; rachillae crowded, ± 50 in number, 10–20 cm. long, 1–2 cm. wide, with a bare spine-like tip to 1 cm. long; bracts to 3 × 1.5 mm. Female inflorescence more massive than the male; rachillae much shorter, the spine-like tip to 2 cm. long.
sex Male
Peduncle of male inflorescence 15–20 cm. long, 5 cm. or more in diameter, densely hairy; rachillae crowded, ± 50 in number, 10–20 cm. long, 1–2 cm. wide, with a bare spine-like tip to 1 cm. long; bracts to 3 × 1.5 mm. Male flower with 3 chaffy cucullate sepals to 2 × 1.5 mm., and 3 chaffy acute petals to 2 × 1.5 mm.; androecial tube to 2.5 mm. long at anthesis; anthers reflexed, to 1.5 mm. long.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Female flower accompanied by 2 usually abortive male flowers and 2 bracteoles; sepals ±10× 4 mm. with rounded tips; petals similar to sepals; staminodal ring to 1 mm. high, 6-toothed; ovary ± 5 mm. in diameter; styles and stigmas to 10 mm. long. Male flower with 3 chaffy cucullate sepals to 2 × 1.5 mm., and 3 chaffy acute petals to 2 × 1.5 mm.; androecial tube to 2.5 mm. long at anthesis; anthers reflexed, to 1.5 mm. long.
sex Female
Female flower accompanied by 2 usually abortive male flowers and 2 bracteoles; sepals ±10× 4 mm. with rounded tips; petals similar to sepals; staminodal ring to 1 mm. high, 6-toothed; ovary ± 5 mm. in diameter; styles and stigmas to 10 mm. long. Female inflorescence more massive than the male; rachillae much shorter, the spine-like tip to 2 cm. long.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruit partially enclosed in the enlarged calyx and corolla, tipped by stylar remains, very variable in size, ± 3–5.5 × 2–3 cm., somewhat asymmetrical, usually bright orange with dark red, almost black pigmentation in the exposed upper parts; mesocarp ± 5–10 mm. thick, yellowish, oil-rich; endocarp blackish brown, 2–5 mm. thick.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seed usually 1 only, 2–3 × 1–1.5 cm. with a thin integument; endosperm homogeneous with a narrow central cavity, oil-rich.
Figures
Figs. 10 and 11.
Habitat
In E. Africa, confined to gallery forest in high rainfall areas; sea-level to ± 1500 m.
Distribution
moister areas of tropical Africa and E. Madagascarnow widespread throughout the tropics as an oil-producing crop      Africa   coastal towns, upland towns, Amani K7 P T2 T3 T6 U2 Z
[FTEA]

Distribution
Native to W Africa, but planted throughout the tropics for its oil-rich fruits which are a major source of plant oil on a world scale (Hartley, 1977). In Ecuador it is grown in large plantations below 500 m elevation, particularly in the Santo Domingo-Quinind� area.
General Description
Canopy palm. Stem solitary, erect, to 10 m tall, ca. 30-50 cm in diameter. Leaves to 5 m long; pinnae 100 or more on each side, inserted in groups and spreading in different planes. Fruits glossy red to black.
[PW]

Uses

Use Animal Food
Used as animal food.
Use Environmental
Environmental uses.
Use Fuel
Used for fuels.
Use Gene Sources
Used as gene sources.
Use Food
Used for food.
Use Materials
Used as material.
Use Medicines
Medical uses.
Use Poisons
Poisons.
Use Social
Social uses.
[UPFC]

Common Names

English
African Oil Palm

Sources

  • Art and Illustrations in Digifolia

    • Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew
  • Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia

    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
  • Colombian resources for Plants made Accessible

    • ColPlantA 2021. Published on the Internet at http://colplanta.org
    • https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/
  • Flora of Tropical East Africa

    • Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
  • Flora of West Tropical Africa

    • Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
  • Herbarium Catalogue Specimens

  • IUCN Categories

    • IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
  • Kew Backbone Distributions

    • The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Vascular Plants 2023. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and https://powo.science.kew.org/
    • © Copyright 2022 World Checklist of Vascular Plants. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0
  • Kew Living Collection Database

    • Common Names from Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew Living Collection https://www.kew.org/
  • Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone

    • The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Vascular Plants 2023. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and https://powo.science.kew.org/
    • © Copyright 2022 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Vascular Plants. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0
  • Kew Science Photographs

    • Copyright applied to individual images
  • Palmweb - Palms of the World Online

    • Palmweb 2011. Palmweb: Palms of the World Online. Published on the internet http://www.palmweb.org. Accessed on 21/04/2013
    • Content licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
  • Universidad Nacional de Colombia

    • ColPlantA database
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
  • Useful Plants and Fungi of Colombia

    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0