Melanthiaceae Batsch ex Borkh.

First published in Bot. Wörterb. 2: 8. 1797 (1797)nom. cons.
This family is accepted


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POWO follows these authorities in accepting this name:

  • APG IV (2016)


  • APG III. (2009). An update of the Angiosperm Phylogenetic Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG III. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 161: 105-121.
  • Amaral, M.C.E. (2014). Pontederiaceae.  In: Lista de Espécies da Flora do Brasil. Jardim Botânico do Rio de Janeiro. (
  • Cook, C.D.K. (1998). Pontederiaceae. In: Kubitzki, K. (ed.) The Families and Genera of Vascular plants, vol. IV, pp. 395-403. Springer-Verlag. Berlin.
  • Faden, R.B. & Hunt, D.R. (1991). The classification of the Commelinaceae. Taxon 40:19-31.
  • Faria, A.D. & Amaral, M.C.E. (2005). Pontederiaceae. In:  Wanderley, M. G. L., Shepherd, G. J. & Giulietti, A. M. (Eds.). Flora Fanerogâmica do Estado de São Paulo. Vol. 4, pp: 325-330. São Carlos, Editora RiMA.
  • Ness, R.W.; Graham, S.W. & Barrett, S.C.H. (2011). Reconcilling gene and genome duplication events: Using multiple nuclear gene families to infer the phylogeny of the aquatic plant family Pontederiaceae. Molecular Biology and Evolution 28(11): 3009-3018
  • Reveal, J.L. & Chase, M.W. (2011). APG III: Bibliographical Information and Synonymy of Magnoliidae. Phytotaxa 19: 71-134.
  • Simpson, M.G. (2010). Plant Systematics. 2 ed. Oxford: Elsevier. 740p.
  • Sousa, D.J.L. (2014). Taxonomia e morfologia das Pontederiaceae do estado da Bahia. Dissertação de Mestrado. Universidade Estadual de Feira de Santana, Feira de Santana.
  • Spencer, C.H. Barrett (2004). Pontederiaceae. In: Smith, N., Mori, S.A., Henderson, A., Stevenson, D.W. & Heald, S.V. (eds.). Flowering Plants of the Neotropics, pp. 474-476. Princeton University Press, Princeton.

The Kew Temperate Plant Families Identification Handbook

  • Christenhusz, M. J. M., Fay, M. F. & Chase, M. W. (2017). Plants of the World, an Illustrated Encylopedia of Vascular Plants. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew; University of Chicago Press.
  • Tamura, M. N. (1998b). Melanthiaceae. In: K. Kubitzki (ed.), The Families and Genera of Vascular Plants, III: 369–380. Springer Verlag, Berlin & Heidelberg.
  • Trias-Blasi, A., Suksathan, P. & Tamura, M. N. (2017). Melanthiaceae. In: T. Santisuk, Flora of Thailand 13 (3): 520–524. The Forest Herbarium, Bangkok.
  • Zomlefer, W. B., Judd, W. S., Whitten, W. M. & Williams, N. H. (2006). A synopsis of Melanthiaceae (Liliales) with focus on character evolution in tribe Melanthieae. Aliso 566–578.


  • Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone

    • The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Vascular Plants 2024. Published on the Internet at and
    • © Copyright 2023 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Vascular Plants.
  • Neotropikey

    • Milliken, W., Klitgard, B. and Baracat, A. (2009 onwards), Neotropikey - Interactive key and information resources for flowering plants of the Neotropics.
  • The Kew Temperate Plant Families Identification Handbook

    • The Kew Temperate Plant Families Identification Handbook