Family:
Rubiaceae Juss.

Gardenia thunbergia Thunb.

There are approximately 200 species of Gardenia, named after a Scottish doctor and keen amateur botanist, Dr Alexander Garden (1730-1791). Gardenia thunbergia, one of only six species from South Africa, commemorates the Swedish physician and botanist, Carl Peter Thunberg (1743-1828), who spent many years studying the botany of the Cape, eventually producing his enormous Flora of the Cape.

[KSP]

Kew Species Profiles

General Description
The large, showy, creamy-white flowers of the white gardenia have an overpowering scent, which is particularly noticeable at night and typical of moth-pollinated plants.

There are approximately 200 species of Gardenia, named after a Scottish doctor and keen amateur botanist, Dr Alexander Garden (1730-1791). Gardenia thunbergia, one of only six species from South Africa, commemorates the Swedish physician and botanist, Carl Peter Thunberg (1743-1828), who spent many years studying the botany of the Cape, eventually producing his enormous Flora of the Cape.

Species Profile
Geography and distribution

Gardenia thunbergia grows along the eastern coast of South Africa, from the Eastern Cape to the north of KwaZulu-Natal, and in southern Mozambique. It is usually found in evergreen forest and on forest margins but occasionally in woodland and on the veld (dry habitat in southern Africa dominated by grasses and low shrubs).

Description

This evergreen shrub or small tree grows up to 5 m high and has a smooth, whitish, main stem and clusters of glossy green leaves at the ends of short branches. The flowers are large, creamy white and highly scented, with eight petals. They are borne from October to March and thought to be pollinated by moths. The flowers are followed by woody, greyish, egg-shaped fruits. These hard fruits are difficult to open, and the seed needs to be extracted by smashing or sawing through the woody shells.

Threats and conservation

The species is not threatened across its entire range but has been recorded as rare in the Cape.

Uses

Gardenia thunbergia is grown as an ornamental. The roots, leaves, bark and latex are used in African traditional medicine. The wood is used to make tools, tool handles and buttons. There has been some laboratory research on the molluscicidal properties of G. thunbergia .

Cultivation

White gardenia has the characteristic showy Gardenia flower. Its amazing scent makes it a welcome addition to the conservatory in Britain and, given favourable conditions, it can grow to a large shrub. Plants can also be propagated by cuttings.

Gardenia thunbergia can grow in any frost-free climate, provided that it has ample rain in summer or is watered through the year. It is best in a slightly acid soil with ample humus and will thrive in sun or part shade. Any pruning needed should be done soon after flowering.

This species at Kew

White gardenia can be seen growing in the Palm House at Kew.

Alcohol-preserved specimens of Gardenia thunbergia are held in Kew's Herbarium, where they are available to researchers from around the world, by appointment. The details of one of these specimens can be seen online in the Herbarium Catalogue.

Kew's Economic Botany Collection includes fruit, stem and wood samples of Gardenia thunbergia .

The botanical artist Marianne North also depicted Gardenia thunbergia in her painting ' Two Flowering Shrubs of Natal and a Trogon ' that can be seen in the Marianne North Gallery.

Distribution
South Africa
Ecology
Evergreen forest and forest margins.
Conservation
Least Concern (LC) according to Red List of South African Plants 2009, following the IUCN Red List criteria.
Hazards

None known.

[KSP]
Use
Ornamental, medicinal, as a raw material.

Native to:

Cape Provinces, KwaZulu-Natal, Mozambique

Introduced into:

Zimbabwe

English
White gardenia

Gardenia thunbergia Thunb. appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status Has image?
40742.000 No
s.coll. [Cat. no. 8282] K001125134 Yes

First published in Gardenia: 13 (1780)

Accepted by

  • Calane da Silva, M., Izdine, S. & Amuse, A.B. (2004). A Preliminary Checklist of the Vascular Plants of Mozambique: 1-184. SABONET, Pretoria.
  • Govaerts, R. (2003). World Checklist of Selected Plant Families Database in ACCESS: 1-216203. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

Literature

Kew Species Profiles

  • Anon. (1990). Wild Flowers of South Africa. Approved by the National Botanic Gardens of South Africa, Kirstenbosch, p. 121. Struik Publishers, Cape Town.
  • Raimondo, D. et al. (2009). Red List of South African Plants 2009. Strelitzia 25. South African National Biodiversity Institute, Pretoria.
  • World Checklist of Selected Plant Families (2010). Gardenia thunbergia. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

Kew Backbone Distributions

  • Calane da Silva, M., Izdine, S. & Amuse, A.B. (2004). A Preliminary Checklist of the Vascular Plants of Mozambique: 1-184. SABONET, Pretoria.

  • Art and Illustrations in Digifolia

    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew

  • Herbarium Catalogue Specimens

    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

  • Kew Backbone Distributions

    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Vascular Plants 2022. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and https://powo.science.kew.org/
    © Copyright 2022 World Checklist of Vascular Plants. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

  • Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone

    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Vascular Plants 2022. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and https://powo.science.kew.org/
    © Copyright 2022 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Vascular Plants. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

  • Kew Science Photographs

    Copyright applied to individual images

  • Kew Species Profiles

    Kew Species Profiles
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0