Oxygonum sinuatum (Hochst. & Steud. ex Meisn.) Dammer

This species is accepted, and its native range is Tropical & S. Africa, Arabian Peninsula.

[FZ]

Flora Zambesiaca. Vol. 9, Part 3. Polygonaceae-Myriaceae. Pope GV, Polhill RM, Martins ES. 2006.

Type
Type from Ethiopia.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Style
Styles 2 mm long, connate at the base for c. 0.5 mm; stigmas of long-styled flowers reaching only to the tip of the anthers or to slightly beyond, stigmas of short-styled flowers reaching or nearly reaching the anther bases
Ecology
Sandy roadsides, disturbed soils, sandy soils on stream banks and woodlands; 450–1600 m.
Note
This species may be confused with O. stuhlmannii and O. atriplicifolium. O sinuatum is an annual while O. stuhlmannii is a perennial herb; in O. atriplicifolium the flowers are strongly heterostylous and the pedicels are filiform and reflexed in fruit while in O. sinuatum the pedicels are stout, c. 5 mm long and ± erect or spreading in fruit.
Distribution
Mozambique Malawi Zimbabwe Botswana Caprivi Strip Zambia BOT N, BOT SE, ZAM B, ZAM N, ZAM W, ZAM C, ZAM E, ZAM S, ZIM N, ZIM W, ZIM C, ZIM E, ZIM S, MAL N, MAL C, MAL S, MOZ N, MOZ T, MOZ GI, MOZ M Widespread in tropical eastern Africa from Sudan and Ethiopia southwards to Namibia and South Africa, also in Dem. Rep. Congo and Angola. Sandy roadsides, disturbed soils, sandy soils on stream banks and woodlands; 450–1600 m.
Morphology General Habit
A diffuse, erect or decumbent annual herb. A diffuse, erect or decumbent annual herb
Morphology Stem
Stems green to reddish-brown, up to c. 1 m tall, branched, longitudinally striate, glabrous or pubescent. Stems green to reddish-brown, up to c. 1 m tall, branched, longitudinally striate, glabrous or pubescent
Morphology Leaves
Leaves petiolate, lamina 4–8 × 1–3 cm, ovate to ovate-elliptic or ovate-lanceolate to elliptic-lanceolate in outline, usually deeply incised with 1–3 rounded or acute lobes on each side, often panduriform or lyrate, narrowed to each end, midrib prominent beneath; petioles 1–2 cm long. Leaves petiolate, lamina 4–8 × 1–3 cm, ovate to ovate-elliptic or ovate-lanceolate to elliptic.lanceolate in outline, usually deeply incised with 1–3 rounded or acute lobes on each side, often panduriform or lyrate, narrowed to each end, midrib prominent beneath; petioles 1–2 cm long
Morphology Leaves Ocrea
Ocrea reddish, up to c. 5.5 mm long, truncate and fringed with setae at the apex. Ocrea reddish, up to c. 5.5 mm long, truncate and fringed with setae at the apex
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers pedicellate, 2–5 in the axil of each bract, arranged in spiciform terminal or axillary racemes up to 28–45 cm long, sometimes longer; bracts up to c. 6 mm apart, obliquely truncate, acute or acuminate with a fringe of setae at the apex; pedicels of hermaphrodite flowers stout and 4–5 mm long, pedicels of male flowers filiform and withering. Flowers pedicellate, 2–5 in the axil of each bract, arranged in spiciform terminal or axillary racemes up to 28–45 cm long, sometimes longer; bracts up to c. 6 mm apart, obliquely truncate, acute or acuminate with a fringe of setae at the apex; pedicels of hermaphrodite flowers stout and 4–5 mm long, pedicels of male flowers filiform and withering Hermaphrodite flowers slightly heterostylous; perianth white or pink, 4–5-lobed; tube 1–1.5 mm long; lobes 2.5–3(4) mm long and ovate-elliptic. Filaments 2 mm long in long-styled flowers, 1.5 mm long in short-styled flowers Male flowers not seen Hermaphrodite flowers slightly heterostylous; perianth white or pink, 4–5-lobed; tube 1–1.5 mm long; lobes 2.5–3(4) mm long and ovate-elliptic. Male flowers not seen.
sex Male
Male flowers not seen.
sex Hermaphrodite
Hermaphrodite flowers slightly heterostylous; perianth white or pink, 4–5-lobed; tube 1–1.5 mm long; lobes 2.5–3(4) mm long and ovate-elliptic. Styles 2 mm long, connate at the base for c. 0.5 mm; stigmas of long-styled flowers reaching only to the tip of the anthers or to slightly beyond, stigmas of short-styled flowers reaching or nearly reaching the anther bases. Filaments 2 mm long in long-styled flowers, 1.5 mm long in short-styled flowers.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens Filaments
Filaments 2 mm long in long-styled flowers, 1.5 mm long in short-styled flowers.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Pistil
Styles 2 mm long, connate at the base for c. 0.5 mm; stigmas of long-styled flowers reaching only to the tip of the anthers or to slightly beyond, stigmas of short-styled flowers reaching or nearly reaching the anther bases.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Nut 5–7 mm long, fusiform, trigonous, pubescent or papillose, rarely glabrous, usually erect or spreading, seldom pendulous, with 3 spreading prickles 1.5–2 mm long on the angles, centrally or sometimes just below the middle, rarely with 3 smaller prickles on the faces between the angles. Nut 5–7 mm long, fusiform, trigonous, pubescent or papillose, rarely glabrous, usually erect or spreading, seldom pendulous, with 3 spreading prickles 1.5–2 mm long on the angles, centrally or sometimes just below the middle, rarely with 3 smaller prickles on the faces between the angles.

[FTEA]

Polygonaceae, R. A. Graham. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1958

Morphology General Habit
A diffuse, decumbent or erect, weedy annual.
Morphology Stem
Stems glabrous to pubescent, green to reddish brown.
Morphology Leaves Ocrea
Ocreae reddish, up to 5.5 mm. long, truncate, usually fringed with setae, the leaf inserted in the upper half and often near the apex.
Morphology Leaves
Leaves petiolate, in outline ovate, ovate-elliptic, ovate-lanceolate or elliptic-lanceolate, but usually deeply incised with rounded or acute lobes, often panduriform or lyrate, narrowed to each end, commonly 4 × 1.5 cm., but up to 6 × 2.7 cm., usually pustular on the undersurface, otherwise glabrous or shortly pilose on the veins.
Morphology Leaves Petiole
Petioles 1–2 cm. long.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescence variably elongated, up to 28 cm. long (or more?), the stalk up to 2 mm. thick.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Bracts
Bracts up to 6 cm. apart, fringed with setae.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Pedicel
Pedicels of hermaphrodite flowers stumpy, scarcely filiform, exceeding the bracts by 0–1 (–3) mm.; those of male flowers ± filiform, withering.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers white or pink, slightly heterostylous, i.e. long-styled stigmas reaching only to the tips of the anthers or to slightly beyond, and short-styled stigmas reaching to or nearly to the anther bases (see Fig. 5/9).
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Tepal
Tepals ovate-elliptic, 2.5–3 mm. long; tube 1–1.5 mm. long.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruit fusiform, (1–) 2–4 to each bract, erect or spreading but scarcely pendulous, 5.0–6.5 mm. long when mature, pubescent or papillose, more rarely glabrous, with three spreading prickles 1.5–1.75 (–2) mm. long arising on the angles centrally or more often from just below the middle (rarely with 3 smaller, intervening prickles on the faces).
Habitat
Cultivated and other ground suited to weed growth; 0–2100 m.
Distribution
eastern Africa from Sudan southwards, K2 K3 K4 K6 K7 T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 T7 T8 U1

[FSOM]

M. Thulin et al. Flora of Somalia, Vol. 1-4 [updated 2008] https://plants.jstor.org/collection/FLOS

Morphology General Habit
Annual, erect or decumbent herb, glabrous or shortly pubescent
Morphology Leaves Stipules
Ochreae with up to c. 3 mm long setae at the margin
Morphology Leaves
Leaf-blade narrowly to broadly ovate or elliptic, usually ± deeply lobed, 2–4(–6) x 1–1.5(–2.7) cm, acute to obtuse at the apex, attenuate at the base, glabrous or shortly pubescent on veins; petiole 10–20 mm long
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescences 8–28 cm long; fruiting pedicels only slightly exceeding the bracts, erect or somewhat spreading
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers white or pink, slightly heterostylous; perianth c. 4 mm long
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruits 1–4 to each bract, erect or spreading, 5–7 mm long, pubescent, papillose or glabrous, with the spreading prickles, 1.5–2 mm long, near the middle, sometimes with 3 smaller prickles as well.
Distribution
N1; S1–3; widespread in eastern Africa from Sudan and southwards.
Ecology
Altitude range 50–1350 m.
Vernacular
Cabla dured (Somali).

Native to:

Angola, Botswana, Burundi, Caprivi Strip, Chad, Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, Niger, Rwanda, Saudi Arabia, Socotra, Somalia, Sudan, Tanzania, Uganda, Yemen, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

Introduced into:

Cape Verde, India, Mauritius

Oxygonum sinuatum (Hochst. & Steud. ex Meisn.) Dammer appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status Has image?
Jan 1, 1987 Schimper [264], Ethiopia K000244040 isotype Yes
Jan 1, 1987 Kotschy [117], Eritrea K000244042 isotype Yes
Jan 1, 1987 Kotschy [94], Eritrea K000244043 Yes
Milne-Redhead, E. [11305], Tanzania 21945.000 No
Schimper [264], Ethiopia K000244041 isotype Yes

First published in H.G.A.Engler & K.A.E.Prantl, Nat. Pflanzenfam. 3(1a): 30 (1892)

Accepted by

  • Akeroyd, J.R. (2013). Docks and Knotweeds of Britain and Ireland: 1-258. Botanical Society of Britain and Ireland.
  • Audru, J., Cesar, J. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1994). Les Plantes Vasculaires de la République de Djibouti. Flore Illustrée 1: 1-336. CIRAD, Départerment d'Elevage et de Médecine vétérinaire, Djibouti.
  • Bosser, J. & al. (eds.) (1994). Flore des Mascareignes 136-148: 1. IRD Éditions, MSIRI, RBG-Kew, Paris.
  • Boulos, L. (1999). Flora of Egypt 1: 1-419. Al Hadara Publishing, Cairo.
  • Collenette, S. (1999). Wildflowers of Saudi Arabia: 1-799. National commission for wildlife conservation and development (NCWCD), Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
  • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Dobignard, A. & Chatelain, C. (2013). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 5: 1-451. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
  • Edwards, S., Tadesse, M., Demissew, S. & Hedberg, I. (eds.) (2000). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 2(1): 1-532. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
  • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola. Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa an annotated checklist. Strelitzia 14: 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Graham, R.A. (1958). Flora of Tropical East Africa, Polygonaceae: 1-40.
  • Lewalle, J. (1970). Liste floristique et répartition altitudinale de la flore du Burundi occidental: 1-84. Université officielle de Bujumbura.
  • Miller, A.G. & Morris, M. (2004). Ethnoflora of Soqotra Archipelago: 1-759. The Royal Botanic Garden, Edinburgh.
  • Peyre de Fabregues, B. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1976). Catalogue des Plantes Vascularies du Niger: 1-433. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
  • Pope, G.V., Polhill, R.M. & Martins, E.S. (eds.) (2006). Flora Zambesiaca 9(3): 1-277. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Robyns, W. & al. (eds.) (1948-1963). Flore du Congo Belge et du Ruanda-Urundi 1-10.
  • Thulin, M. (ed.) (1993). Flora of Somalia 1: 1-493. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Wood, J.R.I. (1997). A handbook of the Yemen Flora: 1-434. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

Literature

Flora Zambesiaca

  • Banda & Morris, Common Weeds Malawi: 112, fig. (1986). TAB. 8, fig. A.
  • Bull. Jard. Bot. État 17: 163 (1944)
  • Burtt Davy, Fl. Pl. Ferns Transvaal, part 1: 167 (1926).
  • Engler, Pflanzenw. Ost-Afrikas C: 170 (1895).
  • F.C.B. 1: 406, t. 39 (1948).
  • F.T.E.A., Polygonaceae: 34 (1958).
  • Kew Bull. 12: 159 (1957)
  • Prodr. Fl. SW. Afrika, fam. 23: 4 (1969).

Kew Backbone Distributions

  • (2019). https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/23818107.2019.1652848. epublication.
  • Audru, J., Cesar, J. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1994). Les Plantes Vasculaires de la République de Djibouti. Flore Illustrée 1: 1-336. CIRAD, Départerment d'Elevage et de Médecine vétérinaire, Djibouti.
  • Bosser, J. & al. (eds.) (1994). Flore des Mascareignes 136-148: 1. IRD Éditions, MSIRI, RBG-Kew, Paris.
  • Boulos, L. (1999). Flora of Egypt 1: 1-419. Al Hadara Publishing, Cairo.
  • Collenette, S. (1999). Wildflowers of Saudi Arabia: 1-799. National commission for wildlife conservation and development (NCWCD), Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
  • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Edwards, S., Tadesse, M., Demissew, S. & Hedberg, I. (eds.) (2000). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 2(1): 1-532. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
  • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola. Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Graham, R.A. (1958). Flora of Tropical East Africa, Polygonaceae: 1-40.
  • Lewalle, J. (1970). Liste floristique et répartition altitudinale de la flore du Burundi occidental: 1-84. Université officielle de Bujumbura.
  • Miller, A.G. & Morris, M. (2004). Ethnoflora of Soqotra Archipelago: 1-759. The Royal Botanic Garden, Edinburgh.
  • Peyre de Fabregues, B. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1976). Catalogue des Plantes Vascularies du Niger: 1-433. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
  • Pope, G.V., Polhill, R.M. & Martins, E.S. (eds.) (2006). Flora Zambesiaca 9(3): 1-277. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Thulin, M. (ed.) (1993). Flora of Somalia 1: 1-493. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Troupin, G. (ed.) (1978). Flora du Rwanda 1: 1-413. Musee Royal de l'Afrique Centrale.
  • Wood, J.R.I. (1997). A handbook of the Yemen Flora: 1-434. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

Flora of Somalia

  • Flora Somalia, Vol 1, (1993) Author: by M. Thulin [updated by M. Thulin 2008]

Flora of Tropical East Africa

  • Dammer in Die Pflanzenwelt Ost-Afrikas und der Nachbargebiete, Theile C: 170 (1895).
  • Robyns, Flore du Congo Belge et du Ruanda-Urundi, 1: 406 (1948).

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