Chrysobalanus icaco L.

First published in Sp. Pl.: 513 (1753)
This species is accepted
The native range of this species is Florida to E. Brazil, W. Tropical Africa to Zambia. It is a shrub or tree and grows primarily in the wet tropical biome. It is used as animal food, a medicine and invertebrate food, has environmental uses and for fuel and food.

Distribution

Native to:

Angola, Bahamas, Belize, Benin, Bermuda, Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Brazil Southeast, Cameroon, Cayman Is., Central African Republic, Central American Pacific Is., Colombia, Congo, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Florida, French Guiana, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Gulf of Guinea Is., Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Ivory Coast, Jamaica, Leeward Is., Liberia, Mali, Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Nicaragua, Nigeria, Panamá, Puerto Rico, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Southwest Caribbean, Suriname, Togo, Trinidad-Tobago, Turks-Caicos Is., Venezuela, Venezuelan Antilles, Windward Is., Zambia, Zaïre

Introduced into:

Chad, Fiji, Hawaii, India, Malawi, Malaya, Marquesas, Samoa, Seychelles, Society Is., Tanzania, Vietnam

Synonyms

Homotypic Synonyms

Classification

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PAFTOL

POWO follows these authorities in accepting this name:

  • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies. Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
  • Berendsohn, W.G., Gruber, A.K. & Monterrosa Salomón, J. (2009). Nova silva cusatlantica. Árboles nativos e introduciados de El Salvador. Parte 1: Angiospermae - Familias A a L. Englera 29-1: 1-438.
  • Brundu, G. & Camarda, I. (2013). The Flora of Chad: a checklist and brief analysis. PhytoKeys 23: 1-18.
  • Correll, D.S. & Correll, H.B. (1982). Flora of the Bahama Archipelago: 1-1692. J.Cramer, Vaduz.
  • Evenhuis, N.L. & Eldredge, L.G. (eds.) (2012). Records of the Hawaii biological survey for 2011. Part II: plants. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 113: 1-102.
  • Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2016). Flora of North America North of Mexico 12: 1-603. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.
  • Garcia-Mendoza, A.J. & Meave, J.A. (eds.) (2012). Diversidad florística de Oaxaca: de musgos a angiospermas (colecciones y listas de especies), ed. 2: 1-351. Instituto de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México.
  • Gosline, G., Bidault, E., van der Burgt, X., Cahen, D., Challen, G., Condé, N., Couch, C., Couvreur, T.L.P., Dagallier, L.M.J., Darbyshire, I., Dawson, S., Doré, T.S., Goyder, D., Grall, A., Haba, P., Haba, P., Harris, D., Hind, D.J.N., Jongkind, & al. (2023). A Taxonomically-verified and Vouchered Checklist of the Vascular Plants of the Republic of Guinea. Nature, scientific data 10, Article number: 327: [1]-[12].
  • Govaerts, R. (1999). World Checklist of Seed Plants 3(1, 2a & 2b): 1-1532. MIM, Deurne.
  • Idárraga-Piedrahita, A., Ortiz, R.D.C., Callejas Posada, R. & Merello, M. (eds.) (2011). Flora de Antioquia: Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares 2: 1-939. Universidad de Antioquia, Medellín.
  • Mao, A.A. & Dash, S.S. (2020). Flowering Plants of India an Annotated Checklist (Dicotyledons) 1: 1-970. Botanical Survey of India.
  • Molino, J.-F., Sabatier, D., Grenand, P., Engel, J., Frame, D., Delprete, P.G., Fleury, M., Odonne, G., Davy, D., Lucas, E.J. & Martin, C.A. (2022). An annotated checklist of the tree species of French Guiana, including vernacular nomenclature. Adansonia, sér. 3, 44: 345-903.
  • Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008). Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas: 1-1576. SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.

Flora of the Cayman Islands

  • L., Sp. Pl. 1: 513 (1753).

Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia

  • Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

Kew Backbone Distributions

  • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies. Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
  • Brundu, G. & Camarda, I. (2013). The Flora of Chad: a checklist and brief analysis. PhytoKeys 23: 1-18.
  • Correll, D.S. & Correll, H.B. (1982). Flora of the Bahama Archipelago: 1-1692. J.Cramer, Vaduz.
  • Evenhuis, N.L. & Eldredge, L.G. (eds.) (2012). Records of the Hawaii biological survey for 2011. Part II: plants. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 113: 1-102.
  • Gonzalez, F., Nelson Diaz, J. & Lowry, P. (1995). Flora Illustrada de San Andrés y Providencia: 1-281. Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Colombia.
  • Mao, A.A. & Dash, S.S. (2020). Flowering Plants of India an Annotated Checklist (Dicotyledons) 1: 1-970. Botanical Survey of India.
  • Prance, G.T. & Sothers, C.A. (2003). Chrysobalanaceae 1 & 2. Species Plantarum: Flora of the World 9, 10: 1-319, 1-268. Australian Biological Resources Study, Canberra.

Useful Plants and Fungi of Colombia

  • Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R., & Celis, M. (eds.). (2020). Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia. v1.1. Universidad Nacional de Colombia. Dataset/Checklist. https://doi.org/10.15472/7avdhn
  • Burkill HM. (1995). The useful plants of west tropical Africa, Vols. 1-3. The useful plants of west tropical Africa, Vols 1-3.
  • Diazgranados et al. (2021). Catalogue of plants of Colombia. Useful Plants and Fungi of Colombia project. In prep.
  • Diazgranados, M., Allkin, B., Black N., Cámara-Leret, R., Canteiro C., Carretero J., Eastwood R., Hargreaves S., Hudson A., Milliken W., Nesbitt, M., Ondo, I., Patmore, K., Pironon, S., Turner, R., Ulian, T. (2020). World Checklist of Useful Plant Species. Produced by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Knowledge Network for Biocomplexity.
  • FPI (2021). Food Plants International. https://fms.cmsvr.com/fmi/webd/Food_Plants_World?homeurl=https://foodplantsinternational.com/plants/
  • GBIF.org (2021). GBIF species matching tool. https://www.gbif.org/tools/species-lookup
  • GRIN (2021). Germplasm Resources Information Network from the United States Department of Agriculture. https://www.ars-grin.gov/
  • García Castro, N. J. (2011). Plantas nativas empleadas en alimentación en Colombia. Instituo de Investigaciones Biológicas Alexander von Humboldt. http://repository.humboldt.org.co/handle/20.500.11761/31275
  • IUCN (2021). The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2021-2. https://www.iucnredlist.org.
  • Instituto de Investigación de Recursos Biológicos Alexander von Humbodlt (2014). Plantas alimenticias y medicinales nativas de Colombia. 2567 registros, aportados por: Castellanos, C. (Contacto del recurso), Valderrama, N. (Creador del recurso, Autor), Bernal, Y. (Autor), García, N. (Autor). http://i2d.humboldt.org.co/ceiba/resource.do?r=ls_colombia_magnoliophyta_2014
  • Instituto de Investigación de Recursos Biológicos Alexander von Humboldt (2019). Lista de especies vedadas por la resolución 213 de 1977. 8256 especies. http://i2d.humboldt.org.co/ceiba/resource.do?r=le_plantaspriorizadas_2019
  • Instituto de Investigación de Recursos Biológicos Alexander von Humboldt. (2014). Plantas alimenticias y medicinales nativas de Colombia. 2567 registros, aportados por: Castellanos, C. (Contacto del recurso), Valderrama, N. (Creador del recurso, Autor), Bernal, Y. (Autor), García, N. (Autor). http://i2d.humboldt.org.co/ceiba/resource.do?r=ls_colombia_magnoliophyta_2014
  • Jansen, P., Lemmens, R., Oyen, L., Siemonsma, J., Stavast, F. & Van Valkenburg, J. (1991) Plant Resources of South-East Asia. Basic list of species and commodity grouping. Final version. Pudoc, Wageningen.
  • Medicinal Plant Names Services (MPNS) v.10 (2021); http://mpns.kew.org/
  • PROTA (2021). Plants Resources of Tropical Africa. https://prota4u.org/database/
  • RBG, Kew (2021). Kew Economic Botany Collection. https://ecbot.science.kew.org/
  • RBG, Kew (ed.) (1999). Survey of Economic Plants for Arid and Semi-Arid Lands (SEPASAL) database. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, London.
  • Willis, K.J. (ed.) (2017). State of the World’s Plants 2017. Report. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

Other Data

Other Kew resources that provide information on this taxon:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status Has image?
Feb 1, 2023 Curtiss, A.H. [728] United States K000370845 Isoepitype Yes
Jan 1, 1975 Keay, R.W.J. [28672] Cameroon K000107470 Yes
Parham, J.W. [10091] K000104186 Yes
Paracampo, N.E.P.; de Oliveira, J.C.L. [22] Brazil K001574266 Yes
Paracampo, N.E.P. ; Oliveira, J.C.L. [191987] Brazil K001569454 Yes
Jamaica K:SPC-80103.000 No
Wieringa, J.J.; Bradley, A.F. [4367] Gabon K001769769 No
Paracampo, N.E.P. ; Oliveira, J.C.L. [192463] Brazil K001569442 Yes
Simons, E.L.A.N.; Damen, T.H.J.; Ogolawiri, F.; Bahissi, F.L. [1082] Gabon K001769778 No
Wieringa, J.J. [1168] Gabon K001769780 No
Tutin. T.G. [s.n.] Guyana K004800728 Yes
Vodonaivalu, S.; Kuruvoli, I.T. [16493] K000104188 Yes
Paracampo, N.E.P ; Oliveira, J.C.L. [192020] Brazil K001569461 Yes
Paracampo; Oliveira, J.C.L. de [NEP 07] Brazil K001569927 Yes
Paracampo, N.E.P. ; Oliveira, J.C.L. [191981] Brazil K001569486 Yes
Paracampo, N.E.P. ; Oliveira, J.C.L. [192359] Brazil K001569485 Yes
Paracampo, N.E.P.; de Oliveira, J.C.L. [15] Brazil K001574275 Yes
Paracampo, N.E.P.; de Oliveira, J.C.L. [13] Brazil K001574268 Yes
Venezuela K:SPC-65682.000 No
van der Zon, A.P.M. [528] Benin K001562492 No
Paracampo, N.E.P.; de Oliveira, J.C.L. [5] Brazil K001574265 Yes
Paracampo, N.E.P.; de Oliveira, J.C.L. [25] Brazil K001574267 Yes
Paracampo, N.E.P.; de Oliveira, J.C.L. [16] Brazil K001574269 Yes
Paracampo, N.E.P.; de Oliveira, J.C.L. [21] Brazil K001574276 Yes
Paracampo, N.E.P. ; Oliveira, J.C.L. [191979] Brazil K001569445 Yes
Greenwood, W. [1027] K000104187 Yes
Schlieben, H.J. [11841] Seychelles K000104271 Yes
Jeffrey, C. [406] Seychelles K000104272 Yes
Mattedi, A.D.; Mauad, L.P.; Souza, A.J.C. [269] Brazil K001560154 Yes
Paracampo, N.E.P. ; Oliveira, J.C.L. [191982] Brazil K001569441 Yes
Paracampo, N.E.P ; Oliveira, J.C.L. [192464] Brazil K001569462 Yes
Paracampo, N.E.P. ; Oliveira, J.C.L [191985] Brazil K001569489 Yes
Paracampo, N.E.P.; de Oliveira, J.C.L. [8] Brazil K001574270 Yes
Paracampo, N.E.P. [26] Brazil K001574264 Yes
Paracampo, N.E.P.; de Oliveira, J.C.L. [20] Brazil K001574274 Yes
Paracampo, N.E.P.; de Oliveira, J.C.L. [14] Brazil K001574277 Yes
Paracampo, N.E.P. [27] Brazil K001574278 Yes
Paracampo, N.E.P ; Oliveira, J.C.L [191980] Brazil K001569448 Yes
Paracampo, N.E.P.; de Oliveira, J.C.L. [17] Brazil K001574253 Yes
Robertson, S.A. [2700] Seychelles K000104268 Yes
Jeffrey, C. [406] Seychelles K:SPC-22732.000 No
Fraga, C.N.; Koch, A.K.; Araujo-Silva, L.E.; Magalaes, J.L. [2802] Brazil K001567107 Yes
Breteler, F.J.; Moussavou, J.M.; Dibata, J.K.; Mayombo, J. [14462] Gabon K001769781 No
de Wilde, J.J.F.E.; van der Maesen, L.J.G. [10985] Gabon K001769782 No
Smith, A.C. [9611] K000104189 Yes
Lambert, M. [419] Seychelles K000104270 Yes
Archer, P.G. [154] Seychelles K000104273 Yes
Brazil K:SPC-39503.000 No
Robertson, S.A. [2569] Seychelles K000104269 Yes
Greenwood, W. [1027A] K000104185 Yes

Sources

  • Angiosperm Extinction Risk Predictions v1

    • Angiosperm Threat Predictions
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0
  • Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia

    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
  • Flora Zambesiaca

    • Flora Zambesiaca
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
  • Flora of the Cayman Islands

    • Flora of the Cayman Islands
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
  • Herbarium Catalogue Specimens

    • 'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    • Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/
  • IUCN Categories

    • IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
  • Kew Backbone Distributions

    • The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Vascular Plants 2024. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and https://powo.science.kew.org/
    • © Copyright 2023 World Checklist of Vascular Plants. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0
  • Kew Living Collection Database

    • Common Names from Plants and People Africa http://www.plantsandpeopleafrica.com/
  • Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone

    • The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Vascular Plants 2024. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and https://powo.science.kew.org/
    • © Copyright 2023 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Vascular Plants. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0
  • Kew Science Photographs

    • Copyright applied to individual images
  • Universidad Nacional de Colombia

    • ColPlantA database
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
  • Useful Plants and Fungi of Colombia

    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0