Cryptocoryne sivadasanii Bogner

First published in Willdenowia 34: 195 (2004)
This species is accepted
The native range of this species is SW. India. It is a hydroperennial and grows primarily in the wet tropical biome.


CATE Araceae, 17 Dec 2011.


Differt a Cryptocoryne consobrina laminis foliorum angustissimis linearibus, 40-130 cm longis et 0.3-0.6 cm latis (in C. consobrina 1.5-2.5 cm latis), lamina spathae torta et recurva cum collo, stigmate sessili, corpusculis odoriferibus obconoideis supra applanatis, seminibus plusminusve ellipsoideis, testa plusminusve laevi vel leviter punctata.


Endemic to Kerala and southwestern Karnataka. Only few localities are known, some near the Calicut University Campus in Malappuram District, Kerala State, and one in Padubidri between Mangalore and Udupi in the southern Kanara District, Karnataka State.


Cryptocoryne sivadasanii grows in lateritic soil with gravel in the running water of stream beds. The water at the type locality has a pH of 5-5.4. At Padubidri in Karnataka it grows in a sandy bed with gravel and in the Kozhikode District also in the crevices of granite blocks in the lateritic stream bed. Inflorescences are produced during the dry season only, when the water recedes and the stream bed runs dry. Flowering of the plants has been observed from December until March. Commonly associated species in the Calicut area are Blyxa aubertii Rich. and Schoenoplectus articulatus (L.) Palla.

General Description

Rhizomatous perennials, rhizome 3-8 cm long and 0.4-0.7 cmin diam., up to 8 cm deep in the soil, often with transverse nodal ridges; roots of first order 2-3 mm in diam., second order roots thinner, 0.2-0.6 mm in diam. Leaves several, the submerged ones very long, the emerged ones short without normal blades; petiole 10-32 cm long and 0.12-0.2 cm in diam., sheath 3-10 cm long, lower part (below soil) white, upper part green; leaf blade (30-)40-130 cm long and (0.3-)0.4-0.6 cm wide, linear, tip apiculate, margin entire, sometimes (when not fully submerged) undulate to wavy, olive to purplish green, without clear demarcation between blade and petiole; midrib light green, not very pronounced, lateral veins inconspicuous, 2-3 on each side of the midrib. Peduncle 0.5-2(-4) cm long and 0.25-0.35 cm in diam. Spathe (4-)7-14.5 cm long; kettle 1.5-2.8 cm long and 0.6-0.8 cm in diam., somewhat constricted below the male portion, white at base and purplish above inside, with small depressed translucent pits (alveolae) around the male portion; tube between kettle and limb (1.5-)2.8-6 cm long and (0.3-)0.4-0.6 cm in diam., with purplish spots inside; limb (1.5-)2.5-4.5 cm long and 0.8-1 cm broad at base, ovate, acuminate, tip spirally twisted and recurved, warty inside, its colour varying from yellowish green to purplish, reddish brown, bluish green or cream, mostly with purple spots; collar present at base of the limb, warts present on the limb above the collar (collar not discernible when dry). Spadix 15-28 mm long, the basal female portion 4-5 mm long, the naked slender interstice (axis of spadix) 5-10 mm long, the male portion ellipsoid to globular, 2-4 mm long and 2-2.2 mm in diam., with (40-)54-80 male flowers, the terminal, short elongate-conoid appendix 1.25-1.5 mm long. Flap elliptic, c. 3 mm long and 2 mm wide, whitish. Male flowers consisting of one stamen only, c. 0.5 mm long and 0.3-0.4 mm wide (viewed from above), with a conspicuous rim at the top and two bilocular thecae, each with a tubular horn, opening apically by a small pore. Female flowers 3-4(-6), c. 4 mm high, connate in a whorl; stigma sessile, 0.6-0.8 mm in diam., round, with slight depression in the centre, covered with short papillae; each ovary with 10-14 ovules; olfactory bodies usually 4, rarely to 6, obconoid with a rough and flat top, each 0.3-0.4 mm long and 0.5-0.75 mm in diam., situated just above the female flowers and alternating with the stigmas. Infructescence ovoid, 10-18 mm long and 9-12 mm in diam. Seeds 5-8 per ovary, more or less ellipsoid, somewhat irregularly angled by pressure of the neighbouring seeds, 3.5-4 mm long and 1.5-1.75 mm wide, brownish; testa more or less smooth or finely punctate, not ribbed; embryo elongate, 1.5-2 mm long and 0.3-0.4 mm in diam.; endosperm copious, white, c. 0.4 mm thick. Chromosome number. – 2n = 36, counts based on Bogner 1846 (pers. comm. G. Petersen, Copenhagen).


Very small black flies (c. 0.9 mm long and c. 0.5 mm diam.) of the family Sphaeroceridae were observed as the pollinators of Cryptocoryne sivadasanii. The flies were captured in the kettles.



  • CATE Araceae

    • Haigh, A., Clark, B., Reynolds, L., Mayo, S.J., Croat, T.B., Lay, L., Boyce, P.C., Mora, M., Bogner, J., Sellaro, M., Wong, S.Y., Kostelac, C., Grayum, M.H., Keating, R.C., Ruckert, G., Naylor, M.F. and Hay, A., CATE Araceae, 17 Dec 2011.
  • Herbarium Catalogue Specimens

    • Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew
  • Kew Backbone Distributions

    • The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Vascular Plants 2023. Published on the Internet at and
    • © Copyright 2023 World Checklist of Vascular Plants.
  • Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone

    • The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Vascular Plants 2023. Published on the Internet at and
    • © Copyright 2023 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Vascular Plants.