Family:
Rubiaceae Juss.
Genus:
Genipa L.

Genipa americana L.

This species is accepted, and its native range is S. Mexico to Tropical America. It is used as animal food, a poison and a medicine, has environmental uses and social uses and for fuel and food.

[CPLC]

Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

Distribution
Nativa en Colombia; Alt. 0 - 1850 m.; Amazonia, Andes, Guayana y Serranía de La Macarena, Llanura del Caribe, Orinoquia, Pacífico, Valle del Cauca, Valle del Magdalena.
Morphology General Habit
Arbusto, arbolito, árbol
Conservation
Preocupación Menor

[UPFC]
Distribution
Biogeografic region: Amazonia, Andean, Guiana Shield, Caribbean, Orinoquia, Pacific. Elevation range: 0–1850 m a.s.l. Native to Colombia. Colombian departments: Amazonas, Antioquia, Arauca, Bolívar, Caquetá, Cesar, Chocó, Córdoba, Cundinamarca, Guaviare, Huila, La Guajira, Magdalena, Meta, Nariño, Putumayo, Quindío, Risaralda, Santander, Tolima, Valle del Cauca, Vaupés, Vichada.
Habit
Shrub, Small tree, Tree.
Conservation
National Red List of Colombia (2021): Potential LC.
Ecology
Habitat according IUCN Habitats Classification: forest and woodland, savanna, shrubland, native grassland, wetlands (inland), artificial - terrestrial.
Vernacular
Caruto, Guaricha irayol, Guate, Huito, Jagua, Jalma, Jiaveicù (Cubeo), Kipará, Mapaütonae (Sikuani), Mapütunael (Sikuani), Mataütonae (Sikuani)

[UNAL]

Bernal, R., G. Galeano, A. Rodríguez, H. Sarmiento y M. Gutiérrez. 2017. Nombres Comunes de las Plantas de Colombia. http://www.biovirtual.unal.edu.co/nombrescomunes/

Vernacular
angelina, angelito, borojó, botellón, cabo de hacha, carate, careto, carreto, carupo, caruta, caruto, chibará, chipará, granado, guaitil, guanapay, guayabo de tejado, huito, jago, jagua, jagua maluco, jaguarito, jagüito, jaguo, jigua, palo de pintura, piaste, piginio, piginio amarillo, pigio, pintura de pescado, tinto, totumo, zapote de monte

[UPFC]
Use Animal Food
Used as animal food.
Use Environmental
Environmental uses.
Use Fuel
Used for fuels.
Use Food
Used for food.
Use Materials
Used as material.
Use Medicines
Medical uses.
Use Poisons
Poisons.
Use Social
Social uses.

Native to:

Argentina Northeast, Belize, Bolivia, Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, French Guiana, Guatemala, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Leeward Is., Mexico Gulf, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Nicaragua, Panamá, Paraguay, Peru, Puerto Rico, Suriname, Trinidad-Tobago, Venezuela, Windward Is.

Genipa americana L. appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status Has image?
Aug 19, 2011 Demuner [463], Brazil K000771130 No
Feb 1, 2008 Zappi, D.C. [1086], Mato Grosso K000447991 No
Nov 1, 2007 Sasaki, D. [1494], Mato Grosso K000447993 No
Jun 1, 2007 Projeto Flora Cristalino [375], Mato Grosso K000447992 No
Oct 1, 1996 Laurenio, A. [263], Pernambuco K000015251 No
Sep 7, 1995 Bernacci [2135], Brazil K000836458 Yes
Jan 1, 1988 Catharino, R.L.M. [1294], Sergipe K000015252 Yes
Jan 1, 1981 Prance, G.T. [59509], Brazil K000836451 Yes
Jan 1, 1971 Hatschbach, G.G. [Ha 15808], Brazil K000836431 Yes
Jan 1, 1969 Prance, G.T. [4046], Brazil K000836461 Yes
Gardner [1042], Pernambuco K000015250 Yes
Riedel [616], Bahia K000015253 Yes
Gardner [1042], Pernambuco K000015255 Yes
Salzmann, Bahia K000015254 Yes
Cazalet, P. [5111], Ecuador 18927.000 No
Rodal, M.J.N et al. [772], Brazil K000265155 Yes
Maguire, B. [28071], Venezuela K000424484 paratype Yes
Pires, J.M. [52451], Amapa K000424488 isotype Yes
Pires, J.M. [52657], Amapa K000424491 paratype Yes
Ducke, A. [35589], Brazil K000836467 Yes
Lima, H.C. de [6228], Brazil K000836469 Yes
Glaziou, A. [8743], Brazil K000836435 Yes
Pires, J.M. [52451], Amapa K000424492 isotype Yes
Burchell [9551], Brazil K000836464 Yes
Ratter, J.A. [1590], Brazil K000836446 Yes
Pires, J.M. [50488], Amapa K000424489 paratype Yes
Burchell [9551], Brazil K000836428 Yes
Irwin, H.S. [17197], Brazil K000836448 Yes
Pires, J.M. [52657], Amapa K000424490 paratype Yes
Hunt, D.R. [6184], Brazil K000836450 Yes
Prance, G.T. [5095], Brazil K000836465 Yes
Lee, A.R. [s.n.] K000836422 Yes
Prance, G.T. [4150], Brazil K000836462 Yes
Burchell [5836], Brazil K000836445 Yes
Burchell [9551], Brazil K000836429 Yes
Spruce, R. [2495], Brazil K000836456 Yes
Claussen, P. [s.n.], Brazil K000836433 Yes
Krukoff, B.A. [5044], Brazil K000836452 Yes
Prance, G.T. [5551], Brazil K000836421 Yes
Pennington, T.D. [16999], Peru 64714.000 No
Prance, G.T. [6575], Brazil K000836460 Yes
s.coll. [7711], Brazil K000836468 Yes
Whitford, H.N. [52], Brazil K000836434 Yes
Riedel [1029], Brazil K000836436 Yes
Spruce, R. [s.n.], Brazil K000836425 Yes
Glaziou [10929], Brazil K000836437 Yes
Glaziou, A. [12760], Brazil K000836438 Yes
Eiten, G. [10751], Brazil K000836440 Yes
Spruce, R. [s.n.], Brazil K000836430 Yes
Claussen [s.n.], Brazil K001078019 Yes
Prance, G.T. [9114], Brazil K000836459 Yes
Ule, E. [7836], Brazil K000836466 Yes
Krukoff, B.A. [1552], Brazil K000836449 Yes
Spruce [1735], Brazil K000836454 Yes
Spruce [954], Brazil K000836427 Yes
Harley, R.M. [10816], Brazil K000836447 Yes
Krukoff, B.A. [8947], Brazil K000836457 Yes
Spruce, R. [998], Brazil K000424486 Yes
Prance, G.T. [5551], Brazil K000836441 Yes
Prance, G.T. [P10347], Brazil K000836424 Yes
Fróes, R.L. [21191], Brazil K000836423 Yes
Prance, G.T. [5762], Brazil K000836443 Yes
Prance, G.T. [59338], Brazil K000836444 Yes
s.coll. [2495], Brazil K000836455 Yes
Fróes, R.L. [11720], Brazil K000836439 Yes
Spruce, R. [1017], Brazil K000424487 Yes
Prance, G.T. [9558], Brazil K000836463 Yes
Spruce, R. [s.n.], Brazil K000836426 Yes
Schultes, R.E. [9143], Brazil K000836453 Yes
Claussen [s.n.], Brazil K000836432 Yes
Walter, B.M.T. [3919], Brazil K001212157 Yes
Prance, G.T. [6862], Brazil K000836442 Yes
Peru K000110940 Yes
Peru K000110941 Yes
Peru K000110942 Yes
Peru K000110943 Yes
Peru K000110944 Yes
Peru K000110945 Yes
Peru K000110946 Yes
Peru K000110947 Yes
Colombia K001491379 Yes
Colombia K001491380 Yes
Colombia K001491381 Yes
Colombia K001491382 Yes
Colombia K001491383 Yes
Colombia K001491384 Yes
Colombia K001491385 Yes
Colombia K001491386 Yes
Colombia K001491387 Yes
Colombia K001491388 Yes
Colombia K001491389 Yes
Colombia K001491390 Yes
Colombia K001491393 Yes
Venezuela K001491394 Yes
Venezuela K001491395 Yes
Venezuela K001491396 Yes
Venezuela K001491397 Yes
Venezuela K001491398 Yes
Venezuela K001491399 Yes
Venezuela K001491400 Yes
Venezuela K001491401 Yes
Ecuador K001491402 Yes
Ecuador K001491403 Yes
Ecuador K001491404 Yes
Ecuador K001491405 Yes
Ecuador K001491406 Yes
Ecuador K001491407 Yes
Ecuador K001491408 Yes
Ecuador K001491409 Yes
Area 17 K001491410 Yes
Peru K001491411 Yes
Peru K001491412 Yes
Peru K001491413 Yes
Peru K001491414 Yes
Peru K001491415 Yes
Peru K001491416 Yes
Peru K001491417 Yes
Peru K001491418 Yes
Peru K001491419 Yes
Peru K001491420 Yes
Ecuador K001491421 Yes
Ecuador K001491422 Yes
Ecuador K001491423 Yes
Ecuador K001491424 Yes
Ecuador K001491425 Yes
Panama K001491426 Yes
Panama K001491427 Yes
Panama K001491428 Yes
Panama K001491429 Yes
Peru K001493113 Yes
Peru K001493114 Yes
Peru K001493115 Yes
Peru K001493117 Yes
Peru K001493118 Yes
Peru K001493119 Yes
Peru K001493120 Yes
Peru K001493121 Yes
Venezuela K001493131 Yes
Venezuela K001493132 Yes
Venezuela K001493133 Yes
Venezuela K001493134 Yes
Venezuela K001493135 Yes
Venezuela K001493136 Yes
Venezuela K001493137 Yes
Pittier, H. [12085], Costa Rica Genipa codonocalyx K000424493 Unknown type material Yes
Spruce, R. [3106], Peru Genipa americana var. caruto K000006531 No
Spruce, R. [3106], Peru Genipa americana var. caruto K000006532 No
Peru Genipa americana var. caruto K000110937 Yes
Peru Genipa americana var. caruto K000110938 Yes
Peru Genipa americana var. caruto K000110939 Yes
Colombia Genipa americana var. caruto K001491372 Yes
Colombia Genipa americana var. caruto K001491374 Yes
Colombia Genipa americana var. caruto K001491375 Yes
Colombia Genipa americana var. caruto K001491376 Yes
Colombia Genipa americana var. caruto K001491377 Yes
Colombia Genipa americana var. caruto K001491378 Yes
Peru Genipa americana var. caruto K001493116 Yes
Venezuela Genipa americana var. caruto K001493122 Yes
Venezuela Genipa americana var. caruto K001493123 Yes
Venezuela Genipa americana var. caruto K001493124 Yes
Venezuela Genipa americana var. caruto K001493125 Yes
Venezuela Genipa americana var. caruto K001493126 Yes
Venezuela Genipa americana var. caruto K001493127 Yes
Venezuela Genipa americana var. caruto K001493128 Yes
Venezuela Genipa americana var. caruto K001493129 Yes
Venezuela Genipa americana var. caruto K001493130 Yes

First published in Syst. Nat. ed. 10, 2: 931 (1759)

Accepted by

  • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
  • Berry, P.E., Yatskievych, K. & Holst, B.K. (eds.) in Steyermark, J., Berry, P.E., Holts, B.K. (eds). (2004). Flora of the Venezuelan Guayana 8: 1-874. Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis.
  • Borhidi, A. & Diego-Pérez, N. (2008). Coussareae, Gardenieae, Hedyotideae, Mussaendeae, Naucleae, Rondeletieae (Rubiaceae) Flora de Guerrero 35: 1-122. Facultade de Ciencias, UNAM.
  • Borhidi, A. (2006). Rubiáceas de México: 1-512. Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest.
  • Borhidi, A. (2012). Rubiáceas de México, ed. 2: 1-608. Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest.
  • Davidse, G. & al. (eds.) (2012). Flora Mesoamericana 4(2): 1-533. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México, D.F.
  • Delprete, P.G. & Cortés-B., R. (2006 publ. 2007). A synopsis of the Rubiaceae of the states of Mato Grosso and Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, with a key to genera, and a preliminary species list Revista de Biologia Neotropical 3: 13-96.
  • Delprete, P.G. (2010). Rubiaceae Flora dos estados de Goiás e Tocantins 40: 1-1610. Universidade Federal de Goiás.
  • Delprete, P.G., Smith, L.B., Klein, R.M. (2005). Flora Ilustrada Catarinense 2: 349-842. Herbário "Barbosa Rodrigues", Atají, Brasil.
  • Govaerts, R. (2003). World Checklist of Selected Plant Families Database in ACCESS: 1-216203. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Hammel, B.E., Grayum, M.H., Herrera, C. & Zamora, N. (eds.) (2014). Manual de Plantas de Costa Rica 7: 1-840. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
  • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
  • Idárraga-Piedrahita, A., Ortiz, R.D.C., Callejas Posada, R. & Merello, M. (eds.) (2011). Flora de Antioquia: Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares 2: 1-939. Universidad de Antioquia, Medellín.
  • Linares, J.L. (2003 publ. 2005). Lista comentado de los árboles nativos y cultivados en la República de El Salvador Ceiba; a Scientific and Technical Journal Published by Zamorano 44: 105-268.
  • Mendoza, H., Ramirez P., B.R. & Jimenez, L.C. (2004). Rubiaceae de Colombia: guia ilustrada de generos: 1-351. Instituto de Investigacion de Recursos Biologicos Alexander von Humboldt, Bogota, Colombia.
  • Oliveira-Filho, A.T. (2006). Catálogo das Árvores nativas de Minas Gerais: 1-423. Editora UFLA, Lavas, Brasil.
  • Sant'Ana Melhem, T., das Graças Lapa Wanderley, M., Ehlin Martins, S., Jung-Mendaçolli, S.L., Shepherd, G.J. & Kirizawa, M. (eds.) (2007). Flora Fanerogâmica do Estado de São Paulo 5: 1-476. Instituto de Botânica, São Paulo.
  • Williams, R.O. & Cheeseman, E.E. in Williams, R.O. (1928). Rubiales Flora of Trinidad and Tobago 2(1): 1-48. Government Printing Office, Port-of-Spain.

Literature

Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia

  • Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

Kew Backbone Distributions

  • Borhidi, A. (2006). Rubiáceas de México: 1-512. Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest.
  • Delprete, P.G., Smith, L.B., Klein, R.M. (2005). Flora Ilustrada Catarinense 2: 349-842. Herbário "Barbosa Rodrigues", Atají, Brasil.
  • Oliveira-Filho, A.T. (2006). Catálogo das Árvores nativas de Minas Gerais: 1-423. Editora UFLA, Lavas, Brasil.
  • Ruhsam, M. (2005). Survey of all the Rubiaceae specimens at the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

Useful Plants and Fungi of Colombia

  • Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R., & Celis, M. (eds.). (2020). Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia. v1.1. Universidad Nacional de Colombia. Dataset/Checklist. https://doi.org/10.15472/7avdhn
  • Diazgranados et al. (2021). Catalogue of plants of Colombia. Useful Plants and Fungi of Colombia project. In prep.
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  • GBIF.org (2021). GBIF species matching tool. https://www.gbif.org/tools/species-lookup
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  • Garrido, A.M., Cámara-Leret, R., Madriñán, S. (2014). Nombres y usos de las plantas identificadas por los indígenas cubeo de Colombia (Tesis de pregrado). Universidad de Los Andes, Bogotá.
  • Instituto de Investigación de Recursos Biológicos Alexander von Humbodlt (2014). Plantas alimenticias y medicinales nativas de Colombia. 2567 registros, aportados por: Castellanos, C. (Contacto del recurso), Valderrama, N. (Creador del recurso, Autor), Bernal, Y. (Autor), García, N. (Autor). http://i2d.humboldt.org.co/ceiba/resource.do?r=ls_colombia_magnoliophyta_2014
  • Instituto de Investigación de Recursos Biológicos Alexander von Humboldt (2015). Identificación de las plantas útiles como Productos Forestales No Maderables del Bosque seco-Tropical en tres ventanas del Caribe colombiano. 1386 registros, aportados por: Garcia, H. (Contacto del Recurso), López Camacho, R. (Creador del recurso), Sarmiento Bernal, C. (Proveedor del metadatos). Espitia Palenci, L. (Autor), Gallego, B. (Punto de contacto), Aguilar Cano, J. (Curador), Mendoza, H. (Curador). Versión 2.0. http://i2d.humboldt.org.co/ceiba/resource.do?r=rrbb_bst-caribe_plantae_2015
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  • Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia

    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • Colombian resources for Plants made Accessible

    ColPlantA 2021. Published on the Internet at http://colplanta.org
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

  • Herbarium Catalogue Specimens

    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

  • Kew Backbone Distributions

    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2022. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

  • Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone

    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2022. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

  • Kew Science Photographs

    Copyright applied to individual images

  • Universidad Nacional de Colombia

    ColPlantA database
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • Useful Plants and Fungi of Colombia

    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0