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This species is accepted, and its native range is NE. Tropical & S. Africa to W. Pacific.
Bruguiera gymnorhiza

[FSOM]

M. Thulin et al. Flora of Somalia, Vol. 1-4 [updated 2008] https://plants.jstor.org/collection/FLOS

Ecology
Sea level.
Morphology General Habit
Tree to c. 12 m high
Morphology Leaves
Leaves dark green; petiole up to 3 cm long; blade elliptic, 5–15 x 3–5 cm, base cuneate, margin entire, apex acute to acuminate, often with markedly apicular apex
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers solitary, peduncle c. 1 cm long, usually recurved, buds terete; calyx with 1–2 cm long tube and (10–)12(–15) 1.8–2 cm long linear lobes; petals white, c. 1.5 cm long, with 5–7 appendages at apex; stamens with 3–5 mm long filaments and c. 4 mm long anthers
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruit c. 2 cm long; hypocotyl up to c. 12 cm long while still on the tree, terete, of ± the same thickness throughout.
Distribution
N3; S2, 3 widespread along the shores of the Indian Ocean, eastwards to W Polynesia.

[FTEA]

Rhizophoraceae, John Lewis. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1956

Morphology General Habit
Glabrous tree up to 12 m. tall (nearer half this height in our area), bark reddish-brown.
Morphology Leaves
Leaves dark green; blade narrowly to broadly elliptic, 5–15 cm. long, subacuminate above to an acute apex, cuneate below to an acute base, petiole up to 3 cm. long.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers solitary; peduncles recurved, about 1 cm. long; buds narrowly ellipsoid, terete, c. 25 × 10 mm.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx pinkish-green to reddish-brown; tube 1–2 cm. long; lobes (10–) 12 (–15), linear, 1.8–2.0 cm. long, apex acute.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Petals white, soon turning brown, about 1.5 cm. long, conduplicate below, bifid with a median seta, stiffly pubescent, especially below; lobes 3–3.5 mm. long, (bi- or) tri-ciliate apically.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Anthers 4 mm. long, dorsifixed, mucronate above; filaments 6 or 8 mm. long (one shorter and one longer in each pair).
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Ovary
Ovary 3-celled.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruit turbinate, 2 cm. long.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Hypocotyl up to 11 cm. long on tree, terete or only shallowly and bluntly longitudinally ridged, swollen ± uniformly throughout length.
Figures
Fig. 3.
Habitat
Intertidal mud-flats and estuaries; on the less exposed parts; sea level
Distribution
K5 P T3 T6 T8 Z Portuguese East Africa, Madagascar, South Africa and widely ranging to the East like Rhizophora mucronata but neither extending so far beyond the tropics nor so far into the Pacific Ocean (but see Note below)

[FZ]

Rhizophoraceae, A. R. Torre and A. E. Gonçalves. Flora Zambesiaca 4. 1978

Morphology General Habit
Shrub or tree up to 7(15) m. high; branches terete, smooth with subcircular scars of the petioles of the fallen leaves and annular scars of the fallen stipules; bark fibrous, light brown, reddish-brown or grey.
Morphology Leaves
Leaf-lamina usually 6–12 x 2–6 cm., narrowly to broadly elliptic or sometimes obovate-elliptic; apex acute, subacute or shortly acuminate; margins somewhat revolute; base narrowed into the petiole, cuneate or subcuneate; midrib rather prominent below, lateral nerves slightly prominent above and just visible to obscure beneath; petiole usually 1–3 cm. long; stipules up to 4 x 1 cm., entire and involute, acute at the apex and truncate at the base.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers solitary, peduncles c. 1 cm. long, ± terete, arching; flower-buds c. 27 x 7 mm., narrowly ellipsoid, acute, strongly ribbed, glabrous.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx pinkish-green to reddish-brown; calyx-tube 1–2 cm. long, obconical; calyx-lobes (10)12(14), 1·5–2 cm. long, triquetrous, narrow, very acute at the apex.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Petals c. 1·5 cm. long, ± oblong, conduplicate and costate inside, 2-lobed at the apex (the sinus with a median seta c. 4 mm. long and the lobes c. 5 mm. long, obtuse, apically 2–3-fimbriate), white or cream, soon turning brown, sparsely hirsute at the margins and densely hirsute at the base, coriaceous.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Stamens (20)24(28), paired, oppositipetalous; filaments 6 or 8 mm. long; anthers c. 6 mm. long, mucronate at the apex.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Pistil
Ovary c. 4 mm. long, (2)3(4)-locular; style c. 20 mm. long, shortly (2)3(4)-lobed at the apex.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruit a turbinate berry crowned by the calyx-lobes, unilocular, 1-seeded.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds Hypocotyl
Hypocotyl up to 15 cm. long and 1·2 cm. in diameter while on the tree, only narrowing a little at both extremities, shallowly and bluntly longitudinally ridged.

Native to:

Aldabra, Andaman Is., Bangladesh, Borneo, Cambodia, Cape Provinces, Caroline Is., China Southeast, Christmas I., Comoros, Djibouti, Fiji, Gilbert Is., Hainan, India, Jawa, Kenya, KwaZulu-Natal, Lesser Sunda Is., Madagascar, Malaya, Maluku, Marianas, Marshall Is., Mauritius, Mozambique, Mozambique Channel I, Myanmar, Nansei-shoto, Nauru, New Guinea, Nicobar Is., Northern Territory, Pakistan, Philippines, Queensland, Samoa, Seychelles, Solomon Is., Somalia, Sri Lanka, Sulawesi, Sumatera, Tanzania, Thailand, Tonga, Vanuatu, Vietnam, Wallis-Futuna Is.

Extinct in:

Taiwan

Introduced into:

Florida, Hawaii

Bruguiera gymnorhiza (L.) Lam. appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
Jun 23, 2016 Johns, R.J. [12670], Papua New Guinea K001193617
Jun 16, 2016 Johns, R.J. [12673], Papua New Guinea K001193615
Aug 1, 2014 I Made Maduarta (Pung) [IMM s.n. (B)], Bali K000734817
Mar 4, 2011 Sundaling [SAN 135376], Sabah K000720010
Nov 4, 2009 Chew [FRI 53775], Peninsular Malaysia K000576099
Nov 4, 2009 Zahid, M.S. [35], Peninsular Malaysia K000576100
Feb 1, 2006 Rau [234], Papua New Guinea K000351894
Nov 23, 2004 Romero, Garcia, Majaducon [PPI 15562], Philippines K000228040
Nov 23, 2004 Madulid, D. et al. [PPI 7679], Philippines K000228045
Nov 23, 2004 Gaerlan, Romero, Sagcal [PPI 13303], Philippines K000228046
Nov 23, 2004 Gaerlan [PPI 26488], Philippines K000228048
Nov 23, 2004 Chantaranothai, P. et al. [90/373], Thailand K000228066
Nov 23, 2004 Takeuchi, W. [14377], Papua New Guinea K000228071
Nov 23, 2004 Takeuchi, W. [14377], Papua New Guinea K000350382
Nov 1, 1958 illegible [s.n.] K000732738
Nov 1, 1958 Zippelius, A. [s.n.], New Guinea K000732733 isotype
Jan 1, 1852 Krauss [309], South Africa K000350087
Jeffrey, C. [493], Seychelles 23320.000
Powell, D.A. [637B], Christmas I. 44994.000
Powell, D.A. [631B], Christmas I. 44995.000
Dupuy, D.J. [CI 22], Christmas I. 61080.000
Willis, F.R. [46], Indonesia 71473.000
Cooper, T. [1233], South Africa K000350085
Drege, South Africa K000350086 syntype
Drege, South Africa K000350088 Unknown type material
Cunningham, A. [55], New South Wales K000732731
s.coll. [21], India K000732746
s.coll. [s.n.], India K000732748
s.coll. [s.n.] K000732747
s.coll. [31], India K000732750
s.coll. [s.n.] K000732749
Cunningham, A. [56], New South Wales K000732730
Hill, F.L. [629a], Australia Bruguiera rheedei 7255.000
Hill, F.L. [656], Australia Bruguiera rheedei 7285.000
Hill, F.L. [631], Australia Bruguiera rheedei 7300.000
s.coll. [Cat. no. 4874], India Rhizophora gymnorhiza K001104116
s.coll. [Cat. no. 4874], India Rhizophora gymnorhiza K001104115
Gomez, W. [Cat. no. 4874], Myanmar Rhizophora gymnorhiza K001104120
Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 4874] Rhizophora gymnorhiza K001104121
s.coll. [Cat. no. 4874] Rhizophora gymnorhiza K001104118
s.coll. [Cat. no. 4874] Rhizophora gymnorhiza K001104114
s.coll. [Cat. no. 4874] Rhizophora gymnorhiza K001104117
Bruce, H. [Cat. no. 4874], Bangladesh Rhizophora gymnorhiza K001104119

First published in Encycl. 4: 696 (1798)

Accepted by

  • Audru, J., Cesar, J. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1994). Les Plantes Vasculaires de la République de Djibouti. Flore Illustrée 1: 1-336. CIRAD, Départerment d'Elevage et de Médecine vétérinaire, Djibouti.
  • Banks, R.C. (ed.) (1982). Wildlife and wildlife habitat of American Samoa 2: 1-151. U.S. Fisch and Wildlife services, Washington.
  • Barthelat, F. (2019). La flore illustrée de Mayotte: 1-687. Biotope éditions.
  • Bosser, J. & al. (eds.) (1990). Flore des Mascareignes 90-106: 1. IRD Éditions, MSIRI, RBG-Kew, Paris.
  • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Dassanayake (ed.) (1981). A Revised Handbook to the Flora of Ceylon 2: 1-511. Oxford & IBH Publishing Co. PVT. LTD., New Delhi, Calcutta.
  • Dy Phon, P. (2000). Dictionnaire des plantes utilisées au Cambodge: 1-915. chez l'auteur, Phnom Penh, Cambodia.
  • Fosberg, F.R. & Sachet, M.-H. (1987). Flora of the Gilbert Island, Kiribati, Checklist Atoll Research Bulletin 295: 1-33.
  • Fosberg, F.R., Sachet, M.-H., Oliver, R. (1979). A geographical checklist of the Micronesian Dicotyledonae Micronesica; Journal of the College of Guam 15: 41-295.
  • Franck, A.R., Anderson, L.C., Burkhalter, J.R. & Dickman, S. (2016). Additions to the flora of Florida, U.S.A. (2010-2015) Journal of the Botanical Research Institute of Texas 10: 175-190.
  • George, A.S., Orchard, A.E. & Hewson, H.J. (eds.) (1993). Oceanic islands 2 Flora of Australia 50: 1-606. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
  • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa an annotated checklist Strelitzia 14: 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Govaerts, R. (1996). World Checklist of Seed Plants 2(1, 2): 1-492. MIM, Deurne.
  • Hancock, I.R. & Henderson, C.P. (1988). Flora of the Solomon Islands Research Bulletin Dodo Creek Research Station 7: 1-203.
  • Iwatsuki, K., Boufford, D.E. & Ohba, H. (eds.) (1999). Flora of Japan IIc: 1-328. Kodansha Ltd., Tokyo.
  • Launert, E. (ed.) (1978). Flora Zambesiaca 4: 1-658. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Leti, M., Hul, S., Fouché, J.-G., Cheng, S.K. & David, B. (2013). Flore photographique du Cambodge: 1-589. Éditions Privat, Toulouse.
  • Lê, T.C. (2003). Danh l?c các loài th?c v?t Vi?t Nam 2: 1-1203. Hà N?i : Nhà xu?t b?n Nông nghi?p.
  • Meyer, J.-Y. (2017). Guide des plantes de Wallis et Futuna: 1-486. Au vent des iles, editions, Tahiti.
  • Morat, P. & Veillon, J.-M. (1985). Contributions à la conaissance de la végétation et de la flore de Wallis et Futuna Bulletin du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle. Section B, Adansonia 7: 259-329.
  • Nasir, E. & Ali, S.I. (eds.) (1980-). Flora of Pakistan 135- Department of Botany, University of Karachi, Karachi.
  • Smitinand, T. & Larsen, K. (eds.) (1970-1975). Flora of Thailand 2: 1-484. The Forest Herbarium, Royal Forest Department.
  • Thaman, R.R., Fosberg, F.R., Manner, H.I. & Hassall, D.C. (1994). The Flora of Nauru Atoll Research Bulletin 392: 1-223.
  • Turner, I.M. (1995 publ. 1997). A catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Malaya Gardens' Bulletin Singapore 47(2): 347-655.
  • Van Steenis, C.G.G.J. (ed.) (1955-1958). Flora Malesiana 5: 1-595. Noordhoff-Kolff N.V., Djakarta.
  • Wagner, W.L., Herbst, D.R. & Sohmer, S.H. (1999). Manual of the Flowering Plants of Hawai'i, rev. ed., 2: 989-1918. University of Hawai'i Press, Bishop Museum Press.
  • Wu, Z., Raven, P.H. & Hong, D. (eds.) (2007). Flora of China 13: 1-548. Science Press (Beijing) & Missouri Botanical Garden Press (St. Louis).

Literature

Kew Backbone Distributions

  • Audru, J., Cesar, J. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1994). Les Plantes Vasculaires de la République de Djibouti. Flore Illustrée 1: 1-336. CIRAD, Départerment d'Elevage et de Médecine vétérinaire, Djibouti.
  • Barthelat, F. (2019). La flore illustrée de Mayotte: 1-687. Biotope éditions.
  • Bosser, J. & al. (eds.) (1990). Flore des Mascareignes 90-106: 1. IRD Éditions, MSIRI, RBG-Kew, Paris.
  • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Dy Phon, P. (2000). Dictionnaire des plantes utilisées au Cambodge: 1-915. chez l'auteur, Phnom Penh, Cambodia.
  • Fosberg, F.R. & Sachet, M.-H. (1987). Flora of the Gilbert Island, Kiribati, Checklist Atoll Research Bulletin 295: 1-33.
  • Fosberg, F.R., Sachet, M.-H., Oliver, R. (1979). A geographical checklist of the Micronesian Dicotyledonae Micronesica; Journal of the College of Guam 15: 41-295.
  • Franck, A.R., Anderson, L.C., Burkhalter, J.R. & Dickman, S. (2016). Additions to the flora of Florida, U.S.A. (2010-2015) Journal of the Botanical Research Institute of Texas 10: 175-190.
  • George, A.S., Orchard, A.E. & Hewson, H.J. (eds.) (1993). Oceanic islands 2 Flora of Australia 50: 1-606. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
  • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa an annotated checklist Strelitzia 14: 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Guillaumin, A. (1948). Compendium de la Flore Phanérogamique des Nouvelles Hébrides Annales de l'Institut Botanico-Geologique de Marseille, VI, 5-6: 1-56.
  • Hancock, I.R. & Henderson, C.P. (1988). Flora of the Solomon Islands Research Bulletin Dodo Creek Research Station 7: 1-203.
  • Kress, W.J., DeFilipps, R.A., Farr, E. & Kyi, D.Y.Y. (2003). A Checklist of the Trees, Shrubs, Herbs and Climbers of Myanmar Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 45: 1-590. Smithsonian Institution.
  • Launert, E. (ed.) (1978). Flora Zambesiaca 4: 1-658. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Morat, P. & Veillon, J.-M. (1985). Contributions à la conaissance de la végétation et de la flore de Wallis et Futuna Bulletin du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle. Section B, Adansonia 7: 259-329.
  • Nasir, E. & Ali, S.I. (eds.) (1980-). Flora of Pakistan 135- Department of Botany, University of Karachi, Karachi.
  • Smitinand, T. & Larsen, K. (eds.) (1970-1975). Flora of Thailand 2: 1-484. The Forest Herbarium, Royal Forest Department.
  • Thaman, R.R., Fosberg, F.R., Manner, H.I. & Hassall, D.C. (1994). The Flora of Nauru Atoll Research Bulletin 392: 1-223.
  • Wagner, W.L., Herbst, D.R. & Sohmer, S.H. (1999). Manual of the Flowering Plants of Hawai'i, rev. ed., 2: 989-1918. University of Hawai'i Press, Bishop Museum Press.
  • Wu, Z., Raven, P.H. & Hong, D. (eds.) (2007). Flora of China 13: 1-548. Science Press (Beijing) & Missouri Botanical Garden Press (St. Louis).

Flora of Somalia

  • Flora Somalia, Vol 1, (1993) Author: by I. Friis [updated by M. Thulin 2008]

Flora of Tropical East Africa

  • J.P.M. Brenan, Check-lists of the Forest Trees and Shrubs of the British Empire no. 5, part II, Tanganyika Territory p. 471 (1949).
  • Lam., Encycl. Méth. Pl. de Bot. t. 397 (1797).
  • Lam., Encycl. Méth., Bot. 4: 696 (1796).

Art and Illustrations in Digifolia
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew

Flora Zambesiaca
Flora Zambesiaca
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Flora of Somalia
Flora of Somalia
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Flora of Tropical East Africa
Flora of Tropical East Africa
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

Kew Backbone Distributions
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Kew Science Photographs
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/