Columelliaceae D.Don

First published in Edinburgh New Philos. J. 6: 46, 49. 1828 (1828)nom. cons.
This family is accepted

Descriptions

Milliken, W., Klitgard, B. and Baracat, A. (2009 onwards), Neotropikey - Interactive key and information resources for flowering plants of the Neotropics. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Morphology General Habit
Evergreen shrubs or trees
Morphology Leaves
Leaves simple, opposite, decussate, leathery, the adaxial surface glabrous, the abaxial pubescent, margin entire or serrate, primary venation parallel; stipules leafy, leaving swollen, inter-petiolar scars; bracteoles present
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescences few-flowered, terminal and/or axillary cymes or panicles or flowers solitary
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers slightly zygomorphic, (4-)5(-8)- merous; calyx adnate to ovary, calyx lobes gland -tipped; corolla yellow, sympetalous, the lobes imbricate in bud; stamens 2, adnate to the corolla tube, anthers large, basifixed, irregularly plicate and twisted; ovary inferior, syncarpous, with 2 carpels, incompletely 2-locular, stigma 2-4 lobed; placentation essentially parietal, ovules numerous
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruit septicidal, imperfectly 4-locular capsule with persistent calyx; seeds many, minute, laterally compressed, oblong, smooth.
Note
Columelliaceae is currently unassigned in the Asterids. It has previously been placed in various orders: Rosales (Cronquist 1981), Saxifragales (Takhatajan 1983), Hydrangeales (Thorne 1992) and Dipsacales (Backlund 1996). Its closest relative, the monogeneric Desfontainiaceae, could be synonymised with the Columelliaceae (Stevens 2008) due to similarities in wood anatomy, distribution, habit, large, showy flowers and the many seeds. Number of genera: 1 Neotropical genus: Columellia Vahl.
Distribution
Restricted to the Andes from Colombia to Bolivia from about 1,600 to 3,600 metres above sea level. Native, limited to Andean South America.
Diagnostic
Distinguishing characters (always present): The stamens are large, unusually folded, rather like a concertina or fan. Internodes are prominent along the branchlets with opposite leaves. The flowers are slightly zygomorphic and yellow with a distinct calyx and corolla. The ovary is inferior and syncarpous. Fruit, an imperfectly 4-locular capsule. Numerous minute seeds.
[NTK]

Sources

  • Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone

    • The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Vascular Plants 2024. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and https://powo.science.kew.org/
    • © Copyright 2023 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Vascular Plants. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0
  • Neotropikey

    • Milliken, W., Klitgard, B. and Baracat, A. (2009 onwards), Neotropikey - Interactive key and information resources for flowering plants of the Neotropics.
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0