Canellaceae Mart.

This family is accepted.

[FZ]

Canellaceae, B. Verdcourt. Flora Zambesiaca 7:4. 1990

Morphology General Habit
Aromatic glabrous trees
Morphology Leaves
Leaves simple, alternate, gland-dotted, without stipules
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescences axillary or axillary and terminal, cymose
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers regular, hermaphrodite
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Sepals 3, persistent
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Petals 5–12, free or united into a tube at the base, rather thick, in 1 or 2 whorls
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium
Stamens hypogynous, 6–12; filaments united into a tube; anthers extrorse, adnate to the upper part of the tube, bilobed, each lobe composed of two microsporangia
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium
Ovary superior, unilocular; ovules 2-many on 2–6 parietal placentas, subanatropous Style short and thick; stigmas 2–6
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruit a berry
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds 2-many, shining with oily fleshy endosperm

[NTK]

Sasaki, D. (2009). Neotropical Canellaceae.

Morphology
Description

Trees, rarely shrubs, evergreen , often aromatic. Leaves simple , alternate ( distichous or spiral), entire , leathery, glabrous (or nearly so), often gland -dotted, pinnately veined, margins entire , petiolate or subsessile, stipules absent. Inflorescences terminal or axillary , panicles, racemes or cymes, or solitary flowers in leaf axils (Pleodendron). Flowers hermaphrodite , actinomorphic ; sepals 3, leathery, imbricate ; petals 5-12, in 1-4 whorls, usually free (basally connate in Canella) and fleshy , imbricate ; stamens 6-12, connate in a tube around the ovary ; ovary superior , syncarpous, carpels (2-)3-4(-6), locule 1, style 1, short, stigma lobes 2-6, placentation parietal . Fruits berries, endocarp firm. Seeds 2-numerous, with abundant oily endosperm .

General Description
Notes on delimitation
  • The taxonomy of the Canellaceae has been controversial and some members of this family were initially classified as Winteraceae (Salazar & Nixon 2008).
  • The Canellaceae is placed in the order Magnoliales by Cronquist (1981). Recent studies place the family in Canellales, with Winteraceae (Judd et al. 1999, Soltis & Soltis, 2004, Stevens 2008).
Number of genera
  • Canella.
  • Cinnamodendron.
  • Pleodendron.
General notes
  • The widespread Canella winterana is traditionally used for medicinal, fishing, aphrodisiac, ritualistic, and aromatic purposes (Salazar, 2006).
  • One species, Pleodendron macranthum, is in the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species as critically endangered.
  • A new genus, Antillodendron, has been recently proposed based on Cinnamodendron corticosum Miers (Salazar 2006). Both Cinnamodendroncorticosum and Cinnamodendroncubense, which are now incorporated in Antillodendron, are listd by IUCN as vulnerable and endangered respectively.
Status
  • The Canellaceae has three Neotropical genera and two African ones.
  • The Greater Antilles is the center of diversity and endemicity for the family, with three genera (Canella, Cinnamodendron and Pleodendron).
  • In the Neotropics, most species have local distribution and are very rare, except for Canellawinterana (L.)Gaertn.
Distribution
Distribution in the Neotropics
  • Canella P. Browne: West Indies to northern South America.
  • Cinnamodendron Endl.: from southern Brazil, through northern South America to Greater Antilles.
  • Pleodendron Tieghem.: Greater Antilles and Costa Rica.
Diagnostic
Other important characters
  • Bark and branches with lenticels.
  • Leaves usually gland -dotted.
  • Leaves glabrous or nearly so, glossy above when dry.
  • Leaf margins often revolute when dry.
  • Petiole frequently canaliculate.
  • Petals free (Cinnamodendron, Pleodendron) or basally connate (Canella).
Distinguishing characters (always present)
  • Aromatic trees (or rarely shrubs).
  • Leaves simple, alternate, leathery.
  • Stipules absent.
  • Sepals 3.
  • Petals fleshy, imbricate (in 1-4 whorls).
  • Ovarysuperior, syncarpous, 1-locular.
  • Placentation parietal.
  • Style 1, short.
  • Stamens connate in a tube.
  • Fruits berries.
Key differences from similar families
  • In Winteraceae, the wood lacks vessels, the leaves are usually glaucous abaxially, the stamens are free, the gynoecium is apocarpous (carpels 1-24) and the placentation is marginal. On the other hand, in Canellaceae, the wood has vessels, the leaves are usually glossy, the stamens are connate in a tube, the gynoecium is syncarpous (carpels 2-6) and the placentation is parietal.
Notable genera and distinguishing features
  • Cinnamodendron is the largest genus and has the wider distribution among the Neotropical genera.
  • According to Salazar (2006) and Salazar & Nixon (2008), the Cinnamodendron species from the Greater Antilles (5 spp.) and from South America (6 spp.) do not form a monophyletic taxon and each group is characterized by the number of floral parts (petals, stamens, carpels, ovules) and also by differences in the seeds. 
  • The genus Capsicodendron is here considered to be part of Cinnamodendron, as supported by some authors (Kubitzki 1993, Salazar 2006, Salazar & Nixon 2008).
Useful tips for generic identification
  • Canella : terminal broad panicles, petals 5 basally connate, stamens 10, style 2-3-lobed.
  • Cinnamodendron : axillary racemes, petals 6-10 (in 2 whorls), stamens 8-10, style indistinctly lobed.
  • Pleodendron : flowers solitary in leaf axil or in fasciculate clusters, petals 12 (in 3-4 whorls), stamens 12, style 6-lobed.
Literature
Important literature

Barros, F. & Salazar, J. 2009. Cinnamodendronocchionianum, a new species of Canellaceae from Brazil. Novon 19: 11-14.

Cronquist, A. 1981. An integrated system of classification of flowering plants.  Columbia University Press, New York.

Hammel, B.E. & Zamora, N.A. 2005. Pleodendron costaricense (Canellaceae), a new species for Costa Rica. Lankesteriana 5(3): 211-218.

Mabberley, D.J. 2007. Cannelaceae. In: Heywood, V.H., Brummit, R.K., Culham, A. & Seberg, O. (ed.). Flowering Plant Families of the World, p. 84. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

Kubitzki, K. 1993. Canellaceae. In: K. Kubitzki, J. G. Rohwer & V. Bittrich (eds.). The families and genera of vascular plants:flowering plants. Dycotyledons, Magnoliid, Hamamelid and Caryophyllid families, vol II., pp. 200-203. Springer Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg, New York.

IUCN 2009. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2009.1. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 21 July 2009.

Judd, W.S., Campbell, C.S., Kellog, E.A. & Sterens, S.P.F. 1999.  Plant Systematics: A phylogenetic approach.  Sinauer Assoc., Sunderlan MA.

Salazar, J. & Nixon, K. 2008. New Discoveries in the Canellaceae in the Antilles: How Phylogeny can Support Taxonomy. Bot. Rev. 74:103-111.

Salazar, J. 2006. Systematics of Neotropical Canellaceae. Ph.D. thesis, Cornell University.

Soltis, P.S. & Soltis, D.E. 2004.  The origin and diversification of angiosperms.  American Journal of Botany 91: 1614-1626.

Stevens, P.F. 2008. Angiosperm Phylogeny Website, version 9. http://www.mobot.org/MOBOT/research/APweb/.

Zanoni, T. 2004. Canellaceae. In: N. Smith, S. A. Mori, A. Henderson, D. W. Stevenson & S. V. Heald (eds.). Flowering plants of the Neotropics, p. 81. New York Botanical Garde & Princeton University Press, Princeton.

Wilson, T.K. 1966. The Comparative Morphology of the Canellaceae. IV. Floral Morphology and Conclusions. Amer. J. Bot. 53(4): 336-343.

[FTEA]

Canellaceae, B. Verdcourt. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1958

Morphology General Habit
Aromatic glabrous trees
Morphology Leaves
Leaves simple, gland-dotted, alternate, without stipules
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescences axillary or axillary and terminal, cymose; bracts three, persistent
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers regular, hermaphrodite
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Sepals 4–5, free, rather thick, imbricate
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Petals 4–12, free or connate, thin, imbricate or wanting
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium
Stamens hypogynous, up to 20; filaments united into a tube; anthers extrorse, adnate to the upper part of the tube
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium
Ovary superior, 1–locular; ovules 2–many, subanatropous; placentation parietal, placentae 2–5 Style thick and short; stigmas 2–5
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruit a berry
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds 2–many, shining, with oily and fleshy endosperm

Canellaceae Mart. appears in other Kew resources:

First published in Nov. Gen. Sp. Pl. (Martius) 3(3): 168. 1832 [1829 publ. Sep 1832] (1832)

Accepted by

  • APG IV (2016) http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/boj.12385

  • Flora Zambesiaca

    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • Flora of Tropical East Africa

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone

    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2022. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

  • Neotropikey

    Milliken, W., Klitgard, B. and Baracat, A. (2009 onwards), Neotropikey - Interactive key and information resources for flowering plants of the Neotropics.
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0