Ravenea sambiranensis Jum. & H.Perrier

This species is accepted, and its native range is Madagascar.

[PW]
General Description
Slender small palm to majestic tree palm. TRUNK 2-30 m, 5-29 cm diam. (near crown 5-10 cm); basal boss 25-40 cm high, 32-50 cm across, with surface roots; internodes 2-13 (-18) cm (near crown 1-4 cm), nodal scars faint or clear, 2-4 cm; rarely with; sheath remnants present below the living crown; bark soft, pale grey or brown; outer wood with very hard black fibres; heartwood soft, white. Base of crown bulbous, 18-40 cm across. LEAVES 10-28 in the crown, porrect, arching to strongly arching; sheath 12-70 x 10-20 cm, whitish or brown-tomentose externally, in young leaves entire and fibrous, rupturing opposite the petiole when ageing and then the margins with hard fibres; petiole 13.5-76 cm, proximally 1.3-7 x 0.6-4 cm across, convex and white- or brown-grey-pubescent abaxially, slightly convex, flat or concave with sharp edges adaxially, distally 0.9-3 x 0.5-1.6 cm, glabrescent, dull green; rachis 0.6-2.5 m long, in mid-leaf 1.2-3.4 x 1-1.7 cm across, convex and white- to red- or grey-brown-tomentose to puberulous abaxially, glabrescent, adaxially in the proximal part with a channelled keel, more distally with a flattened keel 4-5.5 mm wide, more distal becoming angular and sharp; leaflets rigid, lanceolate, oblique, straight, acute, sometimes pendulous in their distal 1/3 (rarely in one plane), dark green, arcuate, the tips somewhat bent over, 35-67 on each side of the rachis, the proximal 20-78 x 0.2-3.3 cm, median 40-100 x 1.3-4 cm (interval 3.5-5 cm), distal 6-63 x 0.3-2.7 cm, the top pair sometimes connate for up to 2 cm, abaxially on the midrib (and sometimes on the veins) with rather many small ramenta in young leaves-none, or only basal ones in older leaves, main veins 2-7. STAMINATE INFLORESCENCE interfoliar, multiple in 5s-9s, the central ones maturing before the outer ones, erect; individual inflorescences 30-117 cm, branched to 1 or 2 orders; common prophyll membranous, 2.5-23 x 5-12 cm, rounded, tattering, densely tomentose abaxially, glabrous adaxially; peduncle 25-74 cm, 5-9 mm across proximally, distally 3-7 mm across, green, grey-brown tomentose to glabrescent; peduncular bracts respectively 7-35 x 3.2 cm (inserted at 0-0.4 cm from the base of the peduncle), 20-60 x 2-2.2 cm (inserted at 1-2 cm), 56-125 (inserted at c. 3 cm), 68-125 x 5.3 cm (inserted at c. 7 cm), all white- to grey-brown-tomentose abaxially, adaxially cream, smooth and glabrous; non-tubular peduncular bract 1.5-3.7 x 0.4-0.6 cm, but in Beentje 4501 a non-tubular peduncular bract inserted at 53 cm, 25 x 1.7 cm, membranous, adnate to the peduncle for 21 cm; rachis 20-54 cm, cream, densely pubescent proximally but glabrescent or with flaking patches, with 12-65 branched and 7-38 non-branched first order branches; proximal rachis bract 1.3-20 x 0.6 cm; first order branches at base 3-4 x 2 mm, with 3-6 rachillae; rachillae porrect, 3-23 cm, 1-1.5 mm across, sinuous, cream, with dense flowers above a 2 cm bare base; pedicels 0-1 mm; bracteole 0.7-1.8 x 0.5-0.8 mm, narrowly triangular, acute. STAMINATE FLOWERS custard-yellow, scarcely to sweetly scented; calyx with connate part 0.5-1.5 x 1.3-1.8 mm, free sepals 0.9-2.5 x 0.7-1.6 mm, ovate, acute; petals free, 1.8-5 (-6.1) x 2-3 mm, broadly ovate, acute, cream to bright custard yellow; anthers equal, 1-3.7 x 0.8-1.6 mm, filaments equal, 0.3-1.5 mm; ovary rudiment 0.4-2 x 0.3-1 mm. PISTILLATE INFLORESCENCE interfoliar, solitary, erect, 70-175 x c. 30 cm, branched to 1 order, with green axes turning orange in fruit; peduncle 29-93 cm, proximally 1.2-5 x 0.6-3 cm across, distally 0.9-2.3 x 0.5-1.5 cm, white- to brown-pubescent, glabrescent; prophyll 5-22 x 9 cm, rounded, tattering, white-pubescent; peduncular bracts 7-34 cm (inserted at 1-4 cm from the base of the peduncle), 23-90 x 4.5 cm (inserted at 2-10 cm), 53-153 cm (inserted at 7-18 cm), 55-155 cm (inserted at 12-43 cm), glabrous and chestnut-brown adaxially, silvery-white pubescent abaxially; non-tubular peduncular bract inserted at 10 cm below rachis, 6-28 x 0.6-0.7 cm; rachis bracts 10-16 x 1.5-2 mm; rachis 14-60 cm, with 28-77 porrect rachillae; rachillae green to pale yellow, 5-50 cm, 1.5-2.5 mm across, with bulbous base 3.5-13 x 3-4 mm and 2 cm bare part, the distal part sinuous; bracteole 1.5-2.8 x 0.6-2 mm, narrowly triangular, acuminate; pedicels 0.3-6 x 1.3 mm (maximum dimensions in fruit only) long. PISTILLATE FLOWERS quite dense, very fragrant, sticky; calyx connate for 0.6-2 mm, 1.3-2.5 mm across, the lobes 0.6-2.6 x 1-2.4 mm, ovate to triangular and acute to acuminate; petals 2.2-5 (-10, Du Puy 807) 1.5-2.3 mm long, (broadly) ovate and acuminate, pale or bright yellow; staminodes c. 1.3 x 0.3 mm; ovary 2.2-3.2 mm high, 1.3-1.8 mm across. FRUIT orange to coral-red, ovoid to oblong, rounded at the apex, 10-12 x 9-10 mm, one-seeded, with lateral stigmatic remains; in Birkinshaw 136 sometimes 2- or 3-lobed (but all fruits in this collection are without seed - though they are orange in colour); fruit often with a high percentage of abortive seed. SEED brown, 7-8 x 5-7.5 mm. EOPHYLL bifid.
Biology
Littoral forest on white sand, dense moist forest or dry montane forests, steep slopes, hill crests or on almost level ground; in the West in remnant riverine forest; 1-2000 m. POLLINATION AND DISPERSAL. Flowers visited by bees and small flying beetles (pers. obs.); fruit eaten by Madagascar Blue Pigeon, and defecated seeds germinating well (as did seed from fallen fruit) (C. Birkinshaw, pers. comm.).
Conservation
Vulnerable. Though widespread, the species occurs in fairly low numbers throughout habitats which are under threat. Littoral forests on white sand are disappearing fast. The western populations occur in high-risk areas. The sub-montane populations are depleted by cutting the trees for palm heart.
Vernacular
Anivo; Anivona; Mafahely (general); Soindro (Tsimihety); Ramangaisina (Betsimisaraka).
Distribution
NW, W and E Madagascar, Manongarivo to Marojejy and down the East coast to Vangaindrano; outlier in Bemaraha area.

[PW]
Use
Outer wood used for floorboards; young palm-heart cooked with manioc and eaten, but slightly bitter (hence Mafahely, which means a little bit bitter).

Native to:

Madagascar

Ravenea sambiranensis Jum. & H.Perrier appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status Has image?
Feb 15, 2011 Ammann [MYA256], Madagascar K000667632 No
Feb 15, 2011 Nusbaumer [LN2866], Madagascar K000667631 No
Jul 2, 2008 Razafitsalama, J.L. [1118], Madagascar K000526379 No
Jul 1, 2008 Nusbaumer, L. [LN1776], Madagascar K000462578 No
Feb 14, 2007 Rakotoarinivo, M. [RMJ283], Madagascar K000462728 No
Feb 13, 2007 Birkinshaw, C. [1118], Madagascar K000462577 No
Jan 1, 2006 Rakotoarinivo, M. [RMJ325], Madagascar K000462757 No
Jun 4, 1999 Byg, A. [11], Madagascar K000300486 No
May 18, 1998 Gautier, L. [LG3231], Madagascar K000300472 No
May 30, 1997 Gautier, L. [LG3052], Madagascar K000300475 No
Jan 4, 1997 Gautier [LG2702], Madagascar K000300471 No
Jan 1, 1995 Beentje, H.J. [4699], Madagascar 29047.850 No
Jan 1, 1995 Beentje, H.J. [4705], Madagascar 29047.871 No
Jan 1, 1995 Beentje, H.J. [4582], Madagascar 60556.000 No
Jan 1, 1995 Dorr, L. [3619], Madagascar K000300394 No
Jan 1, 1995 Beentje, H.J. [4558], Madagascar K000300397 No
Jan 1, 1995 Beentje, H.J. [4560], Madagascar K000300398 No
Jan 1, 1995 Dransfield, J. [JD6448], Madagascar K000300473 No
Jan 1, 1995 Beentje, H.J. [4572], Madagascar K000300481 No
Jan 1, 1995 Beentje, H.J. [4705], Madagascar K000300493 No
Jan 1, 1995 Beentje, H.J. [4582], Madagascar K000300495 No
Jan 1, 1995 Beentje, H.J. [4699], Madagascar K000300492 No
Jan 1, 1995 Miller, J.S. [4391], Madagascar K000300480 No
Jan 1, 1993 Beentje, H.J. [4570], Madagascar 29047.861 No
Jan 1, 1993 Dransfield, J. [JD6408], Madagascar 55919.000 No
Jan 1, 1993 Dransfield, J. [JD6757], Madagascar 56119.000 No
Jan 1, 1993 Beentje, H.J. [4625], Madagascar 58833.000 No
Jan 1, 1993 Beentje, H.J. [4503], Madagascar 58841.000 No
Jan 1, 1993 Beentje, H.J. [4675], Madagascar 58944.000 No
Jan 1, 1993 Dransfield, J. [JD6409], Madagascar 59465.000 No
Jan 1, 1993 Beentje, H.J. [4491], Madagascar 60482.000 No
Jan 1, 1993 Beentje, H.J. [4456], Madagascar 60603.000 No
Jan 1, 1993 Dransfield, J. [JD6758], Madagascar K000300393 No
Jan 1, 1993 Malcomber, S. [883], Madagascar K000300396 No
Jan 1, 1993 Beentje, H.J. [4674], Madagascar K000300399 No
Jan 1, 1993 Cours, G. [1945], Madagascar K000300400 No
Jan 1, 1993 Cours, G. [4512], Madagascar K000300401 No
Jan 1, 1993 Malcomber, S. [1401], Madagascar K000300402 No
Jan 1, 1993 Dumetz, N. [632], Madagascar K000300403 No
Jan 1, 1993 Malcomber, S. [1401], Madagascar K000300474 No
Jan 1, 1993 Birkinshaw, C. [CB136], Madagascar K000300478 No
Jan 1, 1993 Beentje, H.J. [4501], Madagascar K000300479 No
Jan 1, 1993 Beentje, H.J. [4491], Madagascar K000300482 No
Jan 1, 1993 Beentje, H.J. [4570], Madagascar K000300484 No
Jan 1, 1993 Beentje, H.J. [4504], Madagascar K000300485 No
Jan 1, 1993 Dransfield, J. [JD6408], Madagascar K000300488 No
Jan 1, 1993 Beentje, H.J. [4625], Madagascar K000300489 No
Jan 1, 1993 Beentje, H.J. [4456], Madagascar K000300490 No
Jan 1, 1993 Beentje, H.J. [4502], Madagascar K000300491 No
Jan 1, 1993 Beentje, H.J. [4503], Madagascar K000300494 No
Jan 1, 1993 Dransfield, J. [JD6409], Madagascar K000300496 No
Jan 1, 1993 Dransfield, J. [JD6757], Madagascar K000300497 No
Jan 1, 1993 Beentje, H.J. [4675], Madagascar K000300483 No
Jan 1, 1992 Morat, P. [4591], Madagascar K000300395 No
Jan 1, 1992 Du Puy, B.P. [MB807], Madagascar K000300477 No
Jan 1, 1992 Dransfield, J. [JD6445], Madagascar K000300487 No
Dransfield, J. [JD6409], Madagascar 29047.704 No
Dransfield, J. [JD6448], Madagascar 53884.000 No
Dransfield, J. [JD6448], Madagascar 53998.000 No
Dransfield, J. [JD6758], Madagascar 56081.000 No
Birkinshaw [136], Madagascar 59453.000 No
Beentje, H.J. [4572], Madagascar 59455.000 No
Dransfield, J. [JD 6448], Madagascar 59459.000 No
Dransfield, J [JD 408], Madagascar 59461.000 No
Dransfield, J. [JD6758], Madagascar 59554.000 No
Beentje, H.J. [4570], Madagascar 60437.000 No
Beentje, H.J. [4501], Madagascar 60441.000 No
Beentje, H.J. [4572], Madagascar 60506.000 No
Beentje, H.J. [4572], Madagascar 60549.000 No
DuPuy, B. [MB807], Madagascar 60646.000 No
Byg, A. [3], Madagascar K000300391 No
Birkinshaw, C. [197], Madagascar K000300392 No
Cultivated [1986-5740] K000521719 No
Beentje, H. [4939], Madagascar K000208398 No
Beentje, H. [4938], Madagascar K000208399 No
Gautier, L. [LG3094], Madagascar K000300476 No

First published in Ann. Mus. Colon. Marseille, sér. 3, 1: 50 (1913)

Accepted by

  • Govaerts, R. & Dransfield, J. (2005). World Checklist of Palms: 1-223. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Rakotoarinivo, M., Trudgen, M.S. & Baker, W.J. (2009). The palms of the Makira protected area, Madagascar. Palms; Journal of the International Palm Society 53: 125-146.

Literature

Palmweb - Palms of the World Online

  • J. Dransfield & H. Beentje, The Palms of Madagascar. 1995

Kew Backbone Distributions

  • Rakotoarinivo, M., Trudgen, M.S. & Baker, W.J. (2009). The palms of the Makira protected area, Madagascar. Palms; Journal of the International Palm Society 53: 125-146.

  • Herbarium Catalogue Specimens

  • Kew Backbone Distributions

    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2022. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

  • Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone

    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2022. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

  • Palmweb - Palms of the World Online

    Palmweb 2011. Palmweb: Palms of the World Online. Published on the internet http://www.palmweb.org. Accessed on 21/04/2013
    Content licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0