Linderniaceae Borsch, Kai Müll. & Eb.Fisch.

This family is accepted.


Every, J.L.R. (2010). Neotropical Linderniaceae.


Annual , ephemeral herbs or sub -shrubs with tetragonal stems. Leaves opposite, simple , entire or serrate ; estipulate. Inflorescence terminal or lateral , racemes. Flowers bisexual , ebracteate; sepals 5; petals (2-)4-5, fused, two-lipped, bilaterally symmetrical, glandular hairs on abaxial surface of corolla , disk present; stamens (2-)4(-5), adnate to and alternating with perianth , sometimes differing in shape (zig-zag, curved, longer, etc) or reduced, 2 staminodes present in some Lindernia All., anthers dehiscing via longitudinal slits; ovary superior , syncarpous, carpels 2, style present, stigma sensitive. Fruit capsule septicidal or septifragal. Seeds many, small; endosperm ruminate .

General Description
Notes on delimitation
  • When circumscribed as part of the Scrophulariaceae can be found in the subfamily Gratioloideae and in the tribe Lindernieae.
  • Segregated by the APG as Linderniaceae within the Lamiales (APGIII).
Number of genera
  • 2: Lindernia spp. and the introduced Toreniathouarsii Kuntze.
  • Lindernia (native).
  • Torenia thouarsii (introduced).
Distribution in the Neotropics
  • Pantropical to warm temperate. In the Neotropics from northern Mexico south to Chile, Argentina, and Paraguay.
Distinguishing characters (always present)
  • Leaves opposite.
  • Inflorescence racemose.
  • Corolla lower lip larger than upper erect lip.
  • Anthers coherent or apex of locules of anterior ones pointed or spurred.
  • Fruit capsular.
  • Seeds small, numerous.
Other important characters
  • Leaf blade margin often toothed or rarely entire.
  • Stamens 4, all fertile or 2 anterior reduced and filaments appendaged.
Important literature

APG III. 2009. An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 161(3): 105-121.

Brummit, R.K. 2007. Scrophulariaceae.  In: V.H. Heywood, R.K. Brummitt, A. Culham and O. Seberg (eds.). Flowering Plant Families of the World. Pp 300-303. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

Holmgren, N. 2004. Scrophulariaceae. In: Smith, N., Mori, S.A., Henderson, A., Stevenson, D.W. and Heald, S.V. (eds.). Flowering Plants of the Neotropics.  Pp 348-349. The New York Botanical Garden, Princeton University Press, Princeton.

Mabberley, D.J. 2008. Mabberley's plant book. Third edition. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Stevens, P.F. 2008. Angiosperm Phylogeny Website. Version 9 onwards.

Linderniaceae Borsch, Kai Müll. & Eb.Fisch. appears in other Kew resources:

First published in Pl. Biol. (Stuttgart) 7(1): 76. 2005 [Jan 2005] (2005)

Accepted by

  • APG IV (2016)

  • Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone

    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2022. Published on the Internet at and
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families.

  • Neotropikey

    Milliken, W., Klitgard, B. and Baracat, A. (2009 onwards), Neotropikey - Interactive key and information resources for flowering plants of the Neotropics.