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This species is accepted, and its native range is Central Bolivia.
A specimen from Kew's Herbarium


Goyder, D.J. (2008). Funastrum rupicola (Apocynaceae: Asclepiadoideae), a new species from Bolivia. Kew Bulletin 63: 331.

Least Concern. Although restricted to a single valley system and found in very small colonies, Funastrum rupicola is known from several localities and there is no obvious threat to the habitat (IUCN 2001).
Endemic to the central Bolivian dry valley system of the Río Grande.
Apparently restricted to steep cliff-slopes of compacted black shale in very open dry bushland near the floor of the valley. Funastrum rupicola does not occur on the surrounding sandstone; 1100 – 2100 m.
Morphology General
Latex white
Morphology General Habit
Perennial herb with erect or ascending stems to 1 m arising from a woody base; rootstock not seen
Morphology Leaves
Leaves: petiole 0.6 – 1.5 (– 2) cm long, subglabrous; lamina 1.5 – 5 × 0.5 – 2.5 cm, oblong to lanceolate when young, becoming more triangular or even rhomboid with age, apex acute, frequently shortly apiculate, base truncate to cuneate, somewhat glaucous, young leaves with an indumentum of soft white hairs, older leaves completely glabrous
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flower buds globose
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens Anthers
Anther wings 1 mm long, narrowly triangular
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx lobes 2 – 3 mm long, linear to narrowly triangular, green, minutely pubescent
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Corolla rotate to somewhat reflexed, lobes 3.5 – 4 × 2 – 2.5 mm, ovate, apex subacute, reddish brown outside, inner face light green, yellow or orange, glabrous or minutely pubescent abaxially, glabrous within
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corona
Corona gynostegial, yellow, tubular basal portion c. 0.5 mm long, staminal lobes 1.5 – 2 mm long, reaching the top of the anthers, ovoid-subglobose with a rounded apex and a broader, truncate base, which is fused to the tubular portion of the corona
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Ovary
Follicles 5 – 7 × c. 0.7 cm, fusiform, glabrous
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Style
Apex of stylar head domed, not extending beyond the anther appendages
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynostegium
Gynostegium c. 2 mm long
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Pollinarium
Corpusculum 0.15 mm long, subrhomboid, brown; translator arms 0.15 mm long, broadly flattened then angled sharply onto the pollinium; pollinia 0.6 × 0.15 mm, obovate, flattened
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescences extra-axillary, umbelliform, with 5 – 8 nodding flowers; peduncle (0.5 – ) 1 – 2 cm long, glabrous; bracts minute, triangular, pubescent; pedicels 1.2 – 1.7 cm long, slender, minutely pubescent
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds c. 6 × 1.7 mm, ovate but somewhat revolute so appearing subcylindrical, brown, minutely verrucose on exposed face, more strongly so on inner face; coma 3 cm long
Floral characters of Funastrum rupicola are consistent with other species of the genus, with the basal corona ring and the prominent fleshy staminal lobes, but the new species differs in a number of respects. It most closely resembles F. gracile florally, differing in the proportions of the staminal corona lobes and the indumentum of the corolla. The staminal corona lobes are broader at the base than above in F. rupicola; in F. gracile they narrow slightly towards the base. Also, the corolla of F. rupicola is entirely glabrous adaxially, whereas in F. gracile there is generally a pubescent ring on the corolla around the base of the gynostegium. Vegetatively, the leaves of Funastrum gracile are linear, whereas the new species has much broader, oblong to triangular leaves. However, the erect habit and specific habitat requirements of F. rupicola are unique and present a very sharp contrast with the two other Bolivian species of Funastrum. These are both vigorous twiners, scrambling over trees and bushes: F. clausum (Jacq.) Schltr. occurs throughout tropical South and Central America at low altitude, commonly growing in sandy, seasonally flooded hollows; F. gracile (Decne.) Schltr. is restricted to the Chaco region of SE Bolivia, Paraguay and northern Argentina, generally extending into the Andes only as far as the first few hot, dry, inter-Andean valleys bordering the region, again usually growing in hollows or ditches that become damp during the summer rainy season.
Bolivia, Dept. Cochabamba, Prov. Campero: 5 km E of Peña Colorada on road to Saipina, above Río Mizque, 1700 m, 2 Nov. 2004, Wood & Huaylla 20277 (holotypus K; isotypi BOLV, HSB, LPB).

Native to:


Funastrum rupicola Goyder appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
Oct 6, 2008 Wood, J.R.I. [9360], Bolivia 60326.000
Oct 6, 2008 Wood, J.R.I. [10641], Bolivia 62685.000
Wood, J. R. I. [20277], Bolivia K000196733 holotype

First published in Kew Bull. 63: 331 (2008)

Accepted by

  • Jørgensen, P.M., Nee, M.H. & Beck., S.G. (eds.) (2013). Catálogo de las plantas vasculares de Bolivia Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 127: 1-1741. Missouri Botanical Garden.


Kew Bulletin

  • Atahuachi Burgos, M., Gutiérrez Romero, J., Huaylla Limachi, H., Mendoza Flores, J. M., Mercado Ustariz, M., Ortuño Limarino, T. & Wood, J. R. I. (2005). La guía Darwin del las flores de los valles Bolivianos. Darwin Initiative.
  • IUCN (2001). IUCN Red List categories and criteria, version 3.1. IUCN Species Survival Commission. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, U.K.

Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
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Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at and
© Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families.