Morinda citrifolia L.

First published in Sp. Pl.: 176 (1753), nom. cons.
This species is accepted
The native range of this species is Tropical & Subtropical Asia to N. Australia. It is a Shrub or tree and grows primarly in the Wet Tropical biome(s). It is used as a medicine, has environmental uses and social uses and for fuel and food.

Distribution

Native to:

Andaman Is., Assam, Bangladesh, Bismarck Archipelago, Borneo, Cambodia, China Southeast, Christmas I., Cocos (Keeling) Is., Hainan, India, Jawa, Kazan-retto, Laccadive Is., Lesser Sunda Is., Malaya, Maldives, Maluku, Myanmar, Nansei-shoto, New Guinea, Nicobar Is., Northern Territory, Ogasawara-shoto, Philippines, Queensland, Santa Cruz Is., Solomon Is., South China Sea, Sri Lanka, Sulawesi, Sumatera, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam, Western Australia

Introduced into:

Bahamas, Belize, Caroline Is., Cayman Is., Chagos Archipelago, Colombia, Comoros, Cook Is., Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Fiji, Gilbert Is., Guatemala, Haiti, Hawaii, Honduras, Jamaica, Leeward Is., Line Is., Marcus I., Marianas, Marquesas, Marshall Is., Mexico Gulf, Mexico Southeast, Nauru, Netherlands Antilles, New Caledonia, Nicaragua, Niue, Panamá, Phoenix Is., Pitcairn Is., Puerto Rico, Samoa, Seychelles, Society Is., Southwest Caribbean, Tokelau-Manihiki, Tonga, Trinidad-Tobago, Tuamotu, Tubuai Is., Turks-Caicos Is., Tuvalu, Vanuatu, Venezuelan Antilles, Wallis-Futuna Is., Windward Is.

Synonyms

Homotypic Synonyms

Heterotypic Synonyms

POWO follows these authorities in accepting this name:

  • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies. Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
  • Balkrishna, A. (2018). Flora of Morni Hills (Research & Possibilities): 1-581. Divya Yoga Mandir Trust.
  • Beaman, J.H. & Anderson, C. (2004). The Plants of Mount Kinabalu 5: 1-609. Natural history publications (Borneo), Kota Kinabalu, Malaysia.
  • Borhidi, A. (2006). Rubiáceas de México: 1-512. Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest.
  • Borhidi, A. (2012). Rubiáceas de México, ed. 2: 1-608. Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest.
  • Chamchumroon, V. & Puff, C. (2003). The Rubiaceae of Ko Chang, south-eastern Thailand. Thai Forest Bulletin (Botany) 31: 13-26.
  • Cirilo, N. & Proctor, G.R. (1994). Vascular plants of the Caribbean Swan islands of Honduras. Brenesia 41-42: 73-80.
  • Davidse, G. & al. (eds.) (2012). Flora Mesoamericana 4(2): 1-533. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México, D.F.
  • Fosberg, F.R. & Sachet, M.-H. (1987). Flora of the Gilbert Island, Kiribati, Checklist. Atoll Research Bulletin 295: 1-33.
  • Friedmann, F. (1994). Flore des Seychelles Dicotylédones: 1-663. ORSTOM éditions.
  • Gardner, R.O. (2011). Trees and shrubs of Niue: an identification guide to the island's indigenous and naturalised woody plants: 1-244. R.O. Gardner, Auckland, New Zealand.
  • Girmansyah, D. & al. (eds.) (2013). Flora of Bali an annotated checklist: 1-158. Herbarium Bogorensis, Indonesia.
  • Govaerts, R. (2003). World Checklist of Selected Plant Families Database in ACCESS: 1-216203. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Hammel, B.E., Grayum, M.H., Herrera, C. & Zamora, N. (eds.) (2014). Manual de Plantas de Costa Rica 7: 1-840. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
  • Idárraga-Piedrahita, A., Ortiz, R.D.C., Callejas Posada, R. & Merello, M. (eds.) (2011). Flora de Antioquia: Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares 2: 1-939. Universidad de Antioquia, Medellín.
  • Mendoza, H., Ramirez P., B.R. & Jimenez, L.C. (2004). Rubiaceae de Colombia: guia ilustrada de generos: 1-351. Instituto de Investigacion de Recursos Biologicos Alexander von Humboldt, Bogota, Colombia.
  • Morat, P. & Veillon, J.-M. (1985). Contributions à la conaissance de la végétation et de la flore de Wallis et Futuna. Bulletin du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle. Section B, Adansonia 7: 259-329.
  • Mostaph, M.K. & Uddin, S.B. (2013). Dictionary of plant names of Bangladesh, Vasc. Pl.: 1-434. Janokalyan Prokashani, Chittagong, Bangladesh.
  • Puff, C., Chayamarit, K., Chamchumroon, V. & Esser, H.-J. (2021). Flora of Thailand 15(1): 1-235. The Forest Herbarium, National Park, Wildlife and Plant Conservation Department, Bangkok.
  • Smith, A.C. (1988). Flora Vitiensis Nova. A new flora for Fiji (Spermatophytes only) 4: 1-377. Pacific Tropical Botanical Garden, Lawai.
  • Sykes, W.R. (2016). Flora of the Cook Islands: 1-973. National Tropical Botanical Garden, Hawaii.
  • Turner, I.M. (1995 publ. 1997). A catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Malaya. Gardens' Bulletin Singapore 47(2): 347-655.
  • Turner, I.M., Xing, F. & Corlett, R.T. (2000). An annotated check-list of the vascular plants of the South China Sea and its shores. The Raffles bulletin of Zoology, Suppl. 8: 23-116.
  • Wester, L. (1985). Checklist of the vascular plants of the Northern Line Islands. Atoll Research Bulletin 287: 1-38.
  • Wheatley, J.I. (1992). A guide to the common trees of Vanuatu. With lists of their traditional uses & ni-Vanuatu names: 1-308. Department of Forestry, Port Vila.
  • Woodroffe, C.D. (1985). Vegetation and flora of Nui Atoll, Tuvalu. Atoll Research Bulletin 283: 1-18.
  • Wu, Z., Raven, P.H. & Hong, D. (eds.) (2011). Flora of China 19: 1-884. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
  • van Proosdij, A.S.J. (2012). Arnoldo's Zakflora, ed. 4: 1-318. Walburg Pers, Zutphen.

Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia

  • Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

Kew Backbone Distributions

  • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies. Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
  • Ananda Rao, T. & Ellis, J.L. (1995). Flora of Lakshadweep islands off the Malabar coast, peninsular India, with emphasis on phytogeographical distribution of plants. Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 19: 235-250.
  • Barthelat, F. (2019). La flore illustrée de Mayotte: 1-687. Biotope éditions.
  • Borhidi, A. (2006). Rubiáceas de México: 1-512. Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest.
  • Cirilo, N. & Proctor, G.R. (1994). Vascular plants of the Caribbean Swan islands of Honduras. Brenesia 41-42: 73-80.
  • Correll, D.S. & Correll, H.B. (1982). Flora of the Bahama Archipelago: 1-1692. J.Cramer, Vaduz.
  • Florence, J., Waldren, S. & Chepstow-Lusty, A.J. (1995). The flora of the Pitcairn islands: a review. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 56: 79-119.
  • Fosberg, F.R. & Sachet, M.-H. (1987). Flora of the Gilbert Island, Kiribati, Checklist. Atoll Research Bulletin 295: 1-33.
  • Fosberg, F.R. (1957). The Maldive islands, Indian Ocean. Atoll Research Bulletin 58: 1-37.
  • Fosberg, F.R., Sachet, M.-H., Oliver, R. (1979). A geographical checklist of the Micronesian Dicotyledonae. Micronesica; Journal of the College of Guam 15: 41-295.
  • Friedmann, F. (1994). Flore des Seychelles Dicotylédones: 1-663. ORSTOM éditions.
  • GBIF (2008- continuously updated). Global Biodiversity Information Facility http://www.gbif.org/.
  • Gardner, R.O. (2011). Trees and shrubs of Niue: an identification guide to the island's indigenous and naturalised woody plants: 1-244. R.O. Gardner, Auckland, New Zealand.
  • Hammel, B.E., Grayum, M.H., Herrera, C. & Zamora, N. (eds.) (2014). Manual de Plantas de Costa Rica 7: 1-840. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
  • Leti, M., Hul, S., Fouché, J.-G., Cheng, S.K. & David, B. (2013). Flore photographique du Cambodge: 1-589. Éditions Privat, Toulouse.
  • Morat, P. & Veillon, J.-M. (1985). Contributions à la conaissance de la végétation et de la flore de Wallis et Futuna. Bulletin du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle. Section B, Adansonia 7: 259-329.
  • Mostaph, M.K. & Uddin, S.B. (2013). Dictionary of plant names of Bangladesh, Vasc. Pl.: 1-434. Janokalyan Prokashani, Chittagong, Bangladesh.
  • Pandey, R.P. & Dilwakar, P.G. (2008). An integrated check-list flora of Andaman and Nicobar islands, India. Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 32: 403-500.
  • Puff, C., Chayamarit, K., Chamchumroon, V. & Esser, H.-J. (2021). Flora of Thailand 15(1): 1-235. The Forest Herbarium, National Park, Wildlife and Plant Conservation Department, Bangkok.
  • Ruhsam, M. (2005). Survey of all the Rubiaceae specimens at the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Sheppard, C.R.C. & Seaward, M.R.D. (eds.) (1999). Ecology of the Chagos archipelago: 1-350. Westbury Academic & Scientific Publishing, Otley.
  • Sinha, B.K. (1999). Flora of Great Nicobar Island: 1-525. Botanical Survey of India, Calcutta.
  • Smith, A.C. (1988). Flora Vitiensis Nova. A new flora for Fiji (Spermatophytes only) 4: 1-377. Pacific Tropical Botanical Garden, Lawai.
  • Thaman, R.R., Fosberg, F.R., Manner, H.I. & Hassall, D.C. (1994). The Flora of Nauru. Atoll Research Bulletin 392: 1-223.
  • Turner, I.M., Xing, F. & Corlett, R.T. (2000). An annotated check-list of the vascular plants of the South China Sea and its shores. The Raffles bulletin of Zoology, Suppl. 8: 23-116.
  • Welsh, S.L. (1998). Flora Societensis: 1-420. E.P.S. Inc. Utah.
  • Wester, L. (1985). Checklist of the vascular plants of the Northern Line Islands. Atoll Research Bulletin 287: 1-38.
  • Whitmore, T.C. (1966). Guide to the forests of the British Solomon islands: 1-208. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.
  • Woodroffe, C.D. (1985). Vegetation and flora of Nui Atoll, Tuvalu. Atoll Research Bulletin 283: 1-18.
  • Wu, Z., Raven, P.H. & Hong, D. (eds.) (2011). Flora of China 19: 1-884. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
  • van Proosdij, A.S.J. (2012). Arnoldo's Zakflora, ed. 4: 1-318. Walburg Pers, Zutphen.

Useful Plants and Fungi of Colombia

  • Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R., & Celis, M. (eds.). (2020). Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia. v1.1. Universidad Nacional de Colombia. Dataset/Checklist. https://doi.org/10.15472/7avdhn
  • Castañeda, R.R. (1991). Frutas silvestres de Colombia. Instituto Colombiano de Cultura Hispánica.
  • Cámara-Leret, R., & Dennehy, Z. (2019). Information gaps in indigenous and local knowledge for science-policy assessments. Nature Sustainability 2:736-741.
  • Diazgranados et al. (2021). Catalogue of plants of Colombia. Useful Plants and Fungi of Colombia project. In prep.
  • Diazgranados, M., Allkin, B., Black N., Cámara-Leret, R., Canteiro C., Carretero J., Eastwood R., Hargreaves S., Hudson A., Milliken W., Nesbitt, M., Ondo, I., Patmore, K., Pironon, S., Turner, R., Ulian, T. (2020). World Checklist of Useful Plant Species. Produced by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Knowledge Network for Biocomplexity.
  • FPI (2021). Food Plants International. https://fms.cmsvr.com/fmi/webd/Food_Plants_World?homeurl=https://foodplantsinternational.com/plants/
  • GBIF.org (2021). GBIF species matching tool. https://www.gbif.org/tools/species-lookup
  • GRIN (2021). Germplasm Resources Information Network from the United States Department of Agriculture. https://www.ars-grin.gov/
  • Instituto de Investigación de Recursos Biológicos Alexander von Humbodlt (2014). Plantas alimenticias y medicinales nativas de Colombia. 2567 registros, aportados por: Castellanos, C. (Contacto del recurso), Valderrama, N. (Creador del recurso, Autor), Bernal, Y. (Autor), García, N. (Autor). http://i2d.humboldt.org.co/ceiba/resource.do?r=ls_colombia_magnoliophyta_2014
  • Instituto de Investigación de Recursos Biológicos Alexander von Humboldt (2016). Dinámicas del uso de la biodiversidad en los sistemas agroalimentarios regionales del municipio de Montería, Córdoba. 240 registros, aportados por: Hernández, A. (Contacto del recurso), Avila, F. (Creador del recurso, Proveedor de metadatos). Versión 1.0. http://i2d.humboldt.org.co/ceiba/resource.do?r=rrbb_monteria_plantae_2016
  • Jansen, P., Lemmens, R., Oyen, L., Siemonsma, J., Stavast, F. & Van Valkenburg, J. (1991) Plant Resources of South-East Asia. Basic list of species and commodity grouping. Final version. Pudoc, Wageningen.
  • Medicinal Plant Names Services (MPNS) v.10 (2021); http://mpns.kew.org/
  • PROTA (2021). Plants Resources of Tropical Africa. https://prota4u.org/database/
  • RBG, Kew (2021). Kew Economic Botany Collection. https://ecbot.science.kew.org/
  • Willis, K.J. (ed.) (2017). State of the World’s Plants 2017. Report. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

Other Data

Other Kew resources that provide information on this taxon:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status Has image?
Apr 28, 2015 Lee [S.55741], Sarawak K001045180 No
Jan 1, 2014 I Made Maduarta (Pung) [1], Lesser Sunda Is. K000734794 No
Jan 1, 2014 I Made Maduarta (Pung) [22], Bali K000734793 No
Jan 1, 2014 I Made Maduarta (Pung) [13], Lesser Sunda Is. K000734799 No
Jan 1, 2014 I Komang Sujata (Sujata) [IKS 20], Lesser Sunda Is. K000734847 No
Jan 1, 2014 I Made Maduarta (Pung) [5], Lesser Sunda Is. K000734795 No
Jan 1, 2014 I Made Maduarta (Pung) [11], Lesser Sunda Is. K000734797 No
Jan 1, 2014 I Made Maduarta (Pung) [14], Lesser Sunda Is. K000734798 No
Jan 1, 2014 I Made Maduarta (Pung) [8], Lesser Sunda Is. K000734796 No
Jul 1, 2013 I Made Maduarta (Pung) [43], Lesser Sunda Is. K000733743 No
Jul 1, 2013 Wilhelmus Daos Kadati (Willy) [WDK 004], Lesser Sunda Is. K000733742 No
Jul 1, 2013 Wilhelmus Daos Kadati (Willy) [WDK 005], Lesser Sunda Is. K000733740 No
Jul 1, 2013 Wilhelmus Daos Kadati (Willy) [WDK 010], Lesser Sunda Is. K000733741 No
Jul 1, 2013 Wilhelmus Daos Kadati (Willy) [WDK 003], Lesser Sunda Is. K000733744 No
Apr 22, 2008 I Made Maduarta [88], Lesser Sunda Is. K000734557 No
Mar 31, 1970 Rojas, C.E.B. de; Rojas, F. [2971], Venezuela K001444213 Yes
Waterhouse, J.H.L. [163], Solomon Is. 14514.000 No
Jeffrey, C. [810], Seychelles 22920.000 No
Hutson, A.M. [20], British Indian Ocean Territory 34461.000 No
40702.000 No
Jowett, F.W. [45] 45785.000 No
Wheatley, J.I. [684], Vanuatu 54996.000 No
Wallich, N. [8418 D], India K000031562 Unknown type material Yes
Wallich, N. [8418], India K000031564 Unknown type material Yes
Wallich, N. [8418 H], India K000031563 Unknown type material Yes
Wallich, N. [8419], India K000031565 Unknown type material Yes
Stocks, J.E. [s.n.], India K000031566 Unknown type material Yes
Horsfield, T. [s.n.], Indonesia K000763780 Yes
s.coll. [Cat. no. 8418] K001125448 Yes
s.coll. [Cat. no. 8418] K001125454 Yes
s.coll. [Cat. no. 8418] K001125475 Yes
Comanor, P. L. [1011], Sri Lanka K000265587 Yes
Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 8418], Myanmar K001125453 Yes
Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 8418], Myanmar K001125445 Yes
Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 8418], Malaysia K001125451 Yes
s.coll. [Cat. no. 8418] K001125449 Yes
Balasubramaniam, S. [SB2284], Sri Lanka K000265590 Yes
Thompson, J.B. [37], Guam K000763742 Yes
Tirvengadum, D.D. [624], Sri Lanka K000265592 Yes
Waas, S. et. al. [1194], Sri Lanka K000265586 Yes
s.coll. [Cat. no. 8418] K001125450 Yes
Miquel, F.A.W. [s.n.], Indonesia K000763781 Yes
Horsfield, T. [900], Jawa K000763779 Yes
s.coll. [Cat. no. 8418], Malaysia K001125446 Yes
Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 8418], Myanmar K001125452 Yes
s.coll. [Cat. no. 8418], India K001125447 Yes
Sumithraarachchi, D.B. [DBS681], Sri Lanka K000265591 Yes
Balasubramaniam, S. [SB2284], Sri Lanka K000265589 Yes
s.coll. [Cat. no. 8418], Thailand K001125444 Yes

Sources

  • Art and Illustrations in Digifolia

    • Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew
  • Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia

    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
  • Colombian resources for Plants made Accessible

    • ColPlantA 2021. Published on the Internet at http://colplanta.org
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/
  • Herbarium Catalogue Specimens

    • Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/
  • Kew Backbone Distributions

    • The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Vascular Plants 2022. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and https://powo.science.kew.org/
    • © Copyright 2022 World Checklist of Vascular Plants. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0
  • Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone

    • The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Vascular Plants 2022. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and https://powo.science.kew.org/
    • © Copyright 2022 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Vascular Plants. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0
  • Kew Science Photographs

    • Copyright applied to individual images
  • Universidad Nacional de Colombia

    • ColPlantA database
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
  • Useful Plants and Fungi of Colombia

    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0