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This species is accepted, and its native range is Ethiopia to S. Africa, Mayotte, Juan de Nova Island, W. Madagascar.
Hyphaene coriacea

[FTEA]

Palmae, John Dransfield. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1994

Morphology General Habit
Clustering or solitary palm, occasionally already mature while still a rosette, tending to form shrubby thickets with decumbent trunks, rarely more than 5 m. tall and very rarely tree-like.
Morphology Stem
Stems suckering, hence building up clumps of uneven aged trunks; dichotomizing once or twice, rarely more, when engulfed by sand dunes the dichotomies close, producing a clump of crowns on the surface of the dune; stems grey, to 25 cm. in diameter, usually less, usually covered by long-persistent leaf-bases, occasionally destroyed by fire, leaving very close leaf-scars.
Morphology Leaves
Crown consisting of 8–15 green leaves; petiole to 70 cm. long, often much shorter, to 3 cm. wide, widening at the very base, the triangular cleft ± 20 cm. long; petiole greyish green, armed throughout its length with distally pointing black triangular spines to 1 cm. long and rich brown scales and thin to very dense wax, especially when young; hastula regular or very asymmetrical. Lamina strongly costapalmate, the costa 30–80 cm. long, usually curved, grey-green to very glaucous, with a dense covering of wax in young leaves especially in sand dune forms, and scattered black scales; lamina divided to 1/2 the radius in mid-leaf, to 3/4 radius near the edge, into 15–20 segments, to 3.5 cm. broad, rather stiff, rarely exceeding 40 cm. long.
sex Male
Male flowers with sepals very narrow, ± 3 mm. long by 0.5 mm. wide; corolla stalk ± 2 mm. long, the lobes somewhat spathulate, 3 mm. long by 1.5 mm. wide; filaments ± 2 mm. long, anthers ± 1.5 mm. long, bright yellow. Male inflorescence to 1 m., pendulous or arching with 5–7 partial inflorescences; peduncle ± 3 cm. in diameter; peduncular bracts ± 20 cm. long, covered in abundant brown hairs and white wax; rachillae 1–3 in a group, slender, rarely exceeding 15 cm. long by 0.7 cm. wide; rachilla-bracts 1 mm. high by 4 mm. wide, exposed at anthesis.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Female inflorescence as the ♂, but rachillae usually 1–2 only in each partial inflorescence; pits ± 4 × 7 mm. at anthesis. Male inflorescence to 1 m., pendulous or arching with 5–7 partial inflorescences; peduncle ± 3 cm. in diameter; peduncular bracts ± 20 cm. long, covered in abundant brown hairs and white wax; rachillae 1–3 in a group, slender, rarely exceeding 15 cm. long by 0.7 cm. wide; rachilla-bracts 1 mm. high by 4 mm. wide, exposed at anthesis.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Female flower with pedicel ± 3 mm. long by 1.5 mm. wide at anthesis; sepals and petals similar, ± 2 mm. long by 2 mm. wide at the base, triangular; ovary bright green, ± 2 mm. in diameter. Male flowers with sepals very narrow, ± 3 mm. long by 0.5 mm. wide; corolla stalk ± 2 mm. long, the lobes somewhat spathulate, 3 mm. long by 1.5 mm. wide; filaments ± 2 mm. long, anthers ± 1.5 mm. long, bright yellow.
sex Female
Female flower with pedicel ± 3 mm. long by 1.5 mm. wide at anthesis; sepals and petals similar, ± 2 mm. long by 2 mm. wide at the base, triangular; ovary bright green, ± 2 mm. in diameter. Female inflorescence as the ♂, but rachillae usually 1–2 only in each partial inflorescence; pits ± 4 × 7 mm. at anthesis.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruit extremely variable in size and shape, from ovoid and pyriform to extreme, cottage-loaf shaped, rarely 6 cm. long and 4 cm. wide at the apex, usually much less and occasionally as small as 3 × 2.5 cm., usually with a distinct ridge on one side, and a distinct widening toward the apex, the epicarp generally matt or very finely dimpled, without prominent warts or pockmarks, pale green when immature, ripening mid to dark brown; mesocarp ± 4 mm. thick, faintly aromatic, dark brown; endocarp ± 3 mm. thick except at the apical pore.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seed somewhat polyhedral, conforming to the shape of the endocarp; endosperm ± 5 mm. thick.
Figures
Figs. 3/3, (p. 25), 4 and 5 (p. 32).
Habitat
Commonest in coastal regions, especially in sand dunes, and beside creeks behind mangrove; much rarer inland; in sand dunes it sometimes acts as a pioneer stabilizer; sea-level to ± 300 m.
Distribution
Somalia to Mozambique, South Africa and Madagascar     E. Africa  coastal towns K7 P T2 T3 T4 T6 T8

[PW]
Conservation
Not threatened: widespread and common.
Vernacular
Satrana (Antankarana, Sakalava); Sata (Sakalava, fide Hildebrandt).
Distribution
W Madagascar.
Biology
Littoral or inland, in grassland or wooded grassland, especially on sand; slight slope or on the flat; able to withstand fire, and sometimes locally common; 1-300 m.
General Description
Clustering palm, often seeming solitary, in groups of 2-6. TRUNK 1-6 m high, 10-20 cm diam., usually unbranched but occasionally branched, clothed in old leaf-bases, with distinctive criss-cross pattern. LEAVES 9-20 in the crown, porrect or spreading with the rachis recurved, to 1.8 m, and to c. 9 marcescent ones; sheath open, split at the base for up to 40 cm, 38-40 cm long, waxy, brown, with fibrous margins; petiole 60-97 cm long, proximally 4-6 x c. 3 cm, mid-way flattened, c. 2 cm wide with black triangular spines to 1 cm long and curved towards the distal end, distally 1-3.5 x 1.5 cm, pale brown, waxy, with scattered scales; adaxial hastula an oblique, erose fringe to 6 mm high; costa 27- 60 cm long; lamina c. 70 cm long, 112 cm wide, with 39-55 segments, the sinuses with conspicuous filaments, outer folds 31-48 x 1.2-2.6 cm, divided to the base or unsplit for 2-7 cm, more inner ones to 63-82 x 4-5 cm, unsplit for up to 20 cm, central folds 40-58 x 1.2-4 cm, unsplit for 7-9 cm, main veins 1-2, apices attenuate and bifid over 1-1.5 cm, midrib with dense to scattered dark brown and grey scales, the faint parallel minor veins with scattered reddish scales. STAMINATE INFLORESCENCES interfoliar, branched to 2 orders; rachillae solitary or in groups of 2-4, 9-36 cm long, 0.7-1.2 cm diam., the rachillar axes waxy and with reddish scales; bracts 2-3 x 3-3.5 mm, densely stellate-hairy. STAMINATE FLOWERS with sepals imbricate, 2.5-3 x 0.8-1.6 mm, narrowly obovate with a rounded apex; corolla greenish, the stalk 1-2 mm high, the lobes 2-2.8 x 1.5-1.8 mm, (slightly) spathulate and hooded, rounded; stamens with filaments 0.8-1.8 mm and thin, connate with their fleshy bases, anthers 1-1.8 x 0.6-0.8 mm, dorsifixed, versatile, yellow; pistillode not seen. PISTILLATE INFLORESCENCES interfoliar, 60-120 cm long, branched to 1 order with 2-5 rachillae, pendulous in fruit; peduncle 43-56 cm long with 4-5 bracts; bracts 17-19 cm long and distally scaly; rachillae with the stalk c. 20 cm long, the fertile part 14-21 cm long, 0.8-1.2 mm diam. PISTILLATE FLOWERS with the rachilla bract c. 2 mm high, c. 8 mm wide, inside near the base with dense hairs (?from the rachilla); pedicel 0.5-4 mm high, densely pubescent; sepals 3.5-4.5 x 2.2-3.6 mm; petals 2.5-3.7 x 2-3.2 mm, slightly obovate, obtuse with a ciliolate apex; staminodes connate at the base, 1.5-2 mm high, thin; ovary angular-globose, 3.2-3.5 x 2-3.3 mm. FRUIT irregularly top-shaped, 5-6 cm high, 4-6 cm diam., on a densely hairy pedicel up to 12 x 7 mm; mesocarp fibrous; endocarp hard, woody and fibrous. SEED c. 2.7 x 2.7 cm; endosperm homogeneous with central hollow.

[FSOM]

M. Thulin et al. Flora of Somalia, Vol. 1-4 [updated 2008] https://plants.jstor.org/collection/FLOS

Morphology General Habit
Palm usually clustering at the base, tending to form shrubby thickets, rarely more than 5 m tall; stems decumbent, suckering, dichotomously branched once or twice, rarely more
Morphology Leaves
Leaves long persistent, glaucous; petiole armed with upcurved black spines to 10 mm long
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Mature fruit 3–6 x 2.5–4 cm, variable in shape, not deeply pitted.
Distribution
S2, 3 coastal parts of Kenya and Tanzania and southwards to South Africa and Madagascar.
Ecology
Altitude range 0–100 m.
Vernacular
Baar (Somali)

[PW]
Use
Leaf fibres used in basketry, hat-making, rope-making. Palm heart edible. Sometimes used to make palm wine.

Native to:

Comoros, Ethiopia, Kenya, KwaZulu-Natal, Madagascar, Mozambique, Mozambique Channel I, Northern Provinces, Somalia, Tanzania

Hyphaene coriacea Gaertn. appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
Jul 18, 2006 Frontier-Tanzania [973], Tanzania K000209380
Jul 18, 2006 Frontier-Tanzania [1423], Tanzania K000209381
Jun 9, 2005 van Wyk, E. [EVW504], South Africa K000462456
Dec 1, 2003 Sanderson [s.n.], South Africa K000521937
Apr 16, 2003 Bayton, R.P. [45], Madagascar K000300240
Mar 1, 1997 Labat, J.-N. [2909], Comoros K000300239
Jan 1, 1995 Perrier de la Bâthie, J.M.H.A. [17872], Madagascar K000300235 syntype
Jan 1, 1995 Perrier de la Bâthie, J.M.H.A. [17872], Madagascar K000300236 syntype
Jan 1, 1995 Hildebrandt, J.M. [3052], Madagascar K000300237 isotype
Jan 1, 1995 Beentje, H.J. [4552], Madagascar K000300242
Jan 1, 1995 Beentje, H.J. [4694], Madagascar K000300243
Apr 16, 1985 Mendonça, F.A. [s.n.], Mozambique K000462898 isotype
Apr 10, 1985 Baron, R. [2859], Madagascar K000300292
Aug 30, 1967 Torre, A.R. [14189], Mozambique K000462899 isoneotype
Aug 30, 1967 Torre, A.R. [14189], Mozambique K000462900 isoneotype
Wingfield [3522], Tanzania K000667839
Napier Bax, P. [TNP/GS/18], Kenya 26158.000
Robertson, A., Kenya 29047.414
Du Puy, B. [MB774], Madagascar 57507.000
Brenan, J.P.M. [8322], Tanzania 8002.000
Noblick, L.R. [5052], Madagascar K000300238
Noblick, L.R. [5053], Madagascar K000300241
Kirk, J. [s.n.], Mozambique K000462249 holotype

First published in Fruct. Sem. Pl. 1: 28 (1788)

Accepted by

  • Govaerts, R. & Dransfield, J. (2005). World Checklist of Palms: 1-223. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Timberlake, J.R. & Martins, E.S. (eds.) (2010). Flora Zambesiaca 13(2): 1-83. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

Literature

Palmweb - Palms of the World Online

  • J. Dransfield & H. Beentje, The Palms of Madagascar. 1995

Kew Backbone Distributions

  • Barthelat, F. (2019). La flore illustrée de Mayotte: 1-687. Biotope éditions.
  • Timberlake, J.R. & Martins, E.S. (eds.) (2010). Flora Zambesiaca 13(2): 1-83. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

Flora of Somalia

  • Flora Somalia, Vol 4, (1995) Author: by M. Thulin [updated by M. Thulin 2008]

Flora of Tropical East Africa

  • Becc., Palme Borass.: 30 (1924).
  • Furtado in Garcia de Orta 15: 448 (1967).
  • Gaertn. in De Fruct. 1: 28, t. 10 (1788).
  • Kirk in J. L. S. 9: 234 (1866).
  • Mart., Hist. Nat. Palm. 3, ed. 1: 229 (1838).

Flora of Somalia
Flora of Somalia
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Flora of Tropical East Africa
Flora of Tropical East Africa
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

Kew Backbone Distributions
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Kew Science Photographs
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

Palmweb - Palms of the World Online
Palmweb 2011. Palmweb: Palms of the World Online. Published on the internet http://www.palmweb.org. Accessed on 21/04/2013
Content licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0