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This species is accepted, and its native range is Tropical & S. Africa, Madagascar, SW. Arabian Peninsula.
Pittosporum viridiflorum

[FZ]

Pittosporaceae, G. Cufodontis. Flora Zambesiaca 1:1. 1960

Morphology General Habit
Tree up to 10 m. high or large shrub.
Morphology Leaves
Adult leaves glabrous or faintly appressed-pubescent on petiole and midrib, very variable in size and shape, with lamina (including petiole) up to 11 x 4 cm., usually obovate to broadly oblanceolate, rounded or shortly acuminate, length-breadth ratio usually less than 3: 1, rarely narrower and longer acuminate, in age usually glaucescent and ± tessellate above, rarely smoother, dull or somewhat glossy; midrib flat or slightly impressed; nerves generally thin, flat, rarely prominulous beneath, merging into the reticulation, often somewhat conspicuous above; reticulation dense, uniform.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescences rather dense, rarely reduced, with (in our area always) ± pubescent branches.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Sepals free and up to 1.5 mm. long or rarely longer and variously connate.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Petals usually greenish-white.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Capsules (in our area probably always) 4-seeded; valves of the ripe capsule plano-convex or dorsally gibbous, spreading or bent slightly upwards.

[FTEA]

Pittosporaceae, G. Cufodontis (University of Vienna). Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1966

Morphology General Habit
Shrub or tree up to 20 m. high; bole up to 50 cm. in diameter; bark of bole and older twigs pale to dark grey, greyish-brown to brown or rarely blackish, smooth, occasionally peeling off like paper.
Morphology Leaves
Leaves mostly crowded at ends of branches, with blade spathulate, obovate or broadly oblanceolate, together with petiole up to 14.5 cm. long, 4.5 cm. broad (average ± 9.5 × 3 cm.), rounded, rarely subtruncate, mostly ± acuminate with blunt tip, narrowed into the up to 20 mm. long petiole, often glaucous-green, paler beneath, quite glabrous or somewhat pubescent on midrib and petiole when young, later ± glabrescent; midrib flat or slightly impressed above, prominent beneath; lateral nerves up to 8 on either side, fine but often somewhat prominent above, merging into the dense uniform reticulation, which is persistently visible and areolate or tessellate above, dark coloured beneath, but usually soon turning pale.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescences terminal short racemose or subumbellate panicles, up to 6 cm. long and broad; branches glabrous to shortly hairy; bracts subulate, up to 3 mm. long, puberulous, caducous.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers with strong sweet scent like lemons or Jasminum, variously white, cream, greenish, yellowish or rarely golden green, on 3–6–10 mm. long glabrous, puberulous or shortly hairy pedicels.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx l–3(–6) mm. long, glabrous or somewhat puberulous; sepals either free and not imbricate, bluntly ovate-lanceolate, ± 1 mm. broad, or connate into a 1–4.5 mm. long tube (often split down one side) and with irregular lobes.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Petals (4.5–)5.5–7–9 mm. long and in upper half 1.5–2–2.5 mm. broad, mostly erect with spreading tips.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Fertile stamens 4–4.8–6 mm. long with 1.2–1.8–2.2 mm. long anthers; sterile stamens 2.6–5.5 mm. long with anthers not exceeding 1 mm. in length.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Pistil
Gynoecium 4–5 mm. long if fertile, 4.5–6.5mm. long if sterile, usually glabrous.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Capsules 4–8-seeded; valves of ripe capsule up to 10 mm. in diameter, sometimes longer than broad, plano-convex or dorsally gibbous, spreading or bent slightly upwards.

[FSOM]

M. Thulin et al. Flora of Somalia, Vol. 1-4 [updated 2008] https://plants.jstor.org/collection/FLOS

Morphology General Habit
Shrub or tree to c. 15 m tall; bark dark grey, smooth
Morphology Branches
Young branches sometimes rusty pubescent
Morphology Leaves
Leaves crowded; petiole 8–20 mm long; blade spathulate, obovate, ovate or lanceolate, often not very well defined from the petiole, 4–15 x 1.5–7 cm, glabrous on the upper surface, usually paler, glabrous or with a pale or ± rusty, cobbwebby indumentum on the lower surface, apex rounded, subtruncate or ± acuminate, margin entire, base cuneate
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescences up to 8 cm long and broad, glabrous to puberulous, rarely tomentose, sometimes with small inflorescences in the upper leaf axils; pedicels 4–10 mm long
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Sepals 2–5 mm long, ± free or connate into a tube (which may split along one side) and then with irregular calyx-lobes or teeth
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Petals 5–8 x 1.5–2.5 mm, erect or spreading
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Fertile stamens 4–6 mm long, sterile stamens 3–5 mm long
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Ovary
Ovary and style 4–5 mm long if fertile, 5–7 mm long and slender if sterile
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Capsule valves usually thin, occasionally somewhat thickened in the middle, leathery, 6–8 mm in diam.
Distribution
N1, 2; widespread throughout the mountains of tropical Africa, also in tropical Arabia.
Ecology
Altitude c. 1800 m.
Note
This species is very polymorphic, especially outside the Flora area. Cufodontis, who treated the family for most African floras, has proposed a wide range of species, subspecies and varieties to accommodate this variation. Friis (loc. cit.) has found that these taxa are extremely difficult to define because of the many intermediate specimens. A more informal classification has therefore been proposed, accounting only for the most characteristic forms. In the Flora area only the form “ viridiflorum ” occurs, with ovate to obovate, glabrous leaf-blades; this form is found typically in comparatively dry forest areas.

[FTEA]

Pittosporaceae, G. Cufodontis (University of Vienna). Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1966

Morphology General Habit
Shrub or small tree, 3–13 m. high; bole up to 15 cm. in diameter.
Morphology Branches
Young branches hispidulous-pubescent.
Morphology Leaves
Leaves not crowded at ends of branches, with blade broadly lanceolate to obovate, together with petiole 7–11.5–15 cm. long, 2–3–4.5 cm. broad, ± acuminate, bluntish, tapering to an up to 15 mm. long petiole, dull green above, paler beneath, ± hispidulous-pubescent later glabrescent; midrib rather deeply impressed above, prominent beneath; lateral nerves up to 12 on either side, unequal, prominulous, ± interconnected; reticulation dense, uniform, dark coloured beneath and colour disappearing only at a very late stage.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescences terminal slender racemose panicles; all branches spreading ferrugineous pubescent; bracts minute, subulate, pubescent, early caducous.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers sweet-scented like Jasminum or Narcissus, white, cream, yellowish or greenish, on 3–5–8 mm. long densely ferrugineous pubescent pedicels.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx 3–3.3–4 mm. long, connate for 2–2.5–3 mm., enveloping the buds, early split down one side; lobes short, blunt, ciliolate.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Petals linear, 5–6.5–8 mm. long, 1.5–1.75– 2 mm. broad, usually strongly reflexed.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Fertile stamens 4–5.6–7 mm. long with 1.5–1.8–2 mm. long anthers; sterile stamens 3 mm. long with 0.75 mm. long anthers.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Pistil
Fertile gynoecium with short stipe and style 3.5 mm. long, scanty puberulous; sterile gynoecium 3–5–7 mm. long.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Capsules (?4–)6–8-seeded; valves of ripe capsule up to 10 mm. in diameter, uniformly thin, dorsally flat-convex to weakly gibbous, finally spreading or somewhat reflexed.
Figures
Fig. 1/7, p. 6.
Habitat
Upland rain-forest, particularly margins and near rock-outcrops, riverine forest and upland evergreen bushland; 1200–2400 m.
Distribution
eastern Congo K3 T1 T4 U2

[FWTA]

Pittosporaceae, G. Cufodontis. Flora of West Tropical Africa 1:1. 1954

Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Corolla yellowish-white
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds scarlet.
Morphology General Habit
A tree or large shrub, up to 30 ft. high

[FTEA]

Pittosporaceae, G. Cufodontis (University of Vienna). Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1966

Morphology General Habit
Shrub or tree, 2–5.5–12 m. high; bole up to 40 cm. in diameter, with rough grey bark.
Morphology Leaves
Leaves mostly crowded at ends of flowering branches, with blade obovate, broadly oblanceolate or spathulate, together with petiole up to 17.5 cm. long and 4 cm. broad (average 12.5 × 3.7 cm.), always ± acuminate but usually with bluntish tip, tapering into the up to 20 mm. long petiole, ± deep green and sometimes glossy above, paler and often yellowish-green beneath, quite glabrous or very rarely somewhat puberulous on the lower parts when young; midrib considerably impressed in a ± deep groove above and often almost hidden, prominent beneath; lateral nerves up to 8 on either side, interconnected by loops; reticulation lax, not uniform, looser along the midrib, forming a ± distinct areolation above, dark coloured later turning pale and prominulous like the nerves beneath.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescences terminal racemose panicles, mostly many-flowered, often with additional subumbellate axillary branches at the base; axes all ± pubescent; bracts minute, subulate, pubescent, early caducous.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers strongly and agreeably sweet-scented, white, cream, yellowish or greenish, on 3–10 mm. long pubescent pedicels.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Sepals lanceolate or linear-lanceolate, free, not imbricate and deciduous or slightly connate and persistent, 1–3 mm. long and up to 1 mm. broad, mostly puberulous or ciliolate.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Petals sublinear, 3.5–7 mm. long and 1.5–2 mm. broad, erect or recurved.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Fertile stamens 3–6.5 mm. long with 1–2.5 mm. long anthers; sterile stamens 3–4 mm. long with ± 0.75 mm. long anthers.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Pistil
Gynoecium 3–5 mm. long if fertile, 3.5–5.5 mm. long if sterile, with ovary sometimes slightly puberulous.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Capsules never maturing more than 4 seeds; valves of ripe capsule thin, dorsally concave and darker, finally ± reflexed.

[FZ]

Pittosporaceae, G. Cufodontis. Flora Zambesiaca 1:1. 1960

Morphology General Habit
Small tree up to 7 (12) m. tall or a shrub.
Morphology Leaves
Adult leaves glabrous, very variable in size but usually broad, up to 15 x 5 cm. including petioles, oblong-lanceolate to broadly oblanceolate, ± acuminate, length-breadth ratio mostly more than 3 : 1, fairly dark green and dull, rarely somewhat glossy above, paler and finally often yellowish-green beneath; midrib considerably impressed, often almost hidden in a deep furrow above; nerves arcuate, always ± prominent beneath, anastomosing, reticulation lax, not uniform, usually laxer along the midrib, ± impressed above but never clearly tessellate.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescences well developed, many-flowered, always pubescent.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Sepals up to 2 x 1 mm., free or nearly so or distinctly connate, not imbricate, ciliolate.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Petals mostly creamy white, up to 7 x 1.5 mm. (not more than 5 mm. long in subsp. mannii).
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Capsule always 4-seeded, valves shallowly concave dorsally, spreading or often finally ± reflexed.

[FZ]

Pittosporaceae, G. Cufodontis. Flora Zambesiaca 1:1. 1960

Morphology General Habit
Small tree up to 4 m. high or shrub.
Morphology Leaves
Leaves up to 15.5 x 4.5 cm. (including petioles), length-breadth ratio 2.5: 1, chartaceous, at first bright green on both sides, later a little darker above, with weak, persistent, spreading hairs on the petiole, midrib and sometimes also on the margin, broadly obovate-oblanceolate, usually shortly but acutely acuminate and often remarkably apiculate by the prolongation of the midrib; midrib ± flat above, prominent beneath, veins very delicate on both sides, reticulation delicate, dense, ± uniform, pellucid, visible on both surfaces for a long time owing to its colouration.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescences small, few-flowered, terminal and axillary, racemose-paniculate, with persistent, crisped pubescence on branches and pedicels.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Sepals free, 2.5 x 1 mm., lanceolate, ciliolate.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Petals creamy-yellowish, up to 7 x 1.5 mm., sublinear, ciliolate.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Capsule up to 7 x 7 mm., shortly stipitate with valves thickish, convex-gibbous, suborbicular, spreading.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds 8, 4 on each placenta.

[FTEA]

Pittosporaceae, G. Cufodontis (University of Vienna). Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1966

Morphology General Habit
Tree 6–18 m. high, with trunk up to 45 cm. in diameter and often rather stout in proportion to height; bark reddish or brown, fissured.
Morphology Leaves
Leaves clustered at apices of flowering branches, with blade broadly lanceolate to elliptic, together with petiole 9.5–10–12.5 cm. long and 3.5–4 cm. broad, rounded, blunt or shortly and bluntly acuminate, ± long-cuneate into the up to 15 mm. long petiole, dull green, much paler beneath, quite glabrous from inception; midrib rather deeply impressed above, markedly prominent beneath; lateral nerves up to 11 on either side, very thin, irregularly interconnected; reticulation dense, uniform, delicately areolate above, clearly visible by dark persistent colour beneath.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescences terminal racemose panicles, with subverticillate branches, up to 5 cm. long, sometimes with subumbellate accessory branches at the base, ± densely clothed overall by rusty or coppery, somewhat shiny, spreading pubescence; bracts lanceolate, up to 2 mm. long and 1 mm. broad, glabrous except the ciliolate edges, caducous.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers strongly and sweetly scented, whitish, cream or yellowish, on 4–5.5–8 mm. long pubescent pedicels.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Sepals ovate, ± 2 mm. long and 1 mm. broad, rounded, connate sometimes up to the middle, quite glabrous, deciduous all together.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Petals distinctly spathulate, 5–6–7 mm. long, 1.5–2–2.5 mm. broad, strongly recurved from the middle.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Fertile stamens 4.5–5.5–7 mm. long with ± 1.75 mm. long anthers; sterile stamens unknown.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Pistil
Gynoecium 4–5.5 mm. long if sterile (fertile unknown), nearly glabrous.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Capsule more than 4-seeded; valves of ripe capsule up to 8 mm. in diameter, thickish, almost flat on both sides, spreading horizontally.
Figures
Fig. 1/8, p. 6.
Habitat
Upland rain-forest and bamboo thicket, also regenerating bushland; 1830–2400 m.
Distribution
not known elsewhere T7

[FZ]

Pittosporaceae, G. Cufodontis. Flora Zambesiaca 1:1. 1960

Morphology General Habit
Tree up to 7 m. high, with trunk 10 cm. in diam.
Morphology Leaves
Leaves not crowded at the ends of the branches, subcoriaceous, dull and intense green above, paler and glaucescent beneath, with persistent spreading hairs on petiole and midrib; lamina up to 14.5 x 4.5 cm., length-breadth ratio about 3: 1, oblong-lanceolate, broadest at about the middle, cuneate at the base, shortly acuminate with blunt tips; midrib narrow and scarcely impressed above, prominent beneath; nerves thin, hardly prominulous beneath, almost invisible above; reticulation thin and soon scarcely visible beneath, forming a regular, dense and minute tessellation above; petiole 10–15 mm. long.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescences always terminal, small, racemose-paniculate, with few- (often 1–) flowered branches and a persistent, crisped-villous pubescence; bracts 5 mm. long, subulate, soon caducous.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Sepals 4 x 1.5 mm., free, lanceolate, bluntish, puberulous.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Petals at first greenish, later greenish-white, 8 x 2 mm., suberect, sublinear, somewhat broader in the lower half.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium
Filaments 1 mm. broad at the base, subulate towards the apex, 4 mm. long, sterile anthers 2 mm. long.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Ovary
Fertile ovary 3.5 mm. long, glabrous, on a short, thick, pubescent stipe.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Style
Style 2 mm. long with a bilobed stigma, glabrous.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Capsule (immature) dark green, with the valves granular outside and greenish inside and with 8 greenish ovules, 4 on each placenta, with scanty resin at this stage.

Native to:

Angola, Burundi, Cameroon, Cape Provinces, Central African Repu, Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Free State, Gabon, Guinea, Gulf of Guinea Is., Ivory Coast, Kenya, KwaZulu-Natal, Lesotho, Madagascar, Malawi, Mozambique, Niger, Nigeria, Northern Provinces, Rwanda, Saudi Arabia, Socotra, Somalia, Sudan, Swaziland, Tanzania, Uganda, Yemen, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

Introduced into:

Ascension, Hawaii, St.Helena

Pittosporum viridiflorum Sims appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
Oct 1, 2008 Cheek, M. [13611], Cameroon K000580207
Jan 1, 2004 Pollard, B.J. [1046], Cameroon 77176.000
Jan 1, 1951 Wilms, F. [213], South Africa K000231599 Unknown type material
Wild, H. [1184], Zimbabwe 21818.000
Chapman, J.D. [8025], Malawi K000315342
Scheepers, J.C. [511], South Africa K000315343
Timberlake, J. [s.n.], Mozambique K000614498
Timberlake, J. [5010], Mozambique K000613389
Mphamba [103], Mozambique K000614311
Jan 1, 1963 Boughey, A.S. [10629], Cameroon Pittosporum mannii K000106254
Jan 1, 1960 Brenan, J.P.M. [9572], Cameroon Pittosporum mannii K000106265
Jan 1, 1960 Brenan, J.P.M. [9398a], Cameroon Pittosporum mannii K000106240
Mann [640], Niger Pittosporum mannii K000231621
Jan 1, 1950 Milne [1148], Zambia Pittosporum rhodesicum K000231611 Unknown type material
Jan 1, 1960 Gillett, J.B. [14306], Ethiopia Pittosporum ustulatum K000231618
Jan 1, 1960 Lynes, H. [V.75], Tanzania Pittosporum lynesii K000231614
Jan 1, 1958 Fanshawe, D.B. [F.3443], Zambia Pittosporum kapiriense K000231609 holotype
Jan 1, 1958 Fanshawe, D.B. [F.3443], Zambia Pittosporum kapiriense K000231610 holotype
Jan 1, 1950 Gillett, J.B. [5389], Ethiopia Pittosporum feddeanum K000231619 Unknown type material
Dalziel, J.M. [417], Nigeria Pittosporum dalzielii K000231620

First published in Bot. Mag. 41: t. 1684 (1814)

Accepted by

  • Audru, J., Cesar, J. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1994). Les Plantes Vasculaires de la République de Djibouti. Flore Illustrée 1: 1-336. CIRAD, Départerment d'Elevage et de Médecine vétérinaire, Djibouti.
  • Collenette, S. (1999). Wildflowers of Saudi Arabia: 1-799. National commission for wildlife conservation and development (NCWCD), Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
  • Cufodontis, G. (1966). Flora of Tropical East Africa, Pittosporaceae: 1-13.
  • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Evenhuis, N.L. & Eldredge, L.G. (eds.) (2012). Records of the Hawaii biological survey for 2011. Part II: plants Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 113: 1-102.
  • Exell, A.W. & Wild, H. (eds.) (1960). Flora Zambesiaca 1(1): 1-336. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Fairhurst, W. (2004). Flowering Plants of Ascension island: 1-300. Higham Press, Shirland, Alfreton, England.
  • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Fischer, E., Rembold, K., Althof, A. & Obholzer, J. (2010). Annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Kakamega forest, Western province, Kenya Journal of East African Natural History 99: 129-226.
  • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa an annotated checklist Strelitzia 14: 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Hedberg, I. & Edwards, S. (eds.) (1989 publ. 1990). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 3: 1-659. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
  • Kalema, J. & Beentje, H. (2012). Conservation checklist of the trees of Uganda: 1-235. Kew Publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Miller, A.G. & Cope, T.A. (1996). Flora of the Arabian peninsula and Socotra 1: 1-586. Edinburgh university press.
  • Miller, A.G. & Morris, M. (2004). Ethnoflora of Soqotra Archipelago: 1-759. The Royal Botanic Garden, Edinburgh.
  • Sosef, M.S.M. & al. (eds.) (2010). Flore du Gabon 41: 1-75. Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris.
  • Thulin, M. (ed.) (1993). Flora of Somalia 1: 1-493. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Timberlake, J.R., Bayliss, J., Alves, T., Francisco, J., Harris, T., Nangoma, D. & de Sousa, C. (2009). Biodiversity and Conservation of Mchese Mountain, Malawi. Report produced under the Darwin Initiative Award 15/036: 1-71. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

Literature

Kew Backbone Distributions

  • Audru, J., Cesar, J. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1994). Les Plantes Vasculaires de la République de Djibouti. Flore Illustrée 1: 1-336. CIRAD, Départerment d'Elevage et de Médecine vétérinaire, Djibouti.
  • Brown, L.C. (1982). The Flora and Fauna of St Helena: 1-88. Land Resources Development Centre, Surbiton, England.
  • Evenhuis, N.L. & Eldredge, L.G. (eds.) (2012). Records of the Hawaii biological survey for 2011. Part II: plants Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 113: 1-102.
  • Exell, A.W. & Wild, H. (eds.) (1960). Flora Zambesiaca 1(1): 1-336. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Fairhurst, W. (2004). Flowering Plants of Ascension island: 1-300. Higham Press, Shirland, Alfreton, England.
  • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Fischer, E., Rembold, K., Althof, A. & Obholzer, J. (2010). Annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Kakamega forest, Western province, Kenya Journal of East African Natural History 99: 129-226.
  • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa an annotated checklist Strelitzia 14: 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Hedberg, I. & Edwards, S. (eds.) (1989 publ. 1990). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 3: 1-659. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
  • Hutchinson, J., Dalziel, J.M. & Keay, R.W.J. (1954-1958). Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 1: 1-828.
  • Lewalle, J. (1970). Liste floristique et répartition altitudinale de la flore du Burundi occidental: 1-84. Université officielle de Bujumbura.
  • Miller, A.G. & Morris, M. (2004). Ethnoflora of Soqotra Archipelago: 1-759. The Royal Botanic Garden, Edinburgh.
  • Sosef, M.S.M. & al. (eds.) (2010). Flore du Gabon 41: 1-75. Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris.
  • Timberlake, J.R., Bayliss, J., Alves, T., Francisco, J., Harris, T., Nangoma, D. & de Sousa, C. (2009). Biodiversity and Conservation of Mchese Mountain, Malawi. Report produced under the Darwin Initiative Award 15/036: 1-71. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Troupin, G. (ed.) (1978). Flora du Rwanda 1: 1-413. Musee Royal de l'Afrique Centrale.

Flora of Somalia

  • Flora Somalia, Vol 1, (1993) Author: by I. Friis [updated by M. Thulin 2008]

Flora of Tropical East Africa

  • Cuf. in Bol. Soc. Brot., sér. 2, 34: 164 (1960).
  • Cuf. in Consp. Fl. Angol. 1: 362 (1951)
  • Cuf. in F. Fedde, Repertorium Speciorum Novarum Regni Vegetabilis 55:41 (1952)
  • Cuf. in Fl. Madag., Pittosporacées: 18, fig. 3/1–12 (1955)
  • Cuf. in Flora Zambesiaca 1: 299, t. 54A (1960)
  • Dur. & Schinz, Consp. Fl. Afr. 1 (2): 228 (1898).
  • Excell & Mendonça in Consp. Fl. Angol. 1: 87 (1937)
  • Exell in Journal of Botany 64, Suppl.: 21 (1926).
  • Hiern, Cat. Afr. Pl. Welw. 1: 41 (1896).
  • Sims in Curtis, Bot. Mag. 41, t. 1684 (1814).

Art and Illustrations in Digifolia
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew

Flora Zambesiaca
Flora Zambesiaca
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Flora of Somalia
Flora of Somalia
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Flora of Tropical East Africa
Flora of Tropical East Africa
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Flora of West Tropical Africa
Flora of West Tropical Africa
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

Kew Backbone Distributions
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Kew Science Photographs
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/