Combretum indicum (L.) DeFilipps

This species is accepted, and its native range is Tanzania, Tropical & Subtropical Asia to N. Australia. It is used to treat unspecified medicinal disorders, as a poison and a medicine, has environmental uses and for food.

[UPFC]
Distribution
Biogeografic region: Caribbean, Orinoquia. Elevation range: 250–1000 m a.s.l. Cultivated in Colombia. Colombian departments: Antioquia, Atlántico, Bolívar, Boyacá, Caldas, Cesar, Cundinamarca, Huila, Magdalena, Norte de Santander, San Andrés y Providencia, Tolima, Valle del Cauca.
Habit
Liana.
Ecology
Habitat according IUCN Habitats Classification: forest and woodland, savanna, shrubland, artificial - terrestrial.

[UPB]

The Useful Plants of Boyacá project

Morphology General Habit
Liana.
Conservation
Not Evaluated.
Distribution
Cultivated in Colombia.
Ecology
Alt. 250 - 1000 m.

[CPLC]

Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

Distribution
Cultivada en Colombia; Alt. 250 - 1000 m.; Islas Caribeñas, Llanura del Caribe, Orinoquia, Valle del Cauca, Valle del Magdalena.
Morphology General Habit
Liana

[UNAL]

Bernal, R., G. Galeano, A. Rodríguez, H. Sarmiento y M. Gutiérrez. 2017. Nombres Comunes de las Plantas de Colombia. http://www.biovirtual.unal.edu.co/nombrescomunes/

Vernacular
albicia, amor al día, carácter, carácter de hombre, carácter de los hombres, carácter del hombre, genio, variedad, variedades

[FWTA]

Combretaceae, Hutchinson and Dalziel. Flora of West Tropical Africa 1:1. 1954

Morphology General Habit
Scandent shrub
Ecology
Often on river banks
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Petals often white outside and red inside, or white and turning red first on the outside, later turning entirely red
Note
Commonly cultivated.

[FTEA]

Combretaceae, G. E. Wickens. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1973

Morphology General Habit
Woody climber; young branchlets tomentose to sparsely pubescent, rarely sparsely glandular.
Morphology Leaves
Leaves opposite or subopposite; lamina papyraceous, elliptic or oblong-elliptic, 8–14.5 cm. long, 3.5–9 cm. wide, apex acuminate or subcaudate, base rounded or subcordate, tomentose to nearly glabrous, minutely verruculose; lateral nerves 5–7 pairs, domatia sometimes present; petiole up to 10 mm. long, the base sometimes persisting and forming a spine.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescence terminal and axillary spikes 2–5(–10) cm. long, sometimes forming a leafy panicle; bracts lanceolate-acuminate or elliptic, 6–10 mm. long, 1–3 mm. wide.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers fragrant.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Receptacle
Lower receptacle 3–4 mm. long, pubescent to sericeous-tomentose; upper receptacle narrowly tubular, expanding slightly at the apex, 6–8 cm. long, tomentose to pubescent.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Sepals triangular, 1–3 mm. long, acute.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Petals imbricate in bud, white becoming dark red on the inner face, enlarging at anthesis, oblong to oblong-obovate, up to 25 mm. long, 13 mm. wide, apex acute (in the Flora area) orobtuse, shortly clawed.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Stamen-filaments 7–8 mm. long; anthers 0.9 mm. long.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Style
Style with upper part free for 10–20 mm.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruit (from West African material) ovate-elliptic in outline, 2.5–4 cm. long, 0.75–1.25 cm. wide, appressed pubescent to glabrous; wings 1–2 mm. wide, stout; stipe 0.5–1 mm. long.
Habitat
Acacia bushland, Brachystegia woodland, hillslopes and along stream banks; 900–1350 m.
Distribution
reputed to be a native of Asia, but probably also native in tropical Africa, now widely cultivated in the tropics, often naturalized T5 T6 T7

[UPFC]
Use Environmental
Environmental uses.
Use Food
Used for food.
Use Materials
Used as material.
Use Medicines
Medical uses.
Use Poisons
Poisons.

[UPB]
Use Materials
Materials (State of the World's Plants 2016).
Use Materials Unspecified Materials Chemicals
Materials (State of the World's Plants 2016).
Use Medicines Unspecified Medicinal Disorders
Medicinal (State of the World's Plants 2016).
Use Poisons
Poisons (State of the World's Plants 2016).

Native to:

Assam, Bangladesh, Bismarck Archipelago, Borneo, Cambodia, China South-Central, China Southeast, Christmas I., Hainan, India, Jawa, Laos, Lesser Sunda Is., Malaya, Maluku, Myanmar, Nepal, New Guinea, Northern Territory, Philippines, Queensland, Sri Lanka, Sulawesi, Sumatera, Taiwan, Tanzania, Thailand, Vietnam, Western Australia

Introduced into:

Andaman Is., Angola, Benin, Burkina, Cabinda, Cameroon, Comoros, Congo, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Florida, Gabon, Ghana, Gulf of Guinea Is., Haiti, Hawaii, Ivory Coast, Jamaica, Leeward Is., Mauritius, New Caledonia, Nicobar Is., Nigeria, Pakistan, Puerto Rico, Rodrigues, Réunion, Sierra Leone, Togo, Trinidad-Tobago, Venezuela, Venezuelan Antilles, Windward Is., Zaïre

Combretum indicum (L.) DeFilipps appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status Has image?
May 1, 2008 Luke [9361], Tanzania K000565477 No
Tanzania K000565477 No
Mar 1, 2014 van Meer, P.P.C. [671], Nigeria Quisqualis indica K000812465 No
Aug 10, 2004 Reynoso et al. [17224], Philippines Quisqualis indica K000171541 No
Aug 10, 2004 Reynoso et al. [24446], Philippines Quisqualis indica K000171540 No
Aug 10, 2004 Reynoso [24475], Philippines Quisqualis indica K000171539 No
Champion, J.G. [s.n.], Hong Kong Quisqualis indica K000786142 Yes
Mann, G. [2212], Cameroon Quisqualis indica K000050835 No
Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 4010], Myanmar Quisqualis indica K001117909 Yes
s.coll. [Cat. no. 4010] Quisqualis indica K001117905 Yes
Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 4010], Myanmar Quisqualis indica K001117908 Yes
Gomez, W. [Cat. no. 4010], Myanmar Quisqualis indica K001117907 Yes
Hutchinson, J. [166], Cameroon Quisqualis indica K000050832 No
Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 4010], Myanmar Quisqualis indica K001117906 Yes
Mann, G. [20], Cameroon Quisqualis indica K000050833 No
Millett, C. [s.n.], China Quisqualis indica K000786141 Yes
Hutchinson, J. [166], Cameroon Quisqualis indica K000050831 No

First published in Useful Pl. Dominica: 277 (1998)

Accepted by

  • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies. Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
  • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
  • Balkrishna, A. (2018). Flora of Morni Hills (Research & Possibilities): 1-581. Divya Yoga Mandir Trust.
  • Barooah, C. & Ahmed, I. (2014). Plant diversity of Assam. A checklist of Angiosperms and Gymnosperms: 1-599. Assam science technology and environment council, India.
  • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola. Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Figueiredo, E., Paiva, J., Stévart, T., Oliveira, F. & Smith, G.F. (2011). Annotated catalogue of the flowering plants of São Tomé and Príncipe. Bothalia, A Journal of Botanical Research 41: 41-82.
  • Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2021). Flora of North America North of Mexico 10: 1-456. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.
  • Girmansyah, D. & al. (eds.) (2013). Flora of Bali an annotated checklist: 1-158. Herbarium Bogorensis, Indonesia.
  • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
  • Kress, W.J., DeFilipps, R.A., Farr, E. & Kyi, D.Y.Y. (2003). A Checklist of the Trees, Shrubs, Herbs and Climbers of Myanmar. Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 45: 1-590. Smithsonian Institution.
  • Lejoy, J., Ndjele, M.-B. & Geerinck, D. (2010). Catalogue-flore des plantes vasculaires des districts de Kisangani et de la Tshopo (RD Congo). Taxonomania 30: 1-307.
  • Onana, J.M. (2011). The vascular plants of Cameroon a taxonomic checklist with IUCN assessments: 1-195. National herbarium of Cameroon, Yaoundé.
  • Turner, I.M. (2020). https://doi.org/10.36253/jopt-8891. epublication.

Not accepted by

  • Govaerts, R. (1999). World Checklist of Seed Plants 3(1, 2a & 2b): 1-1532. MIM, Deurne. [Cited as Quisqualis indica.]
  • Wu, Z., Raven, P.H. & Hong, D. (eds.) (2007). Flora of China 13: 1-548. Science Press (Beijing) & Missouri Botanical Garden Press (St. Louis). [Cited as Quisqualis indica.]

Literature

Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia

  • Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

Useful Plants of Boyacá Project

  • Kew's Economic Botany collection in The State of the World’s Plants Report–2016. (2016). Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew https://stateoftheworldsplants.org/2016/

Kew Backbone Distributions

  • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies. Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
  • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
  • Baksh-Comeau, Y., Maharaj, S.S., Adams, C.D., Harris, S.A., Filer, D.L. & Hawthorne, W.D. (2016). An annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Trinidad and Tobago with analysis of vegetation types and botanical 'hotspots'. Phytotaxa 250: 1-431.
  • Barooah, C. & Ahmed, I. (2014). Plant diversity of Assam. A checklist of Angiosperms and Gymnosperms: 1-599. Assam science technology and environment council, India.
  • Barthelat, F. (2019). La flore illustrée de Mayotte: 1-687. Biotope éditions.
  • Bosser, J. & al. (eds.) (1990). Flore des Mascareignes 90-106: 1. IRD Éditions, MSIRI, RBG-Kew, Paris.
  • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola. Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Figueiredo, E., Paiva, J., Stévart, T., Oliveira, F. & Smith, G.F. (2011). Annotated catalogue of the flowering plants of São Tomé and Príncipe. Bothalia, A Journal of Botanical Research 41: 41-82.
  • Frohlich, D. & Lau, A. (2014). New plant records for the Hawaiian islands 2012-2013. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 115: 7-17.
  • George, A.S., Orchard, A.E. & Hewson, H.J. (eds.) (1993). Oceanic islands 2. Flora of Australia 50: 1-606. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
  • Girmansyah, D. & al. (eds.) (2013). Flora of Bali an annotated checklist: 1-158. Herbarium Bogorensis, Indonesia.
  • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
  • Hutchinson, J., Dalziel, J.M. & Keay, R.W.J. (1954-1958). Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 1: 1-828.
  • Lebrun, J.P., Toutain, B., Gaston, A. & Boudet, G. (1991). Catalogue des Plantes Vasculaires du Burkina Faso: 1-341. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
  • Lejoy, J., Ndjele, M.-B. & Geerinck, D. (2010). Catalogue-flore des plantes vasculaires des districts de Kisangani et de la Tshopo (RD Congo). Taxonomania 30: 1-307.
  • MacKee, H.S. (1994). Catalogue des plantes introduites et cultivées en Nouvelle-Calédonie, ed. 2: 1-164. Museum national d'histoire naturelle, Paris.
  • Onana, J.M. (2011). The vascular plants of Cameroon a taxonomic checklist with IUCN assessments: 1-195. National herbarium of Cameroon, Yaoundé.
  • Pandey, R.P. & Dilwakar, P.G. (2008). An integrated check-list flora of Andaman and Nicobar islands, India. Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 32: 403-500.
  • Sita, P. & Moutsambote, J.-M. (2005). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Congo, ed. sept. 2005: 1-158. ORSTOM, Centre de Brazzaville.
  • USDA, NRCS ( 2021-continuously updated). Natural Resources Conservation Services Plant Database http://plants.usda.gov/cgi_bin/topics.cgi?earl=checklist.html.
  • Van Steenis, C.G.G.J. (ed.) (1948-1954). Flora Malesiana 4: 1-631. Noordhoff-Kolff N.V., Djakarta.
  • Wickens, G.E. (1973). Flora of Tropical East Africa, Combretaceae: 1-99.
  • Wu, Z., Raven, P.H. & Hong, D. (eds.) (2007). Flora of China 13: 1-548. Science Press (Beijing) & Missouri Botanical Garden Press (St. Louis).

Useful Plants and Fungi of Colombia

  • Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R., & Celis, M. (eds.). (2020). Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia. v1.1. Universidad Nacional de Colombia. Dataset/Checklist. https://doi.org/10.15472/7avdhn
  • Burkill HM. (1995). The useful plants of west tropical Africa, Vols. 1-3. The useful plants of west tropical Africa, Vols 1-3.
  • Cámara-Leret, R., & Dennehy, Z. (2019). Information gaps in indigenous and local knowledge for science-policy assessments. Nature Sustainability 2:736-741.
  • Diazgranados et al. (2021). Catalogue of plants of Colombia. Useful Plants and Fungi of Colombia project. In prep.
  • Diazgranados, M., Allkin, B., Black N., Cámara-Leret, R., Canteiro C., Carretero J., Eastwood R., Hargreaves S., Hudson A., Milliken W., Nesbitt, M., Ondo, I., Patmore, K., Pironon, S., Turner, R., Ulian, T. (2020). World Checklist of Useful Plant Species. Produced by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Knowledge Network for Biocomplexity.
  • FPI (2021). Food Plants International. https://fms.cmsvr.com/fmi/webd/Food_Plants_World?homeurl=https://foodplantsinternational.com/plants/
  • GBIF.org (2021). GBIF species matching tool. https://www.gbif.org/tools/species-lookup
  • GRIN (2021). Germplasm Resources Information Network from the United States Department of Agriculture. https://www.ars-grin.gov/
  • Medicinal Plant Names Services (MPNS) v.10 (2021); http://mpns.kew.org/
  • PROTA (2021). Plants Resources of Tropical Africa. https://prota4u.org/database/
  • RBG, Kew (2021). Kew Economic Botany Collection. https://ecbot.science.kew.org/
  • Willis, K.J. (ed.) (2017). State of the World’s Plants 2017. Report. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

  • Art and Illustrations in Digifolia

    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew

  • Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia

    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • Colombian resources for Plants made Accessible

    ColPlantA 2021. Published on the Internet at http://colplanta.org
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

  • Flora of Tropical East Africa

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • Flora of West Tropical Africa

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • Herbarium Catalogue Specimens

    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

  • Kew Backbone Distributions

    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2022. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

  • Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone

    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2022. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

  • Kew Science Photographs

    Copyright applied to individual images

  • Universidad Nacional de Colombia

    ColPlantA database
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • Useful Plants and Fungi of Colombia

    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • Useful Plants of Boyacá Project

    ColPlantA database
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0