Genus:
Xylopia L.

Xylopia aethiopica (Dunal) A.Rich.

This species is accepted, and its native range is Tropical Africa.

[FTEA]

Annonaceae, B. Verdcourt. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1971

Morphology General Habit
Tall evergreen aromatic tree or shrub, 5.4–30(–45) m. tall, with fairly smooth grey-brown bark, a much-branched crown and sometimes a buttressed bole; young branchlets puberulous at first, but soon glabrous, reddish-brown to blackish, smooth or rugose and mostly with many conspicuous lenticels.
Morphology Leaves
Leaf-blades oblong, elliptic, ovate or oblanceolate, (6–)8–16.4 cm. long, 2.8–6.5 cm. wide, obtuse, acute or prominently acuminate at the apex (the acumen attaining 2 cm.), cuneate to rounded and decurrent at the base, coriaceous, drying bluish-green above and greenish-brown to orange beneath, glabrous above, adpressed pubescent or glabrescent (silky pilose when very young) and usually ± glaucous beneath; venation laxly to densely reticulate, usually prominent on both surfaces but sometimes obscure above; petiole 3–6 mm. long, blackish, adpressed pubescent or glabrescent.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers solitary or in 3–5-flowered fascicles, fragrant; pedicels 0.4–1.1 cm. long, adpressed ferruginous pubescent; bracteoles 2–3, cucullate, 1–4 mm. long, 2–2.5 mm. wide, adpressed pubescent outside, glabrous inside.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Sepals ovate-triangular, 3–5 mm. long and wide, rounded to acute or apiculate, glabrescent to pubescent outside, glabrous inside.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Petals cream, greenish-white or yellow; outer linear, 2.5–5.5 cm. long, 2–3.5 mm. wide above, 5–6 mm. wide at the base, concave at the base, silky pubescent outside, tomentellous inside save at the base; inner rather shorter and narrower, 2.7–4.5 cm. long, 1.5–2 mm. wide, tomentellous save at the base.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Stamens linear, 1–1.5 mm. long; connective-prolongation obliquely capitate, papillose or pubescent.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Carpels
Carpels 24–32(–42); ovary cylindric, 1–1.5 mm. long, sparsely adpressed pilose, 6–8-ovuled; styles linear-tapering, aggregated to form a very narrow cone ± 3–4.5 mm. long.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruiting pedicels 0.7–1.2(–2.2) cm. long; monocarps (5–) 16–24(–42), green to reddish, cylindrical, 1.5–6 cm. long, 5–7 mm. wide, straight, obtuse, 1–8-seeded, not or scarcely constricted between the seeds, glabrous, ± smooth but usually diagonally ridged, subsessile.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds orange-red to black, cylindrical, vertical, 5–7 mm. long, 2–4 mm. wide and thick; aril papery, yellow, 2–3 mm. long.
Figures
Fig. 19, p. 78.
Habitat
Rain-forest, swamp forest, also in Parinari woodland; 800–1200 m.
Distribution
from Senegal to the Sudan and S. to Angola, Congo, Zambia and Mozambique T1 T3 T6 T8 U4

[FWTA]

Annonaceae, Hutchinson and Dalziel. Flora of West Tropical Africa 1:1. 1954

Morphology General Habit
A tree, up to 60 ft. high
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Greenish-white fragrant flowers
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruit a cluster of very numerous narrow dark brown carpels.

[FZ]

Annonaceae, N. K. B. Robson. Flora Zambesiaca 1:1. 1960

Morphology General Habit
Tree 5.4–30 (45) m. high, erect, with fairly smooth grey-brown bark, sometimes buttressed.
Morphology Branches
Branches red-brown to blackish, smooth or ± rugose, puberulent at first, eventually glabrous; lenticels usually numerous and conspicuous.
Morphology Leaves
Leaves petiolate; lamina (6) 8–16.4 x 2.8–6.5 cm., oblong or elliptic to oblanceolate or ovate, acute to obtuse or usually with an acumen up to 2 cm. long at the apex, cuneate to rounded and decurrent at the base, coriaceous, bluish-green and glabrous above, greenish-brown to orange (usually ± glaucous) and appressed-pubescent or glabrescent below, with nerves and ± densely reticulate venation prominent on both sides; petiole 3–6 mm. long, often blackish, appressed-pubescent or glabrescent.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers solitary or in 2–5-flowered fasciculate or ± condensed cymes, very fragrant; pedicels 4–11 mm. long, appressed-rusty-pubescent; bracteoles 2, reduced.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Sepals 3–5 mm. long, ovate-triangular, obtuse or apiculate to rounded, appressed-pubescent or glabrescent outside, glabrous and blackish within.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Petals greenish-white to yellow, the outer ones 2.5–5 x c. 0.5 cm., linear, curved in section above, concave at the base, sericeous-pubescent outside, tomentellous within except at the base, the inner ones somewhat shorter, narrower, flat or quadrangular in section above, concave at the base, tomentellous except at the base.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Stamens 1–1.5 mm. long, linear; connective-prolongation ± obliquely capitate, papillose or pubescent.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Carpels
Carpels c. 24–32 (42), c. 4 mm. long; ovary cylindric, appressed-pilose, 6–8-ovulate; style c. 3 times as long as the ovary, cylindric.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruit on a pedicel 7–12 (22) mm. long; fruiting carpels (5) 16–24 (42), 1.5–6 x 0.5–0.7 cm., 1–8-seeded, cylindric, straight, not apiculate, not or scarcely constricted between the seeds, glabrous, ± smooth, usually diagonally ridged, green or reddish, subsessile.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds 5–7 mm. long, cylindric, orange-red to black, vertical, with yellow papyraceous aril 2–3 mm. long.

Doubtfully present in:

Sudan

Native to:

Angola, Benin, Burkina, Cabinda, Cameroon, Central African Repu, Chad, Congo, Equatorial Guinea, Ethiopia, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Gulf of Guinea Is., Ivory Coast, Kenya, Liberia, Malawi, Mozambique, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Tanzania, Togo, Uganda, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

Xylopia aethiopica (Dunal) A.Rich. appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status Has image?
Jul 1, 2006 Gosline, G. [423], Cameroon K000460022 No
Jul 1, 2006 Cheek, M. [11057], Cameroon K000460023 No
Nov 1, 1963 Oldeman, R.A.A. [514], Côte d'Ivoire K000354680 No
Jan 1, 1962 de Wilde, J.J.F.E. [3633], Liberia K000354685 Yes
White, F. [3309], Zambia 11910.000 No
Brenan, J.P.M. [8022], Zambia 11911.000 No
Milne-Redhead, E. [2883], Zambia 17648.000 No
Heudelot [s.n.], Guinea K000199067 Yes
Maclaud, D.r. [189], Guinea K000354678 No
Chevalier, A.J.B. [22747], Benin K000354683 No
Dinklage, M. [2005], Liberia K000354686 No
Thomas, D.W. [3177], Cameroon K000094623 No
Harris, T. [644], Mozambique K000614226 No
s.coll. [1717], Guinea-Bissau K000354677 No
Etuge, M. [148], Cameroon K000094624 No
Thomas, D.W. [348], Cameroon K000094622 No
Timberlake, J. [s.n.], Mozambique K000614511 No
Aubréville, M. [828], Côte d'Ivoire K000354681 No
Guinea K000199066 Yes
Akpabla, G.K. [797], Ghana K000354682 No
Foster, E.W. [194], Nigeria K000354684 No
Ingram, W. [1], Gambia K000354675 No
Lane-Poole, C.E. [319], Sierra Leone K000354679 No
Timberlake, J. [s.n.], Malawi K000614850 No
Raynal, A. [13652], Senegal K000354674 No
d'Orey, J. [264], Guinea-Bissau K000354676 No
Drummond, R.B. [4714], Uganda Xylopia eminii 22095.000 No

First published in R.de la Sagra, Hist. Phys. Cuba, Pl. Vasc.: 53 (1841)

Accepted by

  • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
  • Boulvert, Y. (1977). Catalogue de la Flore de Centrafrique 1: 1-114. ORSTROM, Bangui.
  • Brundu, G. & Camarda, I. (2013). The Flora of Chad: a checklist and brief analysis PhytoKeys 23: 1-18.
  • Catarino, L., Martins, E.S., Diniz, M.A. & Pinto-Basto, M.F. (2006). Check-list da flora vascular do parque natural das Lagos de Cufada (Guiné-Bissau) Garcia de Orta, Série de Botânica 17: 97-141.
  • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Exell, A.W. & Wild, H. (eds.) (1960). Flora Zambesiaca 1(1): 1-336. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Hutchinson, J., Dalziel, J.M. & Keay, R.W.J. (1954-1958). Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 1: 1-828.
  • Johnson, D.M. & Murray, N.A. (2018). A revision of Xylopia L. (Annonaceae): the species of Tropical Africa PhytoKeys 97: 1-252.
  • Kalema, J. & Beentje, H. (2012). Conservation checklist of the trees of Uganda: 1-235. Kew Publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Lejoy, J., Ndjele, M.-B. & Geerinck, D. (2010). Catalogue-flore des plantes vasculaires des districts de Kisangani et de la Tshopo (RD Congo) Taxonomania 30: 1-307.
  • Sita, P. & Moutsambote, J.-M. (2005). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Congo, ed. sept. 2005: 1-158. ORSTOM, Centre de Brazzaville.
  • Thiombiano, A., Schmidt, M., Dressler, S., Ouédraogo, A., Hahn, K. & Zizka, G. (2012). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Burkina Faso Boissiera 65: 1-391.
  • Verdcourt, B. (1971). Flora of Tropical East Africa, Annonaceae: 1-131.

Literature

Flora of West Tropical Africa

  • Engl. & Diels Monogr. 60.
  • F.T.A. 1: 32

Kew Backbone Distributions

  • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
  • Boulvert, Y. (1977). Catalogue de la Flore de Centrafrique 1: 1-114. ORSTROM, Bangui.
  • Brundu, G. & Camarda, I. (2013). The Flora of Chad: a checklist and brief analysis PhytoKeys 23: 1-18.
  • Catarino, L., Martins, E.S., Diniz, M.A. & Pinto-Basto, M.F. (2006). Check-list da flora vascular do parque natural das Lagos de Cufada (Guiné-Bissau) Garcia de Orta, Série de Botânica 17: 97-141.
  • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Hutchinson, J., Dalziel, J.M. & Keay, R.W.J. (1954-1958). Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 1: 1-828.
  • Johnson, D.M. & Murray, N.A. (2018). A revision of Xylopia L. (Annonaceae): the species of Tropical Africa PhytoKeys 97: 1-252.
  • Kalema, J. & Beentje, H. (2012). Conservation checklist of the trees of Uganda: 1-235. Kew Publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Lejoy, J., Ndjele, M.-B. & Geerinck, D. (2010). Catalogue-flore des plantes vasculaires des districts de Kisangani et de la Tshopo (RD Congo) Taxonomania 30: 1-307.
  • Sita, P. & Moutsambote, J.-M. (2005). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Congo, ed. sept. 2005: 1-158. ORSTOM, Centre de Brazzaville.
  • Thiombiano, A., Schmidt, M., Dressler, S., Ouédraogo, A., Hahn, K. & Zizka, G. (2012). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Burkina Faso Boissiera 65: 1-391.
  • Verdcourt, B. (1971). Flora of Tropical East Africa, Annonaceae: 1-131.

Flora of Tropical East Africa

  • A. Rich. in Sagra, Hist. He Cub., Bot., Pl. Vase. 1: 53 (1845).
  • Boutique in Flore du Congo Belge et du Ruanda-Urundi, 2: 324, t, 32 (1951).
  • Engl. & Diels in Monographieen Afrikanischer Pflanzen-Familien und Gattungen 6: 60, t. 21/C (1901).
  • F. White, Forest Flora of Northern Rhodesia p. 54 (1962).
  • J.P.M. Brenan, Check-lists of the Forest Trees and Shrubs of the British Empire no. 5, part II, Tanganyika Territory p. 46 (1949).
  • Keay, Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 1: 42 (1954).
  • Le Thomas in Fl. Gabon 16,Annonacées: 165, t. 2/above, t. 30 (1969).
  • Oliv. in Flora of Tropical Africa 1: 30 (1868).
  • Paiva in Mem. Soc. Brot. 19: 74 (1966).
  • Robson in Flora Zambesiaca 1: 136 (1960).

  • Flora Zambesiaca

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  • Flora of Tropical East Africa

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  • Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone

    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2022. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0