Phoenix reclinata Jacq.

First published in Fragm. 1: 27 (1858)
This species is accepted
The native range of this species is Tropical & S. Africa, Comoros, Madagascar, SW. Arabian Peninsula. It is a tree and grows primarily in the seasonally dry tropical biome. It is used as animal food, a medicine and invertebrate food, has environmental uses and social uses and for fuel and food.

Distribution

Native to:

Angola, Benin, Botswana, Burkina, Burundi, Cameroon, Cape Provinces, Caprivi Strip, Central African Republic, Comoros, Congo, Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Ivory Coast, Kenya, KwaZulu-Natal, Liberia, Madagascar, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, Nigeria, Northern Provinces, Rwanda, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Somalia, Sudan, Swaziland, Tanzania, Togo, Uganda, Yemen, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

Introduced into:

Bermuda, Florida, Leeward Is., Puerto Rico, Trinidad-Tobago, Tunisia, Vietnam

Synonyms

Heterotypic Synonyms

Classification

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PAFTOL

POWO follows these authorities in accepting this name:

  • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies. Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
  • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
  • Anh, T.T.P. & Henderson, A. (2017). Thực Vật Chí Việt Nam. Flora of Vietnam 13: 1-414. Nhà xuất bản khoa học và kỹ thuật, Hà Nội.
  • Baksh-Comeau, Y., Maharaj, S.S., Adams, C.D., Harris, S.A., Filer, D.L. & Hawthorne, W.D. (2016). An annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Trinidad and Tobago with analysis of vegetation types and botanical 'hotspots'. Phytotaxa 250: 1-431.
  • Boulvert, Y. (1977). Catalogue de la Flore de Centrafrique 3: 1-89. ORSTOM, Bangui.
  • Brunel, J.F., Hiepo, P. & Scholz, H. (eds.) (1984). Flore Analytique du Togo Phanérogames: 1-751. GTZ, Eschborn.
  • Catarino, L., Martins, E.S., Diniz, M.A. & Pinto-Basto, M.F. (2006). Check-list da flora vascular do parque natural das Lagos de Cufada (Guiné-Bissau). Garcia de Orta, Série de Botânica 17: 97-141.
  • Couvreur, T.L.P. & Sunderland, T.C.H. (2022). Flore du Cameroun 44: 1-138. Ministère de l'enseignement supérieur et de la recherche scientifique (Mesres), Yaoundé.
  • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Fischer, E., Rembold, K., Althof, A. & Obholzer, J. (2010). Annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Kakamega forest, Western province, Kenya. Journal of East African Natural History 99: 129-226.
  • Gosline, G., Bidault, E., van der Burgt, X., Cahen, D., Challen, G., Condé, N., Couch, C., Couvreur, T.L.P., Dagallier, L.M.J., Darbyshire, I., Dawson, S., Doré, T.S., Goyder, D., Grall, A., Haba, P., Haba, P., Harris, D., Hind, D.J.N., Jongkind, & al. (2023). A Taxonomically-verified and Vouchered Checklist of the Vascular Plants of the Republic of Guinea. Nature, scientific data 10, Article number: 327: [1]-[12].
  • Govaerts, R. & Dransfield, J. (2005). World Checklist of Palms: 1-223. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Meyer, J.-Y., Lavergne, C. & Hodel, D.R. (2008). Time bombs in gardens: invasive ornamental palms in tropical islands, with emphasis on French Polynesia (Pacific Ocean) and the Mascarenes (Indian Ocean). Palms; Journal of the International Palm Society 52: 23-35.
  • Strugnell, A.M. (2006). A checklist of the Spermatophytes of Mt. Mulanje, Malawi. Scripta Botanica Belgica 34: 1-199.
  • Thiombiano, A., Schmidt, M., Dressler, S., Ouédraogo, A., Hahn, K. & Zizka, G. (2012). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Burkina Faso. Boissiera 65: 1-391.
  • Timberlake, J.R. & Martins, E.S. (eds.) (2010). Flora Zambesiaca 13(2): 1-83. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Timberlake, J.R., Bayliss, J., Alves, T., Francisco, J., Harris, T., Nangoma, D. & de Sousa, C. (2009). Biodiversity and Conservation of Mchese Mountain, Malawi. Report produced under the Darwin Initiative Award 15/036: 1-71. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

Palmweb - Palms of the World Online

  • S.C. Barrow, A Monograph of Phoenix L. (Palmae: Coryphoideae). 1998

Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia

  • Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

Flora of West Tropical Africa

  • Beccari in Malesia 3: 349 (1890)
  • F.T.A. 8: 103.
  • Fragm. 1: 27, t. 24 (1801)

Kew Backbone Distributions

  • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies. Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
  • Anh, T.T.P. & Henderson, A. (2017). Thực Vật Chí Việt Nam. Flora of Vietnam 13: 1-414. Nhà xuất bản khoa học và kỹ thuật, Hà Nội.
  • Audru, J., Cesar, J. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1994). Les Plantes Vasculaires de la République de Djibouti. Flore Illustrée 1: 1-336. CIRAD, Départerment d'Elevage et de Médecine vétérinaire, Djibouti.
  • Baksh-Comeau, Y., Maharaj, S.S., Adams, C.D., Harris, S.A., Filer, D.L. & Hawthorne, W.D. (2016). An annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Trinidad and Tobago with analysis of vegetation types and botanical 'hotspots'. Phytotaxa 250: 1-431.
  • Brunel, J.F., Hiepo, P. & Scholz, H. (eds.) (1984). Flore Analytique du Togo Phanérogames: 1-751. GTZ, Eschborn.
  • Couvreur, T.L.P. & Sunderland, T.C.H. (2022). Flore du Cameroun 44: 1-138. Ministère de l'enseignement supérieur et de la recherche scientifique (Mesres), Yaoundé.
  • Curtis, B. & Mannheimer, C. (2005). Tree Atlas of Namibia: 1-688. The National Botanical Research Institute, Windhoek.
  • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Meyer, J.-Y., Lavergne, C. & Hodel, D.R. (2008). Time bombs in gardens: invasive ornamental palms in tropical islands, with emphasis on French Polynesia (Pacific Ocean) and the Mascarenes (Indian Ocean). Palms; Journal of the International Palm Society 52: 23-35.
  • Thiombiano, A., Schmidt, M., Dressler, S., Ouédraogo, A., Hahn, K. & Zizka, G. (2012). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Burkina Faso. Boissiera 65: 1-391.

Flora of Somalia

  • Flora Somalia, Vol 4, (1995) Author: by M. Thulin [updated by M. Thulin 2008]

Useful Plants and Fungi of Colombia

  • Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R., & Celis, M. (eds.). (2020). Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia. v1.1. Universidad Nacional de Colombia. Dataset/Checklist. https://doi.org/10.15472/7avdhn
  • Burkill HM. (1995). The useful plants of west tropical Africa, Vols. 1-3. The useful plants of west tropical Africa, Vols 1-3.
  • Dempewolf, H., Eastwood, R. J., Guarino, L., Khoury, C. K., Müller, J. V. & Toll, J. (2014). Adapting agriculture to climate change: a global initiative to collect, conserve, and use crop wild relatives. Agroecology and Sustainable Food Systems, 38, 369-377.
  • Diazgranados et al. (2021). Catalogue of plants of Colombia. Useful Plants and Fungi of Colombia project. In prep.
  • Diazgranados, M., Allkin, B., Black N., Cámara-Leret, R., Canteiro C., Carretero J., Eastwood R., Hargreaves S., Hudson A., Milliken W., Nesbitt, M., Ondo, I., Patmore, K., Pironon, S., Turner, R., Ulian, T. (2020). World Checklist of Useful Plant Species. Produced by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Knowledge Network for Biocomplexity.
  • FPI (2021). Food Plants International. https://fms.cmsvr.com/fmi/webd/Food_Plants_World?homeurl=https://foodplantsinternational.com/plants/
  • GRIN (2021). Germplasm Resources Information Network from the United States Department of Agriculture. https://www.ars-grin.gov/
  • IUCN (2021). The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2021-2. https://www.iucnredlist.org.
  • Medicinal Plant Names Services (MPNS) v.10 (2021); http://mpns.kew.org/
  • PROTA (2021). Plants Resources of Tropical Africa. https://prota4u.org/database/
  • Palmweb (2021). Palmweb: Palms of the World Online. http://palmweb.org/node/2
  • RBG, Kew (2021). Kew Economic Botany Collection. https://ecbot.science.kew.org/
  • RBG, Kew (ed.) (1999). Survey of Economic Plants for Arid and Semi-Arid Lands (SEPASAL) database. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, London.
  • Ulian, T., Sacandé, M., Hudson, A., & Mattana, E. (2017). Conservation of indigenous plants to support community livelihoods: the MGU–Useful Plants Project. Journal of Environmental Planning and Management 60:668-683.
  • Willis, K.J. (ed.) (2017). State of the World’s Plants 2017. Report. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

Flora of Tropical East Africa

  • A. Engler & O. Drude, Die Vegetation Der Erde, IX, Pflanzenwelt Afrikas 2: 224, t. 10, fig. 149 (1908).
  • Becc. in Malesia 3: 349 (1890).
  • C.H. Wright in Flora of Tropical Africa 8: 103 (1901).
  • Dale & Greenway, Kenya Trees and Shrubs p. 12 (1961).
  • F. W. Andr., The Flowering Plants of the Sudan 3: 304 (1956).
  • Hamilton, Uganda For. Trees: 75 (1981).
  • Jacq., Fragm. Bot.: 27, t. 24 (1801).
  • R. O. Williams, Useful and Ornamental Plants in Zanzibar and Pemba p. 411 (1949).
  • T.A. Russell in Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 3: 169 (1968).
  • Troupin, Fl. Pl. Lign., Rwanda: 70, fig. 18 (1982).
  • W.J. Eggeling, Indigenous Trees of the Uganda Protectorate, ed. 2: 293, photo. 47 (1952).
  • Warb. in Die Pflanzenwelt Ost-Afrikas und der Nachbargebiete, Theile C: 130 (1895).

Other Data

Other Kew resources that provide information on this taxon:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status Has image?
Dec 1, 2018 Osborne, J. [JO1425] Mozambique K000569779 No
Jul 18, 2006 Frontier-Tanzania [1210] Tanzania K000209382 No
Jun 15, 2006 Bourobou, H.P.; Nzabi, T.; Rivera, P.; Duncan, T. [916] Gabon K000208972 No
Mar 31, 2004 Bayton, R.P.; AmadÚ OuÚdraogo; Paulin Ouoba [67] Burkina Faso K000521954 No
Feb 1, 2002 Cheek, M. [7291 a] Cameroon K000025697 No
Jan 1, 2001 Barthelat, F.; M'Changama, M.; Sifary, A.B. [266] Comoros K000300297 No
May 1, 2000 Etuge, M. [4596] Cameroon K000678186 No
Nov 13, 1998 s.coll. [s.n.] Botswana K:SPC-66835.000 No
Jan 25, 1996 Collenette, I.S. [6701] Saudi Arabia K000208712 No
Jan 1, 1995 Bernardi, L. [11792] Comoros K000300214 No
Jan 1, 1995 Bernardi, L. [11792] Comoros K000300215 No
Jan 1, 1995 Boivin, M. [3100] Comoros K000300212 Syntype Yes
Jan 1, 1995 Baron, R. [6724] Madagascar K000300291 Yes
Jan 1, 1995 Baron, R. [6724] Madagascar K000300290 Yes
Jan 1, 1995 Baron, R. [4839] Madagascar K000300209 No
Jan 1, 1995 Boivin, M. [2289] Madagascar K000300211 Syntype Yes
Jan 1, 1995 Baron, R. [4776] Madagascar K000300210 No
Jan 1, 1995 Beentje, H.J.; Andriampaniry, H.R. [4691] Madagascar K000300217 No
Jan 1, 1995 Humbert, H. [11298] Madagascar K000300213 No
Jan 1, 1995 Beentje, H.J.; Andriampaniry, H.R. [4692] Madagascar K000300216 No
Marshall, A.R.; Mwakisoma, R. [1184] Tanzania K000707157 No
Cheek, M.; Ephraim; Micheal; Lopes; Laidley [5937] Cameroon K001412717 Yes
Risopoulous [576] K001287184 No
Meikle, R.D. [973] Nigeria K:SPC-07114.000 No
Collenette, I.S. [7302] Saudi Arabia K000208709 No
Balde, A. [363] Guinea K001310304 Yes
Wild, H. [3109] Zimbabwe K:SPC-23577.000 No
Biegel, H.; Pope, G.V.; Russel, G. [4018] Botswana K000489232 No
Goyder, D.J.; et al. [3928] Tanzania K:SPC-63969.000 No
Heath, A. and R. [682] Botswana K000667347 No
Milne-Redhead, P.; Taylor [7320 A] Tanzania K:SPC-40547.000 No
Beentje, H.J.; Andriampaniry, H.R. [4691] Madagascar K:SPC-65070.000 No
Wood, J.R.I. [1759] Yemen K000208711 No
Harley, R.M. [9177] Tanzania K:SPC-06449.000 No
Baron, R. [2319] Madagascar K000300289 Syntype Yes
Baron, R. [2319] Madagascar K000300286 Syntype Yes
Baron, R. [2319] Madagascar K000300287 Type Yes
Baron, R. [2319] Madagascar K000300288 Syntype Yes
Scott Elliot [7352] Uganda K000527443 No
Van Valkenburg; Sosef, M.S.M.; Versteegh, C.; Mayombo, J. [2504] Gabon K000209667 No
Biegel, H.; Pope, G.V.; Russel, G. [4018] Botswana K000489234 No
Hildebrandt, J.M. [3304] Madagascar K000697893 Type Yes
Biegel, H.; Muller, P.J.; Russel, G. [5042] Botswana K000489231 No
Jumelle, H. [s.n.] Madagascar K000300208 No
Biegel, H.; Pope, G.V.; Russel, G. [4018] Botswana K000489233 No

Sources

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    • Angiosperm Threat Predictions
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0
  • Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia

    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
  • Flora of Somalia

    • Flora of Somalia
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
  • Flora of Tropical East Africa

    • Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
  • Flora of West Tropical Africa

    • Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
  • Herbarium Catalogue Specimens

    • 'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    • Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/
  • IUCN Categories

    • IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
  • Kew Backbone Distributions

    • The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Vascular Plants 2024. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and https://powo.science.kew.org/
    • © Copyright 2023 World Checklist of Vascular Plants. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0
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    • The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Vascular Plants 2024. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and https://powo.science.kew.org/
    • © Copyright 2023 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Vascular Plants. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0
  • Kew Science Photographs

    • Copyright applied to individual images
  • Palmweb - Palms of the World Online

    • Palmweb 2011. Palmweb: Palms of the World Online. Published on the internet http://www.palmweb.org. Accessed on 21/04/2013
    • Content licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
  • Plants and People Africa

    • Common Names from Plants and People Africa http://www.plantsandpeopleafrica.com/
    • © Plants and People Africa http://www.plantsandpeopleafrica.com http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/
  • Universidad Nacional de Colombia

    • ColPlantA database
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
  • Useful Plants and Fungi of Colombia

    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0