Genus:
Passiflora L.

Passiflora quadrangularis L.

This species is accepted, and its native range is Colombia to Brazil. It is used to treat unspecified medicinal disorders, as a poison and a medicine, has environmental uses and for food.

[CPLC]

Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

Distribution
Nativa y cultivada en Colombia; Alt. 0 - 1200 m.; Amazonia, Andes, Guayana y Serranía de La Macarena, Pacífico, Valle del Cauca, Valle del Magdalena.
Morphology General Habit
Trepadora
Conservation
Preocupación Menor

[FTEA]

Passifloraceae, W. J. J. O. de Wildem (Rijksherbarium, Leiden). Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1975

Morphology General Habit
Climber to ± 15 m., perennial, glabrous throughout; stem stout, 4-angled, winged.
Morphology Leaves
Leaf-blades entire, broadly ovate to elliptic, 9–20 by 6–15 cm., base rounded to subcordate, apex abruptly acute or shortly acuminate-mucronate; margin entire, pinninerved, membranous; petiole 2–5 cm.
Morphology General Glands
Glands on petiole 3 pairs, wart-like; blade-glands absent.
Morphology Leaves Stipules
Stipules ovate or elliptic, 2–5 cm. long, acute to mucronate, narrowed at base, entire.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescences 1-flowered, the peduncle (pedicel) 1.5–3 cm., inserted beside a simple tendril 10–20 cm.; bracts and bracteoles subovate, base cordate, apex acute-acuminate, 3–5.5 cm., entire, distinct, forming an involucre.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers 8–10 cm. in diameter, whitish or pinkish, corona threads purplish and pinkish banded and mottled.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Hypanthium
Hypanthium shallowly cup-shaped, ±1.5 cm. wide.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Sepals ovate to ovate-oblong, 3–4 cm., concave, cucullate, corniculate.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Petals ovate-oblong to oblong-lanceolate, 3–4.5 cm., obtuse.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corona
Corona composed of 5 series, outside 2 series of threads 3–5 cm., inward a series of tubercles and one of short threads, the innermost membranous, lacerate; operculum membranous, 4–6 mm. long, inward curved, denticulate; disk (limen) annular.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androgynophore
Androgynophore 12–14 mm., thickened and provided with 2 annuli towards base (trochlea).
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Filaments ± flattened, 7–8 mm.; anthers ± 7 mm.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Pistil
Ovary ellipsoid-oblong, 8–10 mm., glabrous; styles 10–12 mm.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruit oblong-ovoid, 20–30 cm. long, fleshy with thick rind, terete or 3-grooved.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds many, broadly obcordate or suborbicular, 7–10 mm.
Habitat
In East Africa ornamental and cultivated for the edible, flavoured fruits, quite often escaped
Distribution
K4 T3 U4 tropical America, introduced in the tropics of the Old World

[UNAL]

Bernal, R., G. Galeano, A. Rodríguez, H. Sarmiento y M. Gutiérrez. 2017. Nombres Comunes de las Plantas de Colombia. http://www.biovirtual.unal.edu.co/nombrescomunes/

Vernacular
badea, bejuco badeo, bejuco de granadillo, corvejo, granadilla, granadillo, granadillo grande

[FZ]

Passifloraceae, R. and A. Fernandes. Flora Zambesiaca 4. 1978

Morphology General Habit
Strong, herbaceous, glabrous plant climbing by tendrils.
Morphology Stem
Stem stout, 4-angled, the angles conspicuously winged; internodes 12 cm. long or more.
Morphology Leaves
Leaf-lamina 10–20 × 8–15 cm., broadly ovate or ovate-oblong, abruptly acuminate at apex, entire-margined, rounded, subtruncate or shallowly cordate at the base, penninerved, the midrib prominent but more so beneath, the principal lateral nerves 10–12 on each side, prominent beneath; petiole 2–5 cm. long, stout, canaliculate above, with 3 pairs of nearly sessile glands; stipules 2–3·5 × 1–2 cm., ovate or ovate-lanceolate, acute at the apex, entire or slightly serrulate at the margin, narrowed at base, thinly membranous.
Morphology General Tendrils
Tendrils stout.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Peduncles
Peduncle 1·5–3 cm. long, 3-angled.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Bracts
Bracts 3–5·5 × 1·5–4 cm., cordate-ovate, acute, entire or serrulate towards the base, thin-membranous.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers solitary, 7·5–12·5 cm. in diam.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx-tube campanulate; sepals 3–4 × 1·5–2·5 cm., ovate or ovate-oblong, concave, greenish or greenish-red outside, white, violet or pinkish inside.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Petals 3–4·5 × 1–2 cm., oblong-ovate to oblong-lanceolate, obtuse, white or deeply pink-tinged.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corona
Corona in 5 rows, the 2 outer ones consisting of filaments as long as or exceeding the sepals, terete, radiate, banded with reddish-purple and white at base, blue at middle, densely mottled with pinkish-blue in the upper 1/2, the third row tubercular, the tubercles deep reddish-purple, the fourth row filamentose, the filaments 1–1·5 mm. long, banded with reddish-purple and white, the fifth row 3–7 mm. long, membranous, unequally lacerate.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Operculum
Operculum 4–6 mm. long, membranous, denticulate, white, reddish-purple at the margin.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Limen
Limen annular, fleshy.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Ovary
Ovary ovoid.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruit 20–30 × 12–15 cm., oblong-ovoid, cylindrical or longitudinally 3-grooved.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds 7–10 × 5–8·5 mm., broadly obcordate or suborbicular, flattened, reticulate at the centre of each face, striate at the margin.

[UPB]

The Useful Plants of Boyacá project

Ecology
Alt. 0 - 1200 m.
Morphology General Habit
Climbing plant. Creeper.
Conservation
Least concern.
Distribution
Native and cultivated in Colombia.

[UPFC]
Distribution
Biogeografic region: Amazonia, Andean, Guiana Shield, Pacific. Elevation range: 0–1200 m a.s.l. Cultivated in Colombia. Native to Colombia. Colombian departments: Amazonas, Antioquia, Boyacá, Caquetá, Cauca, Chocó, Córdoba, Cundinamarca, Guainía, Huila, Magdalena, Meta, Norte de Santander, Quindío, Santander, Valle del Cauca, Vaupés.
Habit
Climbing.
Ecology
Habitat according IUCN Habitats Classification: forest and woodland, savanna, shrubland, native grassland, wetlands (inland), artificial - terrestrial.
Vernacular
Badea, Badea, Granadilla, Granadilla real, Maracuyá

[UPB]
Use Food
Infructescences - Edible fruit (Romero Castañeda 1961).
Use Medicines Unspecified Medicinal Disorders
Medicinal (State of the World's Plants 2016, Instituto Humboldt 2014).

[UPFC]
Use Environmental
Environmental uses.
Use Gene Sources
Used as gene sources.
Use Food
Used for food.
Use Materials
Used as material.
Use Medicines
Medical uses.
Use Poisons
Poisons.

Native to:

Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, Colombia

Introduced into:

Bahamas, Bangladesh, Bolivia, Cameroon, Caroline Is., China Southeast, Comoros, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Gabon, Galápagos, Guatemala, Guinea-Bissau, Gulf of Guinea Is., Hainan, Haiti, Hawaii, Honduras, Jamaica, Kenya, Leeward Is., Malaya, Mauritius, Mexico Southwest, Mozambique, Puerto Rico, Queensland, Réunion, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Tanzania, Tonga, Trinidad-Tobago, Tuamotu, Tubuai Is., Uganda, Venezuela, Vietnam, Windward Is.

English
The Giant Granadilla
Spanish
Badea, corvejo, granadillo grande, maracuyá, granadilla real, granadilla.

Passiflora quadrangularis L. appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status Has image?
22032.000 No
22216.000 No
Spruce, R. [s.n.], Peru K000036546 Unknown type material Yes
Peru K000643868 Yes

First published in Syst. Nat. ed. 10, 2: 1248 (1759)

Accepted by

  • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies. Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
  • Baksh-Comeau, Y., Maharaj, S.S., Adams, C.D., Harris, S.A., Filer, D.L. & Hawthorne, W.D. (2016). An annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Trinidad and Tobago with analysis of vegetation types and botanical 'hotspots'. Phytotaxa 250: 1-431.
  • Barthelat, F. (2019). La flore illustrée de Mayotte: 1-687. Biotope éditions.
  • Bernal, R., Gradstein, R.S. & Celis, M. (eds.) (2016). Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia 1-2: 1-3068. Libro impreso.
  • Bosser, J. & al. (eds.) (1990). Flore des Mascareignes 90-106: 1. IRD Éditions, MSIRI, RBG-Kew, Paris.
  • Catarino, L., Sampaio Martins, E., Pinto-Basto, M.F. & Diniz, M.A. (2006). Plantas Vasculares e Briófitos da Guiné-Bissau: 1-298. Instituto de investigação científica tropical, Instituto Português de apoio ao desenvolvimento.
  • Dassanayake (ed.) (1996). A Revised Handbook to the Flora of Ceylon 10: 1-426. Oxford & IBH Publishing Co. PVT. LTD., New Delhi, Calcutta.
  • Edwards, S., Tadesse, M. & Hedberg, I. (eds.) (1995). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 2(2): 1-456. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
  • Estrada Chavarría, A. (2009). Flores de pasión de Costa Rica: historia natural e identificación: 1-448. Instituto Nacional de Biodiversidad, Costa Rica.
  • Figueiredo, E., Paiva, J., Stévart, T., Oliveira, F. & Smith, G.F. (2011). Annotated catalogue of the flowering plants of São Tomé and Príncipe. Bothalia, A Journal of Botanical Research 41: 41-82.
  • Fosberg, F.R., Sachet, M.-H., Oliver, R. (1979). A geographical checklist of the Micronesian Dicotyledonae. Micronesica; Journal of the College of Guam 15: 41-295.
  • Garcia-Mendoza, A.J. & Meave, J.A. (eds.) (2012). Diversidad florística de Oaxaca: de musgos a angiospermas (colecciones y listas de especies), ed. 2: 1-351. Instituto de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México.
  • Hallé, N. (1983). Végétation de l'île Rurutu et additions au catalogue de la flore des îles Australes. Bulletin du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle. Section B, Adansonia 5(2): 141-150.
  • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
  • Idárraga-Piedrahita, A., Ortiz, R.D.C., Callejas Posada, R. & Merello, M. (eds.) (2011). Flora de Antioquia: Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares 2: 1-939. Universidad de Antioquia, Medellín.
  • Jørgensen, P.M., Nee, M.H. & Beck., S.G. (eds.) (2013). Catálogo de las plantas vasculares de Bolivia. Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 127: 1-1741. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • Launert, E. (ed.) (1978). Flora Zambesiaca 4: 1-658. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Lê, T.C. (2003). Danh lục các loài thực vật Việt Nam 2: 1-1203. Hà Nội : Nhà xuất bản Nông nghiệp.
  • Mostaph, M.K. & Uddin, S.B. (2013). Dictionary of plant names of Bangladesh, Vasc. Pl.: 1-434. Janokalyan Prokashani, Chittagong, Bangladesh.
  • Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008). Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas: 1-1576. SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.
  • Onana, J.M. (2011). The vascular plants of Cameroon a taxonomic checklist with IUCN assessments: 1-195. National herbarium of Cameroon, Yaoundé.
  • St. John, H. (1988). Census of the Flora of the Gambier islands, Polynesia. Pacific Plant Studies 43: 1-34.
  • Wagner, W.L., Herbst, D.R. & Sohmer, S.H. (1999). Manual of the Flowering Plants of Hawai'i, rev. ed., 2: 989-1918. University of Hawai'i Press, Bishop Museum Press.
  • Wu, Z., Raven, P.H. & Hong, D. (eds.) (2007). Flora of China 13: 1-548. Science Press (Beijing) & Missouri Botanical Garden Press (St. Louis).
  • de Wilde, W.J.J.O. (1975). Flora of Tropical East Africa, Passifloraceae: 1-70.
  • van der Burg, W.J. (2014). Passifloraceae. Flore du Gabon 46: 54-94. Muséum National D'Histoire Naturelle, Paris.

Literature

Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia

  • Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

Useful Plants of Boyacá Project

  • Instituto de Investigación de Recursos Biológicos Alexander von Humbodlt (2014). Plantas alimenticias y medicinales nativas de Colombia. 2567 registros, aportados por: Castellanos, C. (Contacto del recurso), Valderrama, N. (Creador del recurso, Autor), Castro, C. (Proveedor de metadatos), Bernal, Y. (Autor), García, N. (Autor). Versión 11.0. http://i2d.humboldt.org.co/ceiba/resource.do?r=ls_colombia_magnoliophyta_2014
  • Kew Medicinal Plant Names Services (MPNS) https://www.kew.org/science/data-and-resources/tools-and-services/medicinal-plant-names-services in The State of the World’s Plants Report–2016. (2016). Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew https://stateoftheworldsplants.or
  • Romero Castañeda, R. (1961). Plantas útiles de Colombia. Volumen I. San Juan Eudes, Bogotá.

Kew Backbone Distributions

  • (1982). Flora of Australia 8: 1-420. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
  • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies. Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
  • Baksh-Comeau, Y., Maharaj, S.S., Adams, C.D., Harris, S.A., Filer, D.L. & Hawthorne, W.D. (2016). An annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Trinidad and Tobago with analysis of vegetation types and botanical 'hotspots'. Phytotaxa 250: 1-431.
  • Barthelat, F. (2019). La flore illustrée de Mayotte: 1-687. Biotope éditions.
  • Bosser, J. & al. (eds.) (1990). Flore des Mascareignes 90-106: 1. IRD Éditions, MSIRI, RBG-Kew, Paris.
  • Catarino, L., Sampaio Martins, E., Pinto-Basto, M.F. & Diniz, M.A. (2006). Plantas Vasculares e Briófitos da Guiné-Bissau: 1-298. Instituto de investigação científica tropical, Instituto Português de apoio ao desenvolvimento.
  • Chen, W.C. & al. (2022). https://doi.org/10.11646/phytotaxa.538.1.7. epublication.
  • Dassanayake (ed.) (1996). A Revised Handbook to the Flora of Ceylon 10: 1-426. Oxford & IBH Publishing Co. PVT. LTD., New Delhi, Calcutta.
  • Estrada Chavarría, A. (2009). Flores de pasión de Costa Rica: historia natural e identificación: 1-448. Instituto Nacional de Biodiversidad, Costa Rica.
  • Figueiredo, E., Paiva, J., Stévart, T., Oliveira, F. & Smith, G.F. (2011). Annotated catalogue of the flowering plants of São Tomé and Príncipe. Bothalia, A Journal of Botanical Research 41: 41-82.
  • Forzza, R.C., Zappi, D. & Souza, V.C. (2016-continuously updated). Flora do Brasil 2020 em construção http://reflora.jbrj.gov.br/reflora/listaBrasil/ConsultaPublicaUC/ResultadoDaConsultaNovaConsulta.do.
  • Fosberg, F.R., Sachet, M.-H., Oliver, R. (1979). A geographical checklist of the Micronesian Dicotyledonae. Micronesica; Journal of the College of Guam 15: 41-295.
  • GBIF (2008-2020). Global Biodiversity Information Facility http://www.gbif.org/.
  • Garcia-Mendoza, A.J. & Meave, J.A. (eds.) (2012). Diversidad florística de Oaxaca: de musgos a angiospermas (colecciones y listas de especies), ed. 2: 1-351. Instituto de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México.
  • Hallé, N. (1983). Végétation de l'île Rurutu et additions au catalogue de la flore des îles Australes. Bulletin du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle. Section B, Adansonia 5(2): 141-150.
  • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
  • Idárraga-Piedrahita, A., Ortiz, R.D.C., Callejas Posada, R. & Merello, M. (eds.) (2011). Flora de Antioquia: Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares 2: 1-939. Universidad de Antioquia, Medellín.
  • Jaramillo Díaz, P. & Guézou, A. (2017). CDF Checklist of Galapagos Vascular Plants - FCD Lista de especies de Plantas Vasculares de Galápagos http://www.darwinfoundation.org/datazone/checklists/vascular-plants/.
  • Jørgensen, P.M., Nee, M.H. & Beck., S.G. (eds.) (2013). Catálogo de las plantas vasculares de Bolivia. Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 127: 1-1741. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • Launert, E. (ed.) (1978). Flora Zambesiaca 4: 1-658. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Lê, T.C. (2003). Danh lục các loài thực vật Việt Nam 2: 1-1203. Hà Nội : Nhà xuất bản Nông nghiệp.
  • Mostaph, M.K. & Uddin, S.B. (2013). Dictionary of plant names of Bangladesh, Vasc. Pl.: 1-434. Janokalyan Prokashani, Chittagong, Bangladesh.
  • Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008). Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas: 1-1576. SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.
  • Onana, J.M. (2011). The vascular plants of Cameroon a taxonomic checklist with IUCN assessments: 1-195. National herbarium of Cameroon, Yaoundé.
  • St. John, H. (1988). Census of the Flora of the Gambier islands, Polynesia. Pacific Plant Studies 43: 1-34.
  • Wagner, W.L., Herbst, D.R. & Sohmer, S.H. (1999). Manual of the Flowering Plants of Hawai'i, rev. ed., 2: 989-1918. University of Hawai'i Press, Bishop Museum Press.
  • Wu, Z., Raven, P.H. & Hong, D. (eds.) (2007). Flora of China 13: 1-548. Science Press (Beijing) & Missouri Botanical Garden Press (St. Louis).
  • Yuncker, T.G. (1959). Plants of Tonga. Bernice P. Bishop Museum Bulletin 220: 1-283.
  • de Wilde, W.J.J.O. (1975). Flora of Tropical East Africa, Passifloraceae: 1-70.
  • van der Burg, W.J. (2014). Passifloraceae. Flore du Gabon 46: 54-94. Muséum National D'Histoire Naturelle, Paris.

Flora of Tropical East Africa

  • Killip in Field Mus. Nat. Hist. Chicago, Bot. 19 : 335 (1938).
  • L., Syst. Nat., ed. 10 : 1248 (1759).

Useful Plants and Fungi of Colombia

  • Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R., & Celis, M. (eds.). (2020). Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia. v1.1. Universidad Nacional de Colombia. Dataset/Checklist. https://doi.org/10.15472/7avdhn
  • Burkill HM. (1995). The useful plants of west tropical Africa, Vols. 1-3. The useful plants of west tropical Africa, Vols 1-3.
  • Cámara-Leret, R., & Dennehy, Z. (2019). Information gaps in indigenous and local knowledge for science-policy assessments. Nature Sustainability 2:736-741.
  • Diazgranados et al. (2021). Catalogue of plants of Colombia. Useful Plants and Fungi of Colombia project. In prep.
  • Diazgranados, M., Allkin, B., Black N., Cámara-Leret, R., Canteiro C., Carretero J., Eastwood R., Hargreaves S., Hudson A., Milliken W., Nesbitt, M., Ondo, I., Patmore, K., Pironon, S., Turner, R., Ulian, T. (2020). World Checklist of Useful Plant Species. Produced by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Knowledge Network for Biocomplexity.
  • FPI (2021). Food Plants International. https://fms.cmsvr.com/fmi/webd/Food_Plants_World?homeurl=https://foodplantsinternational.com/plants/
  • GBIF.org (2021). GBIF species matching tool. https://www.gbif.org/tools/species-lookup
  • GRIN (2021). Germplasm Resources Information Network from the United States Department of Agriculture. https://www.ars-grin.gov/
  • García Castro, N. J. (2011). Plantas nativas empleadas en alimentación en Colombia. Instituo de Investigaciones Biológicas Alexander von Humboldt. http://repository.humboldt.org.co/handle/20.500.11761/31275
  • Instituto de Investigación de Recursos Biológicos Alexander von Humbodlt (2014). Plantas alimenticias y medicinales nativas de Colombia. 2567 registros, aportados por: Castellanos, C. (Contacto del recurso), Valderrama, N. (Creador del recurso, Autor), Bernal, Y. (Autor), García, N. (Autor). http://i2d.humboldt.org.co/ceiba/resource.do?r=ls_colombia_magnoliophyta_2014
  • Medicinal Plant Names Services (MPNS) v.10 (2021); http://mpns.kew.org/
  • PROTA (2021). Plants Resources of Tropical Africa. https://prota4u.org/database/
  • Plants for malaria, plants for fever: Medicinal species in Latin America, a bibliographic survey: Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Willis, K.J. (ed.) (2017). State of the World’s Plants 2017. Report. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

  • Art and Illustrations in Digifolia

    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew

  • Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia

    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • Colombian resources for Plants made Accessible

    ColPlantA 2021. Published on the Internet at http://colplanta.org
    https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

  • Flora Zambesiaca

    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • Flora of Tropical East Africa

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • Herbarium Catalogue Specimens

    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

  • Kew Backbone Distributions

    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2022. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

  • Kew Living Collection Database

    Common Names from Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew Living Collection https://www.kew.org/

  • Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone

    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2022. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

  • Kew Science Photographs

    Copyright applied to individual images

  • Universidad Nacional de Colombia

    ColPlantA database
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • Useful Plants and Fungi of Colombia

    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • Useful Plants of Boyacá Project

    ColPlantA database
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/