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This species is accepted, and its native range is China (Yunnan) to N. Indo-China.
Arecaceae; Phoenix roebelenii

[PW]
Conservation
A naturally restricted distribution, habitat loss and a horticultural trade in wild-collected plants may mean that the wild populations of P. roebelenii merit 'vulnerable' status, but further studies are needed. Demand for P. roebelenii as an ornamental is mostly met through seeds and offshoots from cultivated plants. However, Barrow (1994) suggested that collection of mature palms from the wild poses an increasing threat.
General Description
Clustering palms (often solitary in cultivation), forming clumps with stemless plants suckering at base of taller stems. Stem 1 - 2 m (rarely 3 m) high, without sheaths to 10 cm in diam., erect or twisted, pale, becoming smooth with age, marked with diamond-shaped persistent leaf bases each with a central bump of remnant vascular tissue; stem base developed with a root boss; roots occasionally emerging from stem above ground level. Leaves arching, 1 - 1.5 (2) m long; pseudopetiole to c. 50 cm long; leaf sheath reddish-brown, fibrous; acanthophylls arranged singly or paired, c. 12 on each side of rachis, orange-green, to 8 cm long; leaflets regularly arranged, opposite, c. 25 - 50 on each side of rachis, linear, concolorous, deep green, often flaccid, to 40 x 1.2 cm; lamina with discontinuous white scurfy ramenta along abaxial veins and midrib, almost totally covering abaxial surface of unexpanded (sword) leaves. Staminate inflorescences pendulous; prophyll coriaceous, two-keeled, splitting once abaxially between keels, c. 30- 60 cm long; peduncle to 30 cm long; rachillae 7- 20 cm long. Staminate flowers with calyx a three-pointed cupule, 1.2 mm high, yellow- white; petals pale yellow-white with acuminate apices and with jagged margins, 7 - 8 x 2 - 2.5 mm; anthers 3.5 - 4 mm long. Pistillate inflorescences erect, arching as fruits ripen, up to 35 cm long; prophyll coriaceous, two-keeled, to 35 cm long x c. 5 cm wide, splitting once adaxially between keels to reveal inflorescence; peduncle green, to c. 30 x 3 cm; rachillae with bulbous bases, orange-green, occasionally branched to one order, subtended by papery bracts (c. 4 cm long). Pistillate flowers pale green, arranged in distal three quarters of rachilla, subtended by papery bracts to 5 mm long; calyx a three-pointed cupule, thickened and ridged up to apices, striate, 2 - 2.5 mm high; petals 3.5 x 4 mm with acute apices; generally only one carpel reaching maturity. Fruits obovoid, with persistent perianth, maturing from dark green to purplish brown, 13 - 18 x 6 - 7 mm; stigmatic remains apical, 1 mm long, orange- brown, often recurved. Seed narrowly elongate, terete, with rounded apices, 7 - 3 mm; embryo lateral opposite raphe; endosperm homogeneous.
Vernacular
THAILAND. Paam sipsong pannaa (Xishuangbanna palm), [Smitinand (1948)]. VIETNAM. Cha rang (Moyenne Region), [Magalon (1930)].
Biology
Closely associated with riverside or cliff habitats where it grows as a rheophyte. The rheophytic habit is rare within the palm family (Dransfield 1992). The clustering habit of R roebelenii may help it to survive flooding.
Distribution
Northern Laos (Nam Ou valley), Vietnam (Upper Black R. region near Lai-Chau), and southern China (Xisuangbanna region of Yunnan), most notably along the banks of the R. Mekong.

[CPLC]

Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

Distribution
Cultivada en Colombia.
Morphology General Habit
Arbusto, palma solitaria

[PW]
Use
Since its introduction to Europe, P. roebelenii has become a popular and widely cultivated ornamental palm and is now found in private and botanical gardens around the world.

Native to:

China South-Central, Laos, Myanmar, Thailand, Vietnam

Introduced into:

Trinidad-Tobago

Phoenix roebelenii O'Brien appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
s.coll. [s.n.], Thailand K000697831 holotype
Barrow, S. [26], Thailand 65061.000
s.coll. [s.n.] 66880.000
Zona, S. [711] 65063.000

First published in Gard. Chron., ser. 3, 6: 475 (1889)

Accepted by

  • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
  • Baksh-Comeau, Y., Maharaj, S.S., Adams, C.D., Harris, S.A., Filer, D.L. & Hawthorne, W.D. (2016). An annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Trinidad and Tobago with analysis of vegetation types and botanical 'hotspots' Phytotaxa 250: 1-431.
  • Barfod, A.S. & Dransfield, J. (2013). Flora of Thailand 11(3): 323-498. The Forest Herbarium, National Park, Wildlife and Plant Conservation Department, Bangkok.
  • Govaerts, R. & Dransfield, J. (2005). World Checklist of Palms: 1-223. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Henderson, A. (2009). Palms of Southern Asia: 1-197. Princeton university press, Princeton and Oxford.
  • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (2010). Flora of China 23: 1-515. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.

Literature

Palmweb - Palms of the World Online

  • S.C. Barrow, A Monograph of Phoenix L. (Palmae: Coryphoideae). 1998

Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia

  • ColPlantA (2021). "ColPlantA. Facilitated by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet; http://www.colplanta.org/"

Kew Backbone Distributions

  • Baksh-Comeau, Y., Maharaj, S.S., Adams, C.D., Harris, S.A., Filer, D.L. & Hawthorne, W.D. (2016). An annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Trinidad and Tobago with analysis of vegetation types and botanical 'hotspots' Phytotaxa 250: 1-431.
  • Henderson, A. (2009). Palms of Southern Asia: 1-197. Princeton university press, Princeton and Oxford.
  • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (2010). Flora of China 23: 1-515. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.

Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

Kew Backbone Distributions
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Palmweb - Palms of the World Online
Palmweb 2011. Palmweb: Palms of the World Online. Published on the internet http://www.palmweb.org. Accessed on 21/04/2013
Content licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0