Family:
Rubiaceae Juss.
Genus:
Coffea L.

Coffea canephora Pierre ex A.Froehner

This species is accepted, and its native range is W. Tropical Africa to South Sudan and N. Angola.

[FWTA]

Rubiaceae, F. N. Hepper & R. W. J. Keay. Flora of West Tropical Africa 2. 1963

Morphology General Habit
An evergreen shrub or small tree, to 20 ft. high
Ecology
Spontaneous in the understorey of rainforest
Note
Also cultivated
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers white.

[FTEA]

Rubiaceae, B. Verdcourt. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1976

Morphology General Habit
Tree or bush 3.5–8.5 m. tall; young branches glabrous, covered with light brown shiny bark.
Morphology Leaves
Leaf-blades oblong-elliptic, broadly elliptic or occasionally obovate to lanceolate, 12–31.5(–40) cm. long, 4.5–12(–22) cm. wide, distinctly acuminate at apex, obtuse to cuneate or sometimes rounded at base, papery to thinly coriaceous, shiny above, margin sometimes undulate in some cultivated forms; lateral nerves (8–)11–15(–17) pairs, main ones sometimes puberulent beneath; domatia rather inconspicuous, pubescent or absent; petiole 0.5–1.8(–2.1) cm. long; stipules deltate, 0.6–1.8 cm. long, obtuse or acute but always exceeded by a mucro.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers 5–6(–7)-merous, 8–30(–48) per axil, borne in 1–4(–7) congested fascicles; peduncle up to 3 (–7 in fruit) mm. long; inflorescence-branches and pedicels compressed in flowering stage so that calyces do not or scarcely exceed the surrounding bracteole; bracteoles stipule-like, with well-developed subfoliaceous lobes, up to 2 cm. long.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx-tube 1–2 mm. long; limb reduced to a rim.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Corolla-tube 0.5–1.6 cm. long, 2–3 mm. wide at throat; lobes oblong, 0.8–1.9 cm. long, 1.8–5.5 mm. wide, obtuse to rounded.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruit red, sometimes faintly striped, broadly oblong-ellipsoid, 0.9–1.7 cm. long, 0.6–1.2 cm. wide; disc small, cylindrical, somewhat prominent.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds fawn, 7–13 mm. long, 5.5–9.5 mm. wide.
Habitat
Forest; 700–1400 m.
Distribution
T1 U1 U2 U3 West Africa, also widely cultivated

Native to:

Angola, Benin, Cabinda, Cameroon, Central African Repu, Congo, Gabon, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Ivory Coast, Liberia, Nigeria, Sudan, Tanzania, Togo, Uganda, Zaïre

Introduced into:

Borneo, Brazil North, Brazil Southeast, Caroline Is., Costa Rica, Ecuador, El Salvador, Jamaica, Jawa, Leeward Is., New Caledonia, New Guinea, Nicaragua, Senegal, Society Is., Sulawesi, Sumatera, Thailand, Trinidad-Tobago, Windward Is.

English
Robusta Coffee

Coffea canephora Pierre ex A.Froehner appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status Has image?
Jan 1, 2010 Erlinawati [IE 182], Indonesia K000174548 No
Dec 1, 2003 Sebsebe [5106], Cameroon K000198315 No
May 1, 2001 Etuge, M. [1611], Cameroon K000051263 No
Brenan, J.P.M. [8871], Nigeria 12184.000 No
Keay, R.W.J. [25542], Nigeria 3293.000 No
Troupin, G. [3380], Congo, DRC 3294.000 No
Onochie [40405], Nigeria 6622.000 No
Davis, A.P. [3026], Cameroon 70355.000 No
Maurin, O. [21], Cameroon 70450.000 No
Maurin, O. [24], Cameroon 70452.000 No
Klaine, R.P. [1928b], Gabon K000430924 isosyntype Yes
Klaine [2312], Gabon K000265057 Unknown type material Yes
Chalot, C. [61], Gabon K000265058 Unknown type material Yes
Chevalier, A. [12332bis], Guinea K000265061 Unknown type material Yes
Chalot, C. [61], Gabon K000265059 Unknown type material Yes
Chalot, C. [61], Gabon K000265060 Unknown type material Yes
Chevalier, A. [12332bis], Guinea K000265062 Unknown type material Yes
Chevalier, A. [12330], Guinea K000265054 Unknown type material Yes
Maurin, O. [21], Cameroon K000466435 No
Maurin, O. [21], Cameroon K000466433 No
May 1, 1905 Chevalier, A. [12330], Guinea Coffea maclaudii K000986908 Unknown type material Yes

First published in Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Berlin-Dahlem 1: 237 (1897)

Accepted by

  • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
  • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
  • Baksh-Comeau, Y., Maharaj, S.S., Adams, C.D., Harris, S.A., Filer, D.L. & Hawthorne, W.D. (2016). An annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Trinidad and Tobago with analysis of vegetation types and botanical 'hotspots' Phytotaxa 250: 1-431.
  • Beaman, J.H. & Anderson, C. (2004). The Plants of Mount Kinabalu 5: 1-609. Natural history publications (Borneo), Kota Kinabalu, Malaysia.
  • Berendsohn, W.G., Gruber, A.K., Rodríguez Delcid, D. & Olmedo Galán, P. (2016). Nova Silva Cuscatlantica. Parte 3: Angiospermae - Familias R a Z y Gymnospermae Englera 29(3): 1-356.
  • Brunel, J.F., Hiepo, P. & Scholz, H. (eds.) (1984). Flore Analytique du Togo Phanérogames: 1-751. GTZ, Eschborn.
  • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Davidse, G. & al. (eds.) (2012). Flora Mesoamericana 4(2): 1-533. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México, D.F.
  • Davis, A.P., Govaerts, R., Bridson, D.M. & Stoffelen, P. (2006). An annotated taxonomic conspectus of the genus Coffea (Rubiaceae) Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 152: 465-512.
  • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Figueiredo, E. (2007). The Rubiaceae of Cabinda (Angola) Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 154: 455-495.
  • Govaerts, R. (1999). World Checklist of Seed Plants 3(1, 2a & 2b): 1-1532. MIM, Deurne.
  • Govaerts, R. (2003). World Checklist of Selected Plant Families Database in ACCESS: 1-216203. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Hammel, B.E., Grayum, M.H., Herrera, C. & Zamora, N. (eds.) (2014). Manual de Plantas de Costa Rica 7: 1-840. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
  • Harris, D.J. (2002). The vascular plants of the Dzanga-Sangha Reserve, Central African Republic: 1-274. National Botanic Garden (Belgium), Meise.
  • Herrera, K., Lorence, D.H., Flynn, T. & Balick, M.J. (2010). Checklist of the Vascular plants of Pohnpei, Federated States of Micronesia with local names and uses Allertonia 10: 1-204.
  • Lebrun, J.P. (1973). Énumération des plantes vasculaires du Sénégal: 1-209. Maisons Alfort: Institut d'élevage et de médecine vétérinaire des pays tropicaux.
  • Lejoy, J., Ndjele, M.-B. & Geerinck, D. (2010). Catalogue-flore des plantes vasculaires des districts de Kisangani et de la Tshopo (RD Congo) Taxonomania. Revue de Taxonomie et de Nomenclature Botaniques 30: 1-307.
  • MacKee, H.S. (1994). Catalogue des plantes introduites et cultivées en Nouvelle-Calédonie, ed. 2: 1-164. Museum national d'histoire naturelle, Paris.
  • Sosef, M.S.M. & al. (2006). Check-list des plantes vasculaires du Gabon Scripta Botanica Belgica 35: 1-438.
  • Welsh, S.L. (1998). Flora Societensis: 1-420. E.P.S. Inc. Utah.
  • Wu, Z., Raven, P.H. & Hong, D. (eds.) (2011). Flora of China 19: 1-884. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.

Literature

Flora of West Tropical Africa

  • Aubrév. Fl. For. C. Iv., ed. 1, 2: 250, 252
  • Chev. Caf. du Globe 2: tt. 28-39 ; 3: 186 (q.v. for vars.).
  • Lebrun Inst. Roy Colon. Belge, sect. sci. Nat. et Méd., Mém. 11, 3: 122, tt. 11-14 (q.v. for syn.)
  • in Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Berl. 1: 237 (1897)

Kew Backbone Distributions

  • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
  • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
  • Baksh-Comeau, Y., Maharaj, S.S., Adams, C.D., Harris, S.A., Filer, D.L. & Hawthorne, W.D. (2016). An annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Trinidad and Tobago with analysis of vegetation types and botanical 'hotspots' Phytotaxa 250: 1-431.
  • Beaman, J.H. & Anderson, C. (2004). The Plants of Mount Kinabalu 5: 1-609. Natural history publications (Borneo), Kota Kinabalu, Malaysia.
  • Berendsohn, W.G., Gruber, A.K., Rodríguez Delcid, D. & Olmedo Galán, P. (2016). Nova Silva Cuscatlantica. Parte 3: Angiospermae - Familias R a Z y Gymnospermae Englera 29(3): 1-356.
  • Brunel, J.F., Hiepo, P. & Scholz, H. (eds.) (1984). Flore Analytique du Togo Phanérogames: 1-751. GTZ, Eschborn.
  • Davidse, G. & al. (eds.) (2012). Flora Mesoamericana 4(2): 1-533. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México, D.F.
  • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Figueiredo, E. (2007). The Rubiaceae of Cabinda (Angola) Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 154: 455-495.
  • Forzza, R.C., Zappi, D. & Souza, V.C. (2016-). Flora do Brasil 2020 em construção http://reflora.jbrj.gov.br/reflora/listaBrasil/ConsultaPublicaUC/ResultadoDaConsultaNovaConsulta.do.
  • Herrera, K., Lorence, D.H., Flynn, T. & Balick, M.J. (2010). Checklist of the Vascular plants of Pohnpei, Federated States of Micronesia with local names and uses Allertonia 10: 1-204.
  • Lebrun, J.P. (1973). Énumération des plantes vasculaires du Sénégal: 1-209. Maisons Alfort: Institut d'élevage et de médecine vétérinaire des pays tropicaux.
  • MacKee, H.S. (1994). Catalogue des plantes introduites et cultivées en Nouvelle-Calédonie, ed. 2: 1-164. Museum national d'histoire naturelle, Paris.
  • Sosef, M.S.M. & al. (2006). Check-list des plantes vasculaires du Gabon Scripta Botanica Belgica 35: 1-438.
  • Welsh, S.L. (1998). Flora Societensis: 1-420. E.P.S. Inc. Utah.

Flora of Tropical East Africa

  • A. Chev., Caféiers du Globe 1: 82, fig. 14 & 15 (1929).
  • A. Chev., Caféiers du Globe 2, t. 28–39 (1942)
  • A. Chev., Caféiers du Globe 3: 186 (1947).
  • Cheney, Coffee, Monogr. Econ. Sp.: 72, t.26 & 27 (1925).
  • Cramer, Rev. Lit. Coff. Res. Indonesia: 120 (1957).
  • De Wild. in Actes Congr. Intern. Bot., Paris: 233 (1900)
  • De Wild., Ann. Jard. Buitenz., suppl. 3, 1: 368 (1910).
  • De Wild., Les Caféiers: 20 & 25 (1901)
  • De Wild., Miss. Laurent: 330 (1906)
  • F. W. Andr., The Flowering Plants of the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan 2: 432 (1952).
  • Froehner in A. Engler, Botanische Jahrbücher für Systematik, Pflanzengeschichte und Pflanzengeographie 25: 269 (1898).
  • Froehner in Notizblatt des Botanischen Gartens und Museums zu Berlin-Dahelm 1: 237 (1897)
  • Haarer, Modern Coffee Prod.: 17 (1962).
  • Keay in Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 2: 154 (1963).
  • Lebrun in Mém Inst. Col. Belge, Sect. Sci. Nat. Méd. 8°, 11(3): 122, t. 11–14 (1941).
  • Portères, Ann. Agric. Afr. Trop. Occ. Fr. 1, 2: 235 t. 29 & 30 (1937).
  • Robyns, Flore des Spermatophytes du Parc National Albert: 354 (1947).
  • Thomas in Emp. Journ. Exp. Agric. 12: 3 (1944).
  • Wellman, Coffee: 80 (1961).

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