Vangueria madagascariensis J.F.Gmel.

First published in Syst. Nat. ed. 13[bis].: 367 (1791)
This species is accepted
The native range of this species is Tropical & S. Africa, Comoros, Madagascar. It is a shrub or tree and grows primarily in the seasonally dry tropical biome.

Descriptions

IUCN Red List of Threatened Species https://www.iucnredlist.org/species/146447633/146447635

Conservation
LC - least concern
[IUCN]

Rubiaceae, B. Verdcourt. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1976

Morphology General Habit
Shrub or small tree, 1.5–15 m. tall, often multi-stemmed and sometimes with a spreading crown; stems glabrous, longitudinally ridged, with pale to dark bark, mostly smooth and unpeeling but peeling or powdery in one variant.
Morphology Leaves
Leaf-blades narrowly to broadly elliptic or elliptic-lanceolate, 8–28 cm. long, 3.2–15 cm. wide, acute to shortly acuminate at the apex, cuneate to rounded or less often ± subcordate at the base, entirely glabrous or sometimes very young leaves pilose beneath and adult ones sparsely pubescent; petiole 0.8–1.8 cm. long; stipules with broad base 3–5 mm. long, and narrow apex 0.4–1.8 cm. long, glabrous or pubescent.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescence pubescent; branches 1–4.5 cm. long, 7–10-flowered; main peduncles ± 1 cm. long; pedicels ± 2 mm. long, save those of central flower of inflorescence which measure 4 mm.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx-tube 1.2–3 mm. long; lobes triangular-oblong to narrowly oblong, 0.5–1.5 mm. long, ± pubescent.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Corolla greenish yellow, yellow or cream, glabrous or rarely with few hairs; tube 3–4.5 mm. long; lobes 3.5–4.5 mm. long, with appendages up to 0.5 mm. long; buds slightly to usually markedly acuminate or apiculate due to the corolla lobe-appendages.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Pistil
Style 7–8 mm. long; stigmatic club cylindrical, yellow, 1.2–1.5 mm. long.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruits green to brownish, subglobose, 2.5–5 cm. in diameter, with 4–5 pyrenes, each ± 2 cm. long, 1.2 cm. wide, 8 mm. thick, with thick woody walls 1–2 mm. thick.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds ±1.6 cm. long, 6 mm. wide, 4.5 mm. thick, narrowed at one end.
Figures
Figs. 131/22, p. 752; 132/15, p. 754 & 150.
Habitat
Evergreen forest, riverine forest and woodland, bushland, grassland with scattered trees, sometimes on rock outcrops and termite mounds; 0–2130 m.
Distribution
K1 K3 K4 K6 P T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 T7 T8 U1 also cultivated in Madagascar, Mascarenes, Zaire, India, Singapore, N. Australia, Ghana and Trinidad
[FTEA]

Rubiaceae, D. Bridson. Flora Zambesiaca 5:2. 1998

Morphology General Habit
Shrub or small tree, 1.5–15 m tall, often multi-stemmed and sometimes with a spreading crown; stems mostly robust, glabrous, longitudinally ridged, with pale to mid-brown bark, mostly smooth and unpeeling (but peeling or powdery in one southern Tanzanian variant).Leaf blades 8–28 × 3.2–15 cm, narrowly to broadly elliptic or elliptic-lanceolate, acute to shortly acuminate at the apex, cuneate to rounded or less often ± subcordate at the base, entirely glabrous or sometimes very young leaves pilose beneath and adult ones sparsely pubescent; lateral nerves in (7)8–10 main pairs; tertiary nerves finely reticulate, often drying distinctly dark below and pale above; petiole 0.3–1.8 cm long, often drying cream-coloured; stipules with a broad base 3–5 mm long, and a narrow apex 0.4–1.8 cm long; glabrous or pubescent.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescence c. 30-flowered, pubescent; branches 1–4.5 cm long, 7–10-flowered; main peduncle c. 10 mm long; pedicels about 2 mm long, save those of the central flower of the inflorescence which measures 4 mm long.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx tube 1.2–3 mm long; lobes 0.5–1.5 mm long, triangular-oblong to narrowly oblong, ± pubescent.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Corolla slightly to usually markedly acuminate in bud, or apiculate due to the corolla lobe appendages; greenish-yellow, yellow or cream, glabrous or rarely with a few hairs; tube 3–4.5 mm long; lobes 3.5–4.5 mm long with appendages up to 0.5 mm long.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Style
Style 7–8 mm long.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Pollen presenter
Pollen presenter yellow, 1.2–1.5 mm long, cylindrical.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruits green to brownish, 2.5–5 cm diameter, subglobose; pyrenes 4–5, each c. 20 × 12 × 8 mm with thick woody walls 1–2 mm thick.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds c. 16 × 6 × 4.5 mm, narrowed at one end.
[FZ]

Sources

  • Flora Zambesiaca

    • Flora Zambesiaca
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
  • Flora of Tropical East Africa

    • Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
  • Herbarium Catalogue Specimens

    • Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/
  • IUCN Categories

    • IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
  • Kew Backbone Distributions

    • The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Vascular Plants 2023. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and https://powo.science.kew.org/
    • © Copyright 2022 World Checklist of Vascular Plants. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0
  • Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone

    • The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Vascular Plants 2023. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and https://powo.science.kew.org/
    • © Copyright 2022 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Vascular Plants. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0