Family:
Rubiaceae Juss.

Gardenia volkensii K.Schum.

This species is accepted, and its native range is Ethiopia to S. Africa.

[FTEA]

Rubiaceae, B. Verdcourt. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1976

Morphology General Habit
Tree or shrub 0.9–10 m. tall, with thick crown and occasionally arching branches which sometimes touch the ground; bark smooth, light grey, not breaking down to a powdery surface but sometimes flaking; branchlets pale, often greyish white, glabrous or pubescent or puberulous only at the apices.
Morphology Leaves
Leaves tufted at the ends of short spreading lateral shoots which are arranged ternately; blades obovate or obcuneate and usually small when mature, (0.8–)2.5–9.5 cm. long, (0.8–)1.7–5.5 cm. wide, mostly rounded at the apex, sometimes acute and occasionally crenate, distinctly cuneate at the base, thinner in texture than in next species and with the venation finer and less prominent, glabrous or finely puberulous to slightly scabridulous; some young branchlets (particularly in the Flora Area) are distinctly heterophyllous with some leaves of very different shape, lanceolate to rhomboid-lanceolate, 8–18 cm. long, 1–5.4 cm. wide; petiole 0–2(–3) mm. long; stipules semi-circular to ovate-triangular, 2–5 mm. long, pubescent and ciliate.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers solitary, sweet scented.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx-tube oblong, 0.6–1 cm. long, densely pubescent; tubular part of limb 0.5–1.4 cm. long, glabrous or pubescent outside; lobes 7–9(–10), extraordinarily variable, held at right-angles to tube and decurrent, varying from small linear teeth to spathulate lobes or distinctly leafy, 0.2–1.5(–2) cm. long, 0.5–8 mm. wide, occasionally 2 joined to form a bifid lobe, glabrous, or limb ± truncate.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Corolla open at night, white or cream, turning yellow or orange, very variable in size; tube very narrowly cylindrical, usually more slender than in next species, (2.5–)5–12.5 cm. long, glabrous; lobes 6–9, elliptic to narrowly obovate, 2–5 cm. long, 1–3 cm. wide.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens Anthers
Anthers 1.3–2 cm. long, inserted below the throat.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Pistil
Placentas 6–9. Style hairy; stigma yellow-green, 4–7 mm. long, 6–9-lobed, shortly exserted.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruit very variable in size, usually whitish, grey or greyish orange, ellipsoid to subglobose, 4–11 cm. long, 2.7–10 cm. wide usually with a thick fibrous or woody wall 0.3–1 cm. thick (eventually becoming soft and pulpy , fide J.B. Gillett), usually with prominent wart-like lenticels, unribbed to very markedly coarsely 8–11-ribbed; apical and basal depressions in detached fruits wider than in next species, ± 1.5 cm.; stalk thick, up to 1.3 cm. wide.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds pale yellow-brown, more flattened than in next species, (4–)5–10 mm. long, finely reticulate-shagreened.

[FSOM]

M. Thulin et al. Flora of Somalia, Vol. 1-4 [updated 2008] https://plants.jstor.org/collection/FLOS

Morphology General Habit
Shrub or tree, up to 4 m or more tall, with pale grey smooth bark
Morphology Branches
Branches greyish white, glabrous or pubescent
Morphology Leaves
Leaves sessile to shortly petiolate, crowded at ends of short shoots; blades obovate, mostly 2–9.5 x 1–5.5 cm, mostly rounded at the apex, glabrous to finely puberulous or slightly scabrid; stipules 2–5 mm long
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers solitary, sweet scented, subsessile
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx-lobes 7–9, c. 2–15 mm long or limb ± truncate
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Corolla white or cream turning yellow or orange, open at night; tube mostly 50–125 mm long; lobes 6–9, 20–50 mm long
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Ovary Placenta
Placentas 6–9
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruit ellipsoid to subglobose, 4–11 x 2.7–10 cm, usually with a thick fibrous or woody wall with prominent wart-like lenticels, unribbed to very markedly coarsely 8–11-ribbed
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds flat, 5–10 mm long, finely reticulate.
Distribution
S1–3; S Ethiopia, Uganda, Kenya, Tanzania, Mozambique, Zimbabwe, South Africa
Ecology
Altitude range 25–270 m.
Vernacular
Gan-boli, kurun-doye (Somali)
Note
The Somali material has large fruits with coarse ribs and conspicuous lenticels and belongs to subsp. volkensii var. volkensii .Var. saundersiae (N.E. Br.) Verdc. occurs in southern Africa, whilst subsp. spathulifolia (Stapf & Hutch.) Verdc. is distributed in Angola, Zambia and Botswana.

[FZ]

Rubiaceae, D.M.Bridson & B.Verdcourt. Flora Zambesiaca 5:3. 2003

Morphology General Habit
Trees or shrubs 0.9–10 m tall with thick crowns and occasionally arching branches which sometimes touch the ground; bark smooth, light grey, not breaking down to a powdery surface but sometimes flaking; branchlets pale, often greyish-white, glabrous or pubescent or puberulous only at the apices.
Morphology Leaves
Leaves tufted at the ends of short spreading lateral shoots which are arranged ternately; blades (0.8)2.5–9.5 × (0.8)1.7–5.5 cm, obovate or obcuneate and usually small when mature, mostly rounded at the apex, sometimes acute, distinctly cuneate at the base, occasionally crenate, (thinner in texture than in last species and with the venation finer and less prominent), glabrous or finely puberulous to slightly scabridulous; some young branchlets (particularly in the Flora Zambesiaca area) are distinctly heterophyllous with some leaves of very different shape, these leaves 8–18 × 1–5.4 cm, lanceolate to rhomboid- lanceolate; stipules 2–5 mm long, semi-circular to ovate-triangular, pubescent and ciliate; petiole 0–2(3) mm long.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers open at night, solitary.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx tube 6–10 mm long, oblong, densely pubescent; limb-tube 5–14 mm long, glabrous or pubescent outside; lobes 7–9(10), extraordinarily variable, held at right angles to tube and decurrent, 2–15(20) × 0.5–8 mm, varying from small linear teeth to spathulate lobes or distinctly leaf-like, occasionally 2 joined to form a bifid lobe, glabrous, or limb ± truncate.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Corolla white or cream-coloured, turning yellow or orange, very variable in size; tube (2.5)5–12.5 cm long, very narrowly cylindrical, usually more slender than in last species, glabrous; lobes 6–9, 2–7 × 1–4.5 cm, elliptic to narrowly obovate.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens Anthers
Anthers 1.3–2 cm long, inserted below the throat.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Pistil
Ovary with 6–9 placentas; style hairy, yellow-green; pollen presenter 4–7 mm long, 6–9-lobed, shortly exserted.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruit usually whitish, grey or greyish-orange, very variable in size, 4–11 × 2.7–10 cm, ellipsoid to subglobose, usually with a thick fibrous or woody wall 3–10 mm thick, usually with prominent wart-like lenticels, not ribbed to very markedly coarsely 8–11-ribbed; apical and basal depressions in detached fruits wider than in last species, c. 15 mm; stalk thick, up to 13 mm wide.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds pale yellow-brown, more flattened than in last species, (4)5–10 mm long, finely reticulate-shagreened.

Native to:

Angola, Botswana, Caprivi Strip, Ethiopia, Kenya, KwaZulu-Natal, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, Northern Provinces, Somalia, Swaziland, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia, Zimbabwe

Gardenia volkensii K.Schum. appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status Has image?
Bidgood, S. [6200], Tanzania K000468225 No

First published in Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 34: 332 (1904)

Accepted by

  • Calane da Silva, M., Izdine, S. & Amuse, A.B. (2004). A Preliminary Checklist of the Vascular Plants of Mozambique: 1-184. SABONET, Pretoria.
  • Curtis, B. & Mannheimer, C. (2005). Tree Atlas of Namibia: 1-688. The National Botanical Research Institute, Windhoek.
  • Govaerts, R. (2003). World Checklist of Selected Plant Families Database in ACCESS: 1-216203. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Mannheimer, C.A. & Curtis, B.A. (eds.) (2009). Le Roux and Müller's field guide to the trees and shrubs of Namibia, rev. ed.: 1-525. Macmillan Education Namibia, Windhoek.
  • Thulin, M. (ed.) (2006). Flora of Somalia 3: 1-626. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

Literature

Kew Backbone Distributions

  • Strugnell, A.M. (2006). A checklist of the Spermatophytes of Mt. Mulanje, Malawi Scripta Botanica Belgica 34: 1-199.

Flora of Somalia

  • Flora Somalia, Vol 3, (2006) Author: by M. Thulin [updated by M. Thulin 2008]

Flora of Tropical East Africa

  • Cufod., Enumeratio Plantarum Aethiopiae Spermatophyta (Supplement in Bull. Jard. Bot. Brux.) p. 1002 (1965).
  • Dale & Greenway, Kenya Trees and Shrubs p. 442 (1961).
  • J.P.M. Brenan, Check-lists of the Forest Trees and Shrubs of the British Empire no. 5, part II, Tanganyika Territory p. 497 (1949).
  • K. Schum. in A. Engler, Botanische Jahrbücher für Systematik, Pflanzengeschichte und Pflanzengeographie 34: 332 (1904).
  • Stapf & Hutch. in Journal of the Linnean Society of London, Botany 38: 422 (1909).

  • Flora Zambesiaca

    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • Flora of Somalia

    Flora of Somalia
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • Flora of Tropical East Africa

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • Herbarium Catalogue Specimens

  • Kew Backbone Distributions

    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2022. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

  • Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone

    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2022. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0