Family:
Araceae Juss.

Arisaema murrayi var. sonubeniae P.Tetali, Punekar & Lakshmin.

This variety is accepted, and its native range is India (NW. Maharashtra).

[CATE]

CATE Araceae, 17 Dec 2011. araceae.e-monocot.org

Diagnostic

Arisaema murrayi (f. Graham ) Hook. var. sonubeniae Tetali, Punekar & Lakshmin. var. nov. a varietate typico tubo spathae in dimidio superiore purpureo-lavendulo macula scarlatina basi antici notato (non viridi pallide vittata ad orem albicanti), limbo spathae deorsum curvato (non rectangulariter flexo) pallide purpureo-lavendulo maculo atropurpureo basi notato (non albo venis translucentibus notato basi cerasino-fasciato), appendice in dimidio inferiore atropurpurea in dimidio superiore alba non viridi purpureo-suffusa differt.

Distribution

India, Maharashtra State, Pune and Nasik districts.

Ecology

The type variety is found in south western Maharashtra (Borbet, Khandala, Mahabaleshwar, Matheran, Mulshi, Mumbra, Panchgani, Purandhar, Sinhagadh, Vasota) where annual rainfall is 400 cm or above. Varietys onubeniaeis found in north western Maharashtra (Bhimashankar, Kaldari, Khed, Ganeshkind, Harishchandragad, Trimbakeshwar) where the annual rainfall is between 200 - 300 cm (Map 1).

General Description

Perennial herbs. Corms warty, flesh-coloured, hemispherical, 2.8 - 3 cm tall and 3.5 - 4 cm diam. in monoecious plants, 1.4 - 1.9 cm tall and 1.5 - 2.5 cm diam. in dioecious male plants; roots arising from the upper side of the corm; pink buds present on the upper side of the corm. Cataphylls 3, outermost almost underground, deltoid, c. 1.8 cm long without any pigmentation, innermost longest, c. 15.5 cm long, oblong, rounded at the apex, mucronate slightly below tip on the outside, rose-tinged with small red dots, coriaceous, underground portion white. Leaves mostly solitary, rarely two in monoecious plants, petiole 12 - 40 cm long, longer in monoecious plants; 0.6 - 1.5 cm diam. at base, 0.5 - 1 cm at middle and 0.3 - 0.7 cm at tip, light green in mature plants, greyish-brown tinged when young; leaf blade subpedatisect, leaflets 5 - 9, sessile, 5.5 - 17 x 1.7 - 6.5 cm, elliptic to obovate, base cuneate, apex caudate in monoecious plants, mucronate in dioecious male plants, dark or pale green above, glossy below; midrib, veins and veinlets prominently raised below, lateral nerves 10 - 12, uniting to form an intramarginal nerve 3 - 6 mm from the margin; margins glandular, erose. Inflorescence solitary, usually with male spadix, rarely androgynous spadix, exclusively female spadix not seen; peduncle 15 - 30 cm long, 0.4 - 0.8 cm diam., pink, apex green tinged with very faint white or purple streaks. Spathe 6.5 - 11.6 cm long; tube 2.5 - 4.7 cm long, 1.3 - 2.3 cm diam., cylindrical or narrowly funnel-shaped, mouth with revolute margins, convolute part of tube prominently veined, green in lower half, with scarlet blotch of c. 0.5 cm long externally on anterior side where tube margins meet at base, faint purple or lavender in upper half; limb expanded, ovate, acuminate, 3.5 - 6.5 cm long, 2.5 - 3.5 cm diam., light purple or lavender, distinctly veined, margins revolute in basal half, dark purple at base inside, curved forward so as to be horizontal. Spadix stipitate, curved, 4 - 8.5 cm long, stipe 2 - 4 mm long, androgynous spadix longer than staminate spadix; androgynous spadix with staminate portion 0.6 - 1.5 cm long and 0.6 - 0.8 cm in diam., in male spadix 1.8 - 2.6 cm long and 0.4 - 0.6 cm diam., staminate flowers scattered; stamens loosely arranged, each consisting of 3 - 6 fused anthers borne on a short stipe, c. 1.5 x 1 mm; anther lobes oblong, bilobed c. 0.5 mm long, pale yellow, dehiscing by upper transverse slit; sterile flowers 3 - 4, subulate, c. 2 x 0.5 mm, purple, present only rarely above the staminate flowers in androgynous spadices, otherwise absent, pistillate portion 1.6 - 3 cm long, 1.2 - 1.3 cm diam.; ovaries cylindric or ovoid, densely arranged, each with 4 erect, basal, orthotropous ovules; style short, white, pale green at base, 0.4 - 0.7 mm long and c. 0.3 mm in diam.; stigma capitate, papillose, brownish or white; appendix stout, 1.8 - 4.5 cm long, purple in lower half, white in upper half, columnar, round, curved, basally swollen with furrows and tapering towards apex, white or faint purple at base. Berries 0.6 - 0.9 cm long and 1 - 1.2 cm across in the middle, obovoid-oblong, green when tender, becomes orange-scarlet after maturity. Seeds spherical, 0.2 - 0.3 mm long and 0.2 mm across, brown.

Habitat

Teak forest on hill slopes, in association with Ampelocissus latifolius, Artemisia sp., Curcuma pseudomontana, Dioscorea oppositifolia, Gloriosas uperba, Habenaria foliosa var. foetida, etc. in rock crevices and near boulders. Around 850 m.

[KBu]

Tetali, P., Sachin A. Punekar, & Lakshminarasimhan, P. (2004). A New Variety of Arisaema (Araceae) from Western Ghats of India. Kew Bulletin, 59(3), 483-487. doi:10.2307/4110955

Distribution
India, Maharashtra State, Pune and Nasik districts.
Ecology
Teak forest on hill slopes, in association with Ampelocissus latifolius, Artemisia sp., Curcuma pseudomontana, Dioscorea oppositifolia, Gloriosa superba, Habenaria foliosa var. foetida, etc. in rock crevices and near boulders. Around 850 m.
Morphology General Habit
Corms warty, flesh-coloured, hemispherical, 2.8 - 3 cm tall and 3.5 - 4 cm diam. in monoecious plants, 1.4 - 1.9 cm tall and 1.5 - 2.5 cm diam. in dioecious male plants; roots arising from the upper side of the corm; pink buds present on the upper side of the corm Perennial herbs
Morphology Leaves
Leaves mostly solitary, rarely two in monoecious plants, petiole 12 - 40 cm long, longer in monoecious plants; 0.6 - 1.5 cm diam. at base, 0.5 - 1 cm at middle and 0.3 - 0.7 cm at tip, light green in mature plants, greyish-brown tinged when young; leaf blade subpedatisect, leaflets 5 - 9, sessile, 5.5 - 17 x 1.7 - 6.5 cm, elliptic to obovate, base cuneate, apex caudate in monoecious plants, mucronate in dioecious male plants, dark or pale green above, glossy below; midrib, veins and veinlets prominently raised below, lateral nerves 10 - 12, uniting to form an intramarginal nerve 3 - 6 mm from the margin; margins glandular, erose
Morphology Leaves Cataphylls
Cataphylls 3, outermost almost underground, deltoid, c. 1.8 cm long without any pigmentation, innermost longest, c. 15.5 cm long, oblong, rounded at the apex, mucronate slightly below tip on the outside, rose- tinged with small red dots, coriaceous, underground portion white
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Berries 0.6 - 0.9 cm long and 1 - 1.2 cm across in the middle, obovoid-oblong, green when tender, becomes orange-scarlet after maturity
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescence solitary, usually with male spadix, rarely androgynous spadix, exclusively female spadix not seen; peduncle 15 - 30 cm long, 0.4 - 0.8 cm diam., pink, apex green tinged with very faint white or purple streaks
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Bracts Spathe
Spathe 6.5 - 11.6 cm long; tube 2.5 - 4.7 cm long, 1.3 - 2.3 cm diam., cylindrical or narrowly funnel-shaped, mouth with revolute margins, convolute part of tube prominently veined, green in lower half, with scarlet blotch of c. 0.5 cm long externally on anterior side where tube margins meet at base, faint purple or lavender in upper half; limb expanded, ovate, acuminate, 3.5 - 6.5 cm long, 2.5 - 3.5 cm diam., light purple or lavender, distinctly veined, margins revolute in basal half, dark purple at base inside, curved forward so as to be horizontal
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Spadix
Spadix stipitate, curved, 4 - 8.5 cm long, stipe 2 - 4 mm long, androgynous spadix longer than staminate spadix; androgynous spadix with staminate portion 0.6 - 1.5 cm long and 0.6 - 0.8 cm in diam., in male spadix 1.8 - 2.6 cm long and 0.4 - 0.6 cm diam., staminate flowers scattered; stamens loosely arranged, each consisting of 3 - 6 fused anthers borne on a short stipe, c. 1.5 x 1 mm; anther lobes oblong, bilobed c. 0.5 mm long, pale yellow, dehiscing by upper transverse slit; sterile flowers 3 - 4, subulate, c. 2 x 0.5 mm, purple, present only rarely above the staminate flowers in androgynous spadices, otherwise absent, pistillate portion 1.6 - 3 cm long, 1.2 - 1.3 cm diam.; ovaries cylindric or ovoid, densely arranged, each with 4 erect, basal, orthotropous ovules; style short, white, pale green at base, 0.4 - 0.7 mm long and c. 0.3 mm in diam.; stigma capitate, papillose, brownish or white; appendix stout, 1.8 - 4.5 cm long, purple in lower half, white in upper half, columnar, round, curved, basally swollen with furrows and tapering towards apex, white or faint purple at base
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds spherical, 0.2 - 0.3 mm long and 0.2 mm across, brown.
Note

This variety differs from the typical variety in having the spathe tube purple-lavender in the upper half with a scarlet blotch at the base on the anterior side, the spathe limb curved downwards, pale purple-lavender with a dark purple blotch at the base, stigma capitate and the appendix dark purple in the lower half and white in the upper half. In the typical variety, the tube is green with paler longitudinal stripes, becoming white near the mouth. The limb is almost at right angles to the tube and white with translucent veins and a cherry-red cross band at the base (except at the rear), and the appendix is green suffused with purple.

The type variety is found in south western Maharashtra (Borbet, Khandala, Mahabaleshwar, Matheran, Mulshi, Mumbra, Panchgani, Purandhar, Sinhagadh, Vasota) where annual rainfall is 400 cm or above. Variety sonubeniae is found in north western Maharashtra (Bhimashankar, Kaldari, Khed, Ganeshkind, Harishchandragad, Trimbakeshwar) where the annual rainfall is between 200 - 300cm. As in most of the species of the genus Arisaema, this variety exhibits 'paradioecy', in which androgynous spadices are produced from larger corms and only male spadices from smaller corms. The size of the plant was found to vary according to the sex. Plants with androgynous spadices were more robust compared to those with male spadices. Among the 45 flowering individuals examined, 42 had male spadices and 3 had androgynous spadices. These above figures indicate a high male-female ratio, i.e. 14:1, commonly observed in other dioecious species of Arisaema.

This variety is named in honour of the late Sonuben N. Godrej who was a social worker and former Director of the Naoroji Godrej Centre for Plant Research.
Type
India, Maharashtra, Pune Distr., Junnar Taluka, Ganesh Khind c. 8 km from Junnar village on Malshej Ghat Road, 25 June 2002, Tetali & Punekar 186490 (holotypus CAL; isotypi K, BSI).
Vernacular
"Patari"

[KBu]
Use
The leaves are eaten locally as a vegetable.

Native to:

India

Arisaema murrayi var. sonubeniae P.Tetali, Punekar & Lakshmin. appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status Has image?
Tetali, P. [186490], Maharashtra K000099816 isotype Yes
Tetali, P. [186490], Maharashtra K000099817 isotype Yes
Tetali, P. [186490], Maharashtra K000099818 isotype Yes

First published in Kew Bull. 59: 483 (2004)

Accepted by

  • Gusman, G. & Gusman, L. (2006). The Genus Arisaema. A monograph for botanists and nature lovers, ed. 2: 1-474. A.R.G. Gantner Verlag K.G., Ruggell.
  • Punekar, S.A. & Kumaran, K.P.N. (2009). Two new combinations in Arisaema (Araceae) from India Novon 19: 391-396.
  • Sasikala, K., Vajravelu, E. & Daniel, P. (2019). Fascicles of Flora of India 29: 1-357. Botanical Survey of India, New Delhi.

Literature

Kew Bulletin

  • Govaerts, R. & Frodin, D. G. (2002). World Checklist and bibliography of Araceae (and Acoraceae). Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Gusman, G. & Gusman, L. (2002). The Genus Arisaema: A Monograph for Botanists and Nature lovers. A. R. Ganter, Ruggell.
  • Karthikeyan, S., Jain, S. K., Nayar, M. P. & Sanjappa, M. (1989). Florae Indicae Enumeratio: Monocot- yledonae. Botanical Survey of India, Calcutta.
  • Mayo, S. J., Bogner, J. & Boyce, P. C. (1997). The Genera of Araceae. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Sasikala, K. (2000). A taxonomic revision of the Indian Araceae. PhD. thesis submitted to Bharatiyar University, Coimbatore.
  • Sivadasan, M. (1982). Taxonomic study of Araceae of South India. Ph.D. thesis submitted to the University of Calicut.

CATE Araceae

  • Tetali, P., Punekar, S.A. & Lakshminarasimhan, P. A new variety of Arisaema (Araceae) from Western Ghats of India. Kew Bulletin. Kew, England 59, 487 (2004).

Kew Backbone Distributions

  • Gusman, G. & Gusman, L. (2006). The Genus Arisaema. A monograph for botanists and nature lovers, ed. 2: 1-474. A.R.G. Gantner Verlag K.G., Ruggell.

  • CATE Araceae

    Haigh, A., Clark, B., Reynolds, L., Mayo, S.J., Croat, T.B., Lay, L., Boyce, P.C., Mora, M., Bogner, J., Sellaro, M., Wong, S.Y., Kostelac, C., Grayum, M.H., Keating, R.C., Ruckert, G., Naylor, M.F. and Hay, A., CATE Araceae, 17 Dec 2011.
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • Herbarium Catalogue Specimens

    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

  • Kew Backbone Distributions

    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2022. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

  • Kew Bulletin

    Kew Bulletin
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone

    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2022. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0